Power-to-weight Ratio
Get Power-to-weight Ratio essential facts below. View Videos or join the Power-to-weight Ratio discussion. Add Power-to-weight Ratio to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Power-to-weight Ratio

Power-to-weight ratio (PWR) (also called specific power, or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power source. It is also used as a measurement of performance of a vehicle as a whole, with the engine's power output being divided by the weight (or mass) of the vehicle, to give a metric that is independent of the vehicle's size. Power-to-weight is often quoted by manufacturers at the peak value, but the actual value may vary in use and variations will affect performance.

The inverse of power-to-weight, weight-to-power ratio (power loading) is a calculation commonly applied to aircraft, cars, and vehicles in general, to enable the comparison of one vehicle's performance to another. Power-to-weight ratio is equal to thrust per unit mass multiplied by the velocity of any vehicle.

## Power-to-weight (specific power)

The power-to-weight ratio (specific power) formula for an engine (power plant) is the power generated by the engine divided by the mass. Weight in this context is a colloquial term for mass. To see this, note that what an engineer means by the "power to weight ratio" of an electric motor is not infinite in a zero gravity environment.

A typical turbocharged V8 diesel engine might have an engine power of 250 kW (340 hp) and a mass of 380 kg (840 lb),[1] giving it a power-to-weight ratio of 0.65 kW/kg (0.40 hp/lb).

Examples of high power-to-weight ratios can often be found in turbines. This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. For example, the Space Shuttle's main engines used turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The original liquid hydrogen turbopump is similar in size to an automobile engine (weighing approximately 352 kilograms (775 lb)) and produces 72,000 hp (54 MW)[2] for a power-to-weight ratio of 153 kW/kg (93 hp/lb).

### Physical interpretation

In classical mechanics, instantaneous power is the limiting value of the average work done per unit time as the time interval ?t approaches zero (i.e. the derivative with respect to time of the work done).

${\displaystyle P=\lim _{\Delta t\rightarrow 0}{\tfrac {\Delta W(t)}{\Delta t}}=\lim _{\Delta t\rightarrow 0}P_{\mathrm {avg} }={\frac {d}{dt}}W(t)\,}$

The typically used metric unit of the power-to-weight ratio is ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\text{W}}{\text{kg}}}\;}$ which equals ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {{\text{m}}^{2}}{{\text{s}}^{3}}}\;}$. This fact allows one to express the power-to-weight ratio purely by SI base units. A vehicle's power-to-weight ratio equals its acceleration times its velocity; so at twice the velocity, it experiences half the acceleration, all else being equal.

#### Propulsive power

If the work to be done is rectilinear motion of a body with constant mass ${\displaystyle m\;}$, whose center of mass is to be accelerated along a (possibly non-straight) to a speed ${\displaystyle |\mathbf {v} (t)|\;}$ and angle ${\displaystyle \phi \;}$ with respect to the centre and radial of a gravitational field by an onboard powerplant, then the associated kinetic energy is

${\displaystyle E_{K}={\tfrac {1}{2}}m|\mathbf {v} (t)|^{2}}$

where:

${\displaystyle m\;}$ is mass of the body
${\displaystyle |\mathbf {v} (t)|\;}$ is speed of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.

The work-energy principle states that the work done to the object over a period of time is equal to the difference in its total energy over that period of time, so the rate at which work is done is equal to the rate of change of the kinetic energy (in the absence of potential energy changes).

The work done from time t to time t + ?t along the path C is defined as the line integral ${\displaystyle \int _{C}\mathbf {F} \cdot d\mathbf {x} =\int _{t}^{t+\Delta t}\mathbf {F} \cdot \mathbf {v} (t)dt}$, so the fundamental theorem of calculus has that power is given by ${\displaystyle \mathbf {F} (t)\cdot \mathbf {v} (t)=m\mathbf {a} (t)\cdot \mathbf {v} (t)=\mathbf {\tau } (t)\cdot \mathbf {\omega } (t)}$.

where:

${\displaystyle \mathbf {a} (t)={\frac {d}{dt}}\mathbf {v} (t)\;}$ is acceleration of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.
${\displaystyle \mathbf {F} (t)\;}$ is linear force - or thrust - applied upon the center of mass of the body, changing with time.
${\displaystyle \mathbf {v} (t)\;}$ is velocity of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.
${\displaystyle \mathbf {\tau } (t)\;}$ is torque applied upon the center of mass of the body, changing with time.
${\displaystyle \mathbf {\omega } (t)\;}$ is angular velocity of the center of mass of the body, changing with time.

In propulsion, power is only delivered if the powerplant is in motion, and is transmitted to cause the body to be in motion. It is typically assumed here that mechanical transmission allows the powerplant to operate at peak output power. This assumption allows engine tuning to trade power band width and engine mass for transmission complexity and mass. Electric motors do not suffer from this tradeoff, instead trading their high torque for traction at low speed. The power advantage or power-to-weight ratio is then

${\displaystyle {\mbox{P-to-W}}=|\mathbf {a} (t)||\mathbf {v} (t)|\;}$

where:

${\displaystyle |\mathbf {v} (t)|\;}$ is linear speed of the center of mass of the body.

#### Engine power

The useful power of an engine with shaft power output can be calculated using a dynamometer to measure torque and rotational speed, with maximum power reached when torque multiplied by rotational speed is a maximum. For jet engines the useful power is equal to the flight speed of the aircraft multiplied by the force, known as net thrust, required to make it go at that speed. It is used when calculating propulsive efficiency.

## Examples

### Engines

#### Heat engines and heat pumps

Thermal energy is made up from molecular kinetic energy and latent phase energy. Heat engines are able to convert thermal energy in the form of a temperature gradient between a hot source and a cold sink into other desirable mechanical work. Heat pumps take mechanical work to regenerate thermal energy in a temperature gradient. Standard definitions should be used when interpreting how the propulsive power of a jet or rocket engine is transferred to its vehicle.

Heat Engine/Heat pump type Peak power output Power-to-weight ratio Example use
SI English SI English
Wärtsilä RTA96-C 14-cylinder two-stroke diesel engine[3] 80,080 kW 108,920 hp 0.03 kW/kg 0.02 hp/lb Emma Mærsk container ship
ROTAX 900 ACE 60 900 cc, 3-cylinder, 4-stroke, naturally-aspirated marine engine[4] 45 kW 60 hp 0.24 kW/kg 0.15 hp/lb Sea-Doo SPARK 2 UP[5] 2021
Suzuki 538 cc V-2 four-stroke petrol outboard motor[6] 19 kW 25 hp 0.27 kW/kg 0.16 hp/lb Runabout boats
DOE/NASA/0032-28 Mod 2 502 cc petrol Stirling engine[7] 62.3 kW 83.5 hp 0.30 kW/kg 0.18 hp/lb Chevrolet Celebrity[o] 1985 ('one-off' prototype)
Yamaha TR-1 3-cylinder, 4-stroke, marine engine, 1049 cc[8] 74.5 kW 100 hp 0.44 kW/kg 0.27 hp/lb Yamaha SuperJet 2021
Kawasaki 1498 cc supercharged, intercooled, 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, DOHC[9] 231 kW 310 hp 0.47 W/kg 0.29 hp/lb[10] Kawasaki ULTRA 310LX Jet ski
GM Duramax LMM V-8 6.6 L turbo-diesel[1] 246 kW 330 hp 0.65 kW/kg 0.40 hp/lb Chevrolet Kodiak,[o]GMC Topkick[o]
Junkers Jumo 205A two-stroke, diesel, opposed-piston engine[11] 647 kW 867 hp 1.1 kW/kg 0.66 hp/lb Ju 86C-1 airliner, B&V Ha 139 floatplane
GE LM2500+ marine turboshaft[12] 30,200 kW 40,500 hp 1.31 kW/kg 0.80 hp/lb GTS Millennium cruiseship, QM2 ocean liner
Mazda 13B-MSP Renesis 1.3 L Wankel engine[13] 184 kW 247 hp 1.5 kW/kg 0.92 hp/lb Mazda RX-8[o]
PW R-4360 71.5 L 28-cylinder Radial engine (supercharged) 3,210 kW 4,300 hp 1.83 kW/kg 1.11 hp/lb B-50, B-36, C-97, C-119, H-4
Wright R-3350 54.57 L 18-Cylinder Turbo-compound radial engine 2,535 kW 3,400 hp 2.09 kW/kg 1.27 hp/lb B-29, DC-7
O.S. Engines 49-PI Type II 4.97 cc Wankel engine[14] 0.934 kW 1.252 hp 2.8 kW/kg 1.7 hp/lb UAV, Model aircraft, RC Aircraft
JetCat SPT10-RX-H turboshaft engine[15] 9 kW 12 hp 3.67 kW/kg 2.24 hp/lb UAV Model aircraft, RC Aircraft
GE LM6000 marine turboshaft engine[16][17] 44,700 kW 59,900 hp 5.67 kW/kg 3.38 hp/lb Peaking power plant
BMW V-10 3L P84/5 2005 petrol engine[18] 708 kW 950 hp 7.96 kW/kg 4.84 hp/lb Williams FW27 car,[o]Formula One auto racing
BMW I-4 1.49 L M12 1986 turbo engine[19][20] 1030 kW 1,400 hp 8.25 kW/kg 5.07 hp/lb Arrows A9 car,[o] Formula One auto racing
Rolls-Royce T406/AE1107C turboshaft engine[21] 4,586 kW 6,150 hp 10.42 kW/kg 6.33hp/lb V-22
Top Fuel supercharged V-8 (nitromethane) engine[22][failed verification] 8203 kW 11,000 hp 36.46 kW/kg 22.2 hp/lb U.S. Army Top Fuel Dragster
PWR RS-24 (SSME) Block I H2turbopump[2] 53,690 kW 72,000 hp 153 kW/kg 93 hp/lb Space Shuttle
1. Full vehicle power-to-weight ratio shown below

#### Electric motors and electromotive generators

An electric motor uses electrical energy to provide mechanical work, usually through the interaction of a magnetic field and current-carrying conductors. By the interaction of mechanical work on an electrical conductor in a magnetic field, electrical energy can be generated.

Electric motor type Weight Peak power output Power-to-weight ratio Example use
SI English SI English kW/kg hp/lb
Kawak 4 kW 28 VDC brushless DC motor[23] 11.8 kg 26 lb 4 kW 5.4 hp 0.29 kW/kg 0.18 hp/lb Flight-rated motor for aircraft auxiliary systems (fuel pumps, etc.)
Panasonic MSMA202S1G AC servo motor[24] 6.5 kg 14 lb 2 kW 2.7 hp 0.31 kW/kg 0.19 hp/lb Conveyor belts, robotics
Kawak 7.5 kW 208 VAC 400 Hz 3-phase synchronous motor[25] 11.8 kg 26 lb 7.5 kW 10.1 hp 0.47 kW/kg 0.29 hp/lb Flight-rated motor for aircraft auxiliary systems (fuel pumps, etc.)
Toshiba 660 MVA water cooled 23 kV AC turbo generator 1,342 t 2,959,000 lb 660 MW 890,000 hp 0.49 kW/kg 0.30 hp/lb Bayswater, Eraring coal-fired power stations
Canopy Tech. Cypress 32 MW 15 kV AC PM generator[26] 33,557 kg 73,981 lb 32 MW 43,000 hp 0.95 kW/kg 0.58 hp/lb Electric power stations
Toyota brushless AC NdFeB PM motor[27] 36.3 kg 80 lb 50 kW 67 hp 1.37 kW/kg 0.84 hp/lb Toyota Prius[o] 2004
Himax HC6332-250 brushless DC motor[28] 0.45 kg 0.99 lb 1.7 kW 2.3 hp 3.78 kW/kg 2.30 hp/lb Radio-controlled cars
Hi-Pa Drive HPD40 brushless DC wheel hub motor[29] 25 kg 55 lb 120 kW 160 hp 4.8 kW/kg 2.92 hp/lb Mini QED HEV, Ford F150 HEV
ElectriFly GPMG4805 brushless DC[30] 1.48 kg 3.3 lb 8.4 kW 11.3 hp 5.68 kW/kg 3.45 hp/lb Radio-controlled aircraft
Rolls-Royce SP260D-A brushless DC 44 kg 97 lb 260 kW 350 hp 5.9 kW/kg 3.6 hp/lb Electric aircraft
YASA-400 brushless AC[31] 24 kg 53 lb 165 kW 221 hp 6.875 kW/kg 4.18 hp/lb Electric vehicles, Drive eO
ElectriFly GPMG5220 brushless DC motor[32] 0.133 kg 0.29 lb 1.035 kW 1.388 hp 7.78 kW/kg 4.73 hp/lb Radio-controlled aircraft
Remy HVH250-090-POC3 brushless DC motor[33] 33.5 kg 74 lb 297 kW 398 hp 8.87 kW/kg 5.39 hp/lb Electric vehicles
TP POWER TP100XL brushless DC motor[34] 7 kg 15 lb 75 kW 101 hp 9.0 kW/kg 5.5 hp/lb Electric vehicles
Emrax 268 brushless AC motor[35] 19.9 kg 44 lb 230 kW 310 hp 11.56 kW/kg 7.03 hp/lb Electric aircraft
Turncircles AF24PM–S axial flux motor[36] 0.29 kg 0.64 lb 0.39 kW 0.52 hp 1.34 kW/kg 0.52 hp/lb Electric aircraft
1. Full vehicle power-to-weight ratio shown below

#### Fluid engines and fluid pumps

Fluids (liquid and gas) can be used to transmit and/or store energy using pressure and other fluid properties. Hydraulic (liquid) and pneumatic (gas) engines convert fluid pressure into other desirable mechanical or electrical work. Fluid pumps convert mechanical or electrical work into movement or pressure changes of a fluid, or storage in a pressure vessel.

Fluid powerplant type Dry weight Peak power output Power-to-weight ratio Example use
SI English SI English SI English
PlatypusPower Q2/200 hydroelectric turbine[37] 43 kg 95 lb 2 kW 2.7 hp 0.047 kW/kg 0.029 hp/lb
PlatypusPower PP20/200 hydroelectric turbine[37] 330 kg 728 lb 20 kW 27 hp 0.060 kW/kg 0.037 hp/lb
Atlas Copco LZL 35 pneumatic motor[38] 20 kg 44.1 lb 6.5 kW 8.7 hp 0.33 kW/kg 0.20 hp/lb
Atlas Copco LZB 14 pneumatic motor[39] 0.30 kg 0.66 lb 0.16 kW 0.22 hp 0.53 kW/kg 0.33 hp/lb
Bosch 0 607 954 307 pneumatic motor[40] 0.32 kg 0.71 lb 0.1 kW 0.13 hp 0.31 kW/kg 0.19 hp/lb
Atlas Copco LZB 46 pneumatic motor[41] 1.2 kg 2.65 lb 0.84 kW 1.13 hp 0.7 kW/kg 0.43 hp/lb
Bosch 0 607 957 307 pneumatic motor[40] 1.7 kg 3.7 lb 0.74 kW 0.99 hp 0.44 kW/kg 0.26 hp/lb
SAI GM7 radial piston hydraulic motor[42] 300 kg 661 lb 250 kW 335 hp 0.83 kW/kg 0.50 hp/lb
SAI GM3 radial piston hydraulic motor[43] 15 kg 33 lb 15 kW 20 hp 1 kW/kg 0.61 hp/lb
Denison GOLD CUP P14 axial piston hydraulic motor[44] 110 kg 250 lb 384 kW 509 hp 3.5 kW/kg 2.0 hp/lb
Denison TB vane pump[45] 7 kg 15 lb 40.2 kW 53.9 hp 5.7 kW/kg 3.6 hp/lb
Rexroth A2FM 16cc/rev, bent axis hydraulic motor (continuous output) 5.4 kg 11.9 lb 81.8 kW 109.7 hp 15.1 kW/kg 9.21 hp/lb Concrete mixers, combine harvesters
Hydroleduc M18, bent axis hydraulic motor (continuous output)[46] 5.5 kg 12.1 lb 92 kW 123 hp 16.7 kW/kg 10.2 hp/lb Vehicle transmissions, forestry equipment

#### Thermoelectric generators and electrothermal actuators

A variety of effects can be harnessed to produce thermoelectricity, thermionic emission, pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. Electrical resistance and ferromagnetism of materials can be harnessed to generate thermoacoustic energy from an electric current.

Thermoelectric powerplant type Dry weight Peak power output Power-to-weight ratio Example Use
Teledyne 238Pu GPHS-RTG 1980[47][48] 56 kg 123 lb 285 W 0.39 hp 5.09 W/kg 0.003 hp/lb Galileo probe, New Horizons probe
Boeing 238Pu MMRTG MSL[48] 44.1 kg 97.2 lb 123 W 0.16 hp 2.79 W/kg 0.002 hp/lb MSL Curiosity rover
HZ-20 thermoelectric module[49] 0.102 kg 0.225 lb 21.0 W 0.028 hp 206 W/kg 0.125 hp/lb

### Electrochemical (galvanic) and electrostatic cell systems

#### (Closed cell) batteries

All electrochemical cell batteries deliver a changing voltage as their chemistry changes from "charged" to "discharged". A nominal output voltage and a cutoff voltage are typically specified for a battery by its manufacturer. The output voltage falls to the cutoff voltage when the battery becomes "discharged". The nominal output voltage is always less than the open-circuit voltage produced when the battery is "charged". The temperature of a battery can affect the power it can deliver, where lower temperatures reduce power. Total energy delivered from a single charge cycle is affected by both the battery temperature and the power it delivers. If the temperature lowers or the power demand increases, the total energy delivered at the point of "discharge" is also reduced.

Battery discharge profiles are often described in terms of a factor of battery capacity. For example, a battery with a nominal capacity quoted in ampere-hours (Ah) at a C/10 rated discharge current (derived in amperes) may safely provide a higher discharge current - and therefore higher power-to-weight ratio - but only with a lower energy capacity. Power-to-weight ratio for batteries is therefore less meaningful without reference to corresponding energy-to-weight ratio and cell temperature. This relationship is known as Peukert's law.[50]

Battery type Volts Temp. Energy-to-weight ratio Power-to-weight ratio
Energizer 675 Mercury Free Zinc-air battery[51] 1.4 V 21 °C 1,645 kJ/kg to 0.9 V 1.65 W/kg 2.24 mA
GE Durathon NaMx A2 UPS Molten salt battery[52] 54.2 V -40–65 °C 342 kJ/kg to 37.8 V 15.8 W/kg C/6 (76 A)
Panasonic R03 AAA Zinc-carbon battery[53][54] 1.5 V 20±2 °C 47 kJ/kg 20 mA to 0.9 V 3.3 W/kg 20 mA
88 kJ/kg 150 mA to 0.9 V 24 W/kg 150 mA
Eagle-Picher SAR-10081 60Ah 22-cell Nickel-hydrogen battery[55] 27.7 V 10 °C 192 kJ/kg C/2 to 22 V 23 W/kg C/2
165 kJ/kg C/1 to 22 V 46 W/kg C/1
ClaytonPower 400Ah Lithium-ion battery[56][57] 12 V 617 kJ/kg 85.7 W/kg C/1 (175 A)
Energizer 522 Prismatic Zn-MnO2 Alkaline battery[58] 9 V 21 °C 444 kJ/kg 25 mA to 4.8 V 4.9 W/kg 25 mA
340 kJ/kg 100 mA to 4.8 V 19.7 W/kg 100 mA
221 kJ/kg 500 mA to 4.8 V 99 W/kg 500 mA
Panasonic HHR900D 9.25Ah Nickel-metal hydride battery[59] 1.2 V 20 °C 209.65 kJ/kg to 0.7 V 11.7 W/kg C/5
58.2 W/kg C/1
116 W/kg 2C
URI 1418Ah replaceable anode Aluminium-air battery model[60][61] 244.8 V 60 °C 4680 kJ/kg 130.3 W/kg (142 A)
LG Chemical/CPI E2 6Ah LiMn2O4Lithium-ion polymer battery[62][63] 3.8 V 25 °C 530.1 kJ/kg C/2 to 3.0 V 71.25 W/kg
513 kJ/kg 1C to 3.0 V 142.5 W/kg
Saft 45E Fe Super-Phosphate Lithium iron phosphate battery[64] 3.3 V 25 °C 581 kJ/kg C to 2.5 V 161 W/kg
560 kJ/kg 1.14 C to 2.0 V 183 W/kg
0.73 kJ/kg 2.27 C to 1.5 V 367 W/kg
Energizer CH35 C 1.8Ah Nickel-cadmium battery[65] 1.2 V 21 °C 152 kJ/kg C/10 to 1 V 4 W/kg C/10
147.1 kJ/kg 5C to 1 V 200 W/kg 5 C
Firefly Energy Oasis FF12D1-G31 6-cell 105Ah VRLA battery[66] 12 V 25 °C 142 kJ/kg C/10 to 7.2 V 4 W/kg C/10
-1 8 °C 7 kJ/kg CCA to 7.2 V 234 W/kg CCA (625 A)
0 °C 9 kJ/kg CA to 7.2 V 300 W/kg CA (800 A)
Panasonic CGA103450A 1.95Ah LiCoO2Lithium-ion battery[67] 3.7 V 20 °C 666 kJ/kg C/5.3 to 2.75 V 35 W/kg C/5.3
0 °C 633 kJ/kg C/1 to 2.75 V 176 W/kg C/1
20 °C 655 kJ/kg C/1 to 2.75 V 182 W/kg C/1
20 °C 641 kJ/kg 2C to 2.75 V 356 W/kg 2C
Electric Fuel Battery Corp. UUV 120Ah Zinc-air fuel cell[68] 630 kJ/kg 500 W/kg C/1
Sion Power 2.5Ah Lithium-sulfur battery[69] 2.15 V 25 °C 1260 kJ/kg 70 W/kg C/5
1209 kJ/kg 672 W/kg 2C
Stanford Prussian Blue durable Potassium-ion battery[70] 1.35 V room 54 kJ/kg 13.8 W/kg C/1
50 kJ/kg 138 W/kg 10C
39 kJ/kg 693 W/kg 50C
Maxell / Yuasa / AIST Nickel-metal hydride lab prototype[71] 45 °C 980 W/kg
Toshiba SCiB cell 4.2Ah Li2TiO3 Lithium-ion battery[72][73] 2.4 V 25 °C 242 kJ/kg 67.2 W/kg C/1
Ionix Power Systems LiMn2O4Lithium-ion battery lab model[74] lab 270 kJ/kg 1700 W/kg
lab 29 kJ/kg 4900 W/kg
A123 Systems 26650 Cell 2.3Ah LiFePO4 Lithium-ion battery[75][76] 3.3 V -20 °C 347 kJ/kg C/1 to 2 V 108 W/kg C/1
0 °C 371 kJ/kg C/1 to 2 V 108 W/kg C/1
25 °C 390 kJ/kg C/1 to 2 V 108 W/kg C/1
25 °C 390 kJ/kg 27C to 2 V 3300 W/kg 27C
25 °C 57 kJ/kg 32C to 2 V 5657 W/kg 32C
Saft VL 6Ah Lithium-ion battery[77] 3.65 V -20 °C 154 kJ/kg 30C to 2.5 V 41.4 W/kg 30C (180 A)
182 kJ/kg 1C to 2.5 V 67.4 W/kg 1C
25 °C 232 kJ/kg 1C to 2.5 V 64.4 W/kg 1C
233 kJ/kg 58.3C to 2.5 V 3289 W/kg 58.3C (350 A)
34 kJ/kg 267C to 2.5 V 7388 W/kg 267C (1.6 kA)
4.29 kJ/kg 333C to 2.5 V 9706 W/kg 333C (2 kA)

#### Electrostatic, electrolytic and electrochemical capacitors

Capacitors store electric charge onto two electrodes separated by an electric field semi-insulating (dielectric) medium. Electrostatic capacitors feature planar electrodes onto which electric charge accumulates. Electrolytic capacitors use a liquid electrolyte as one of the electrodes and the electric double layer effect upon the surface of the dielectric-electrolyte boundary to increase the amount of charge stored per unit volume. Electric double-layer capacitors extend both electrodes with a nanopourous material such as activated carbon to significantly increase the surface area upon which electric charge can accumulate, reducing the dielectric medium to nanopores and a very thin high permittivity separator.

While capacitors tend not to be as temperature sensitive as batteries, they are significantly capacity constrained and without the strength of chemical bonds suffer from self-discharge. Power-to-weight ratio of capacitors is usually higher than batteries because charge transport units within the cell are smaller (electrons rather than ions), however energy-to-weight ratio is conversely usually lower.

Capacitor type Capacitance Voltage Temp. Energy-to-weight ratio Power-to-weight ratio
ACT Premlis Lithium ion capacitor[78] 2000 F 4.0 V 25 °C 54 kJ/kg to 2.0 V 44.4 W/kg @ 5 A
31 kJ/kg to 2.0 V 850 W/kg @ 10 A
Nesccap Electric double-layer capacitor[79] 5000 F 2.7 V 25 °C 19.58 kJ/kg to 1.35 V 5.44 W/kg C/1 (1.875 A)
5.2 kJ/kg to 1.35 V 5,200 W/kg[80] @ 2,547 A
EEStor EESU barium titanate supercapacitor[81] 30.693 F 3500 V 85 °C 1471.98 kJ/kg 80.35 W/kg C/5
1471.98 kJ/kg 8,035 W/kg 20 C
General Atomics 3330CMX2205 High Voltage Capacitor[82] 20.5 mF 3300 V (unknown) 2.3 kJ/kg (unknown)[clarification needed]

#### Fuel cell stacks and flow cell batteries

Fuel cells and flow cells, although perhaps using similar chemistry to batteries, have the distinction of not containing the energy storage medium or fuel. With a continuous flow of fuel and oxidant, available fuel cells and flow cells continue to convert the energy storage medium into electric energy and waste products. Fuel cells distinctly contain a fixed electrolyte whereas flow cells also require a continuous flow of electrolyte. Flow cells typically have the fuel dissolved in the electrolyte.

Fuel cell type Dry weight Power-to-weight ratio Example use
Redflow Power+BOS ZB600 10kWh ZBB[83] 900 kg 5.6 W/kg (9.3 W/kg peak) Rural Grid support
Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen MG 2.0 CHP SOFC[84] 200 kg 10 W/kg
15 W/kg CHP
MTU Friedrichshafen 240 kW MCFC HotModule 2006 20,000 kg 12 W/kg
Smart Fuel Cell Jenny 600S 25 W DMFC[85] 1.7 kg 14.7 W/kg Portable military electronics
UTC Power PureCell 400 kW PAFC[86] 27,216 kg[clarification needed] 14.7 W/kg
GEFC 50V50A-VRB Vanadium redox battery[87] 80 kg 31.3 W/kg (125 W/kg peak)
Ballard Power Systems Xcellsis HY-205 205 kW PEMFC[88] 2,170 kg 94.5 W/kg Mercedes-Benz Citaro O530BZ[o]
UTC Power/NASA 12 kW AFC[89] 122 kg 98 W/kg Space Shuttle orbiter[o]
Ballard Power Systems FCgen-1030 1.2 kW CHP PEMFC[90] 12 kg 100 W/kg Residential cogeneration
Ballard Power Systems FCvelocity-HD6 150 kW PEMFC[90] 400 kg 375 W/kg Bus and heavy duty
NASA Glenn Research Center 50 W SOFC[91] 0.071 kg 700 W/kg
Honda 2003 43 kW FC Stack PEMFC[92][o] 43 kg 1000 W/kg Honda FCX Clarity[o]
Lynntech, Inc. PEMFC lab prototype[93] 0.347 kg 1,500 W/kg
PowerCell S3 125 kW commercial PEMFC[94] 43 kg 2,900 W/kg
1. Full vehicle power-to-weight ratio shown below

### Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic Panel type Power-to-weight ratio
Thyssen Solartec 128 W Nanocrystalline Si Triplejunction PV module[95] 6 W/kg
Suntech/UNSW HiPerforma PLUTO220-Udm 220 W Ga-F22 Polycrystalline Si PERC PV module[96] 13.1 W/kg STP
9.64 W/kg nominal
Global Solar PN16015A 62 W CIGS polycrystalline thin film PV module[97] 40 W/kg
Able (AEC) PUMA 6 kW GaInP2/GaAs/Ge-on-Ge Triplejunction PV array[98] 65 W/kg

### Vehicles

Power-to-weight ratios for vehicles are usually calculated using curb weight (for cars) or wet weight (for motorcycles), that is, excluding weight of the driver and any cargo. This could be slightly misleading, especially with regard to motorcycles, where the driver might weigh 1/3 to 1/2 as much as the vehicle itself. In the sport of competitive cycling athlete's performance is increasingly being expressed in VAMs and thus as a power-to-weight ratio in W/kg. This can be measured through the use of a bicycle powermeter or calculated from measuring incline of a road climb and the rider's time to ascend it.[100]

#### Utility and practical vehicles

Most vehicles are designed to meet passenger comfort and cargo carrying requirements. Different designs trade off power-to-weight ratio to increase comfort, cargo space, fuel economy, emissions control, energy security and endurance. Reduced drag and lower rolling resistance in a vehicle design can facilitate increased cargo space without increase in the (zero cargo) power-to-weight ratio. This increases the role flexibility of the vehicle. Energy security considerations can trade off power (typically decreased) and weight (typically increased), and therefore power-to-weight ratio, for fuel flexibility or drive-train hybridisation. Some utility and practical vehicle variants such as hot hatches and sports-utility vehicles reconfigure power (typically increased) and weight to provide the perception of sports car like performance or for other psychological benefit.

A locomotive generally must be very heavy in order to develop enough adhesion on the rails to start a train. As the coefficient of friction between steel wheels and rails seldom exceeds 0.25 in most cases, improving a locomotive's power-to-weight ratio is often counterproductive. However, the choice of power transmission system, such as variable-frequency drive versus direct current drive, may support a higher power-to-weight ratio by better managing propulsion power.

##### Notable low ratio
Vehicle Power Vehicle weight Power-to-weight ratio
Benz Patent Motorwagen 954 cc 1886[101] 560 W / 0.75 bhp 265 kg / 584 lb 2.1 W/kg / 0.0013 hp/lb
Stephenson's Rocket 0-2-2 steam locomotive with tender 1829[102] 15 kW / 20 bhp 4,320 kg / 9524 lb 3.5 W/kg / 0.002 hp/lb
CBQ Zephyr streamliner diesel locomotive with railcars 1934[103] 492 kW / 660 bhp 94 t / 208,000 lb 5.21 W/kg / 0.003 hp/lb
Alberto Contador's Verbier climb 2009 Tour de France on Specialized bike[100] 420 W / 0.56 bhp 62 kg / 137 lb 6.7 W/kg / 0.004 hp/lb
Force Motors Minidor Diesel 499 cc auto rickshaw[104][105] 6.6 kW / 8.8 bhp 700 kg / 1543 lb 9 W/kg / 0.0054 hp/lb
PRR Q2 4-4-6-4 steam locomotive with tender 1944 5,956 kW / 7,987 bhp 475.9 t / 1,049,100 lb 12.5 W/kg / 0.0076 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz Citaro O530BZ H2 fuel cell bus 2002[106] 205 kW / 275 bhp 14,500 kg / 32,000 lb 14.1 W/kg / 0.0085 hp/lb
TGV BR Class 373 high-speed Eurostar Trainset 1993 12,240 kW / 16,414 bhp 816 t / 1,798,972 lb 15 W/kg / 0.0091 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz Unimog 1500 1975 110 kW / 150 bhp 5940 kg / 13,100 lb 19 W/kg / 0.011 hp/lb
Fiat 500 1957 10 kW / 13 bhp 499 kg / 1100 lb 19.4 W/kg / 0.011 hp/lb
General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main battle tank 1980[107] 1,119 kW / 1500 bhp 55.7 t / 122,800 lb 20.1 W/kg / 0.012 hp/lb
Peel Trident 1965 3.1 kW / 4.2 hp 150 kg / 330 lb 21 W/kg / 0.013 hp/lb
BMW Isetta 1955 10 kW / 13 bhp 417 kg / 920 lb 23.2 W/kg / 0.014 hp/lb
BR Class 43 high-speed diesel electric locomotive 1975 1,678 kW / 2,250 bhp 70.25 t / 154,875 lb 23.9 W/kg / 0.014 hp/lb
GE AC6000CW diesel electric locomotive 1996 4,660 kW / 6,250 bhp 192 t / 423,000 lb 24.3 W/kg / 0.015 hp/lb
BR Class 55 Napier Deltic diesel electric locomotive 1961 2,460 kW / 3,300 bhp 101 t / 222,667 lb 24.4 W/kg / 0.015 hp/lb
International CXT 2004[108] 164 kW / 220 bhp 6,577 kg / 14500 lb 25 W/kg / 0.015 hp/lb
Terradyne Gurkha armored vehicle 2011 250 kW / 330 bhp 8,800 kg / 19,500 lb 27.8 W/kg / 0.017 hp/lb
Ford Model T 2.9 L flex-fuel 1908 15 kW / 20 bhp 540 kg / 1,200 lb 28 W/kg / 0.017 hp/lb
TH!NK City 2008[109] 30 kW / 40 bhp 1038 kg / 2,288 lb 28.9 W/kg / 0.017 hp/lb
Messerschmitt KR200 Kabinenroller 191 cc 1955 6 kW / 8.2 bhp 230 kg / 506 lb 30 W/kg / 0.018 hp/lb
Wright Flyer 1903 9 kW / 12 bhp 274 kg / 605 lb 33 W/kg / 0.02 hp/lb
Citroën 2CV 1948-1990 22 kW / 29 bhp 600 kg / 1323 lb 36 W/kg / 0.022 hp/lb
Hildebrand & Wolfmüller motorcycle 1894 1.9 kW / 2.5 bhp 50 kg / 110 lb 37 W/kg / 0.022 hp/lb
Volkswagen Beelte 1963 30 kW / 40 bhp 798 kg / 1760 lb 37.4 W/kg / 0.022 hp/lb
Volkswagen Type 2 1967[110] 40 kW / 54 bhp 1048 kg / 2310 lb 38.4 W/kg / 0.023 hp/lb
Willys Jeep 1941 45 kW / 60 bhp 1113 kg / 2453 lb 40.3 W/kg / 0.0245 hp/lb
Tata Nano 624 cc 2008 26 kW / 35 bhp 635 kg / 1,400 lb 41.0 W/kg / 0.025 hp/lb
Bombardier JetTrain high-speed gas turbine-electric locomotive 2000[111] 3,750 kW / 5,029 bhp 90,750 kg / 200,000 lb 41.2 W/kg / 0.025 hp/lb
Suzuki MightyBoy 543 cc 1988 23 kW / 31 bhp 550 kg / 1,213 lb 42 W/kg / 0.025 hp/lb
Mitsubishi i-MiEV 2009[112] 47 kW / 63 bhp 1,080 kg / 2,381 lb 43.5 W/kg / 0.026 hp/lb
Holden FJ 2,160 cc 1953[113] 44.7 kW / 60 bhp 1,021 kg / 2,250 lb 43.8 W/kg / 0.026 hp/lb
Morris Minor 1962 36 kW / 48 bhp 775 kg / 1708 lb 46 W/kg / 0.028 hp/lb
Chevrolet Kodiak/GMC Topkick LYE 6.6 L 2005[1][114] 246 kW / 330 bhp 5126 kg / 11,300 lb 48 W/kg / 0.029 hp/lb
DOE/NASA/0032-28 Chevrolet Celebrity 502 cc ASE Mod II 1985[7] 62.3 kW / 83.5 bhp 1,297 kg / 2,860 lb 48 W/kg / 0.029 hp/lb
Yamaha PW50 minibike[115][116] 2 kW / 2.68 bhp 41 kg / 90 lb 49 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Suzuki Alto 796 cc 2000 35 kW / 46 bhp 720 kg / 1,587 lb 49 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Land Rover Defender 2.4 L 1990[117] 90 kW / 121 bhp 1,837 kg / 4,050 lb 49 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Mercury Eight 1949 82 kW / 110 bhp 1531 kg / 3375 lb 54 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Peel P50 1962 3.1 kW / 4.2 bhp 56 kg / 123 lb 56 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
U.S. Army HMMWV LUV 1983 142 kW / 190 bhp 2359 kg / 5200 lb 60 W/kg / 0.036 hp/lb
Honda Z series "Monkey Bike" 2018[118] 6.9 kW / 9.25 bhp 107 kg / 235 lb 65 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Reliant Robin 1973 29 kW / 39 bhp 450 kg / 992 lb 64.6 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Bentley 8-Litre 1930 160 kW / 220 bhp 2500 kg / 5500 lb 66 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Suzuki LT-125D QuadRunner 1982[119] 8.3 kW / 11.1 bhp 87 kg / 192 lb 95 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Hudson Hornet 1954 157 kW / 210 bhp 1610 kg / 3550 lb 97 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Cadillac Eldorado 1959 257 kW / 345 bhp 2295 kg / 5060 lb 112 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Meyers Manx dune buggy 1965[120] 67 kW / 90 bhp 576 kg / 1250 lb 118 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Chevrolet Bel Air 1957[121][122] 208 kW / 283 bhp 1587.5 kg / 3500 lb 133 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Suzuki RE5 wankel engine motorcycle 1974 46.2 kW / 61.9 hp 230 kg / 507 lb 201 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
##### Common power
Vehicle Power Vehicle weight Power-to-weight ratio
Toyota Prius 1.8 L 2010 (petrol only)[123] 73 kW / 98 bhp 1,380 kg / 3,042 lb 53 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Bajaj Platina Naked 100 cc 2006[124] 6 kW / 8 bhp 113 kg / 249 lb 53 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Nissan Leaf electric car 2013 80 kW / 110 hp 1493 kg / 3291 lb 55 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Subaru R2 type S 2003[125] 47 kW / 63 bhp 830 kg / 1,830 lb 57 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Ford Fiesta ECOnetic 1.6 L TDCi 5dr 2009[126] 66 kW / 89 bhp 1,155 kg / 2,546 lb 57 W/kg / 0.03 hp/lb
Volvo C30 1.6D DRIVe S/S 3dr Hatch 2010[127] 80 kW / 108 bhp 1,347 kg / 2,970 lb 59.4 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Ford Focus ECOnetic 1.6 L TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[128] 81 kW / 108 bhp 1,357 kg / 2,992 lb 59.7 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Ford Focus 1.8 L Zetec S TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[129] 84 kW / 113 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 61 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Honda FCX Clarity 4 kg Hydrogen 2008[130] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,600 kg / 3,528 lb 63 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Hummer H1 6.6 L V8 2006[131] 224 kW / 300 bhp 3,559 kg / 7,847 lb 63 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Audi A2 1.4 L TDI 90 type S 2003[132] 66 kW / 89 bhp 1,030 kg / 2,270 lb 64 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden/Chevrolet Astra 1.7 L CTDi 125 2010[133] 92 kW / 123 bhp 1,393 kg / 3,071 lb 66 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Mini (new) Cooper 1.6D 2007[134] 81 kW / 108 bhp 1,185 kg / 2,612 lb 68 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Toyota Previa S/C 1994 118 kW / 158 hp 1703 kg / 3755 lb 69 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Toyota Prius 1.8 L 2010 (electric boost)[123] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,380 kg / 3,042 lb 72 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Ford Focus 2.0 L Zetec S TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[135] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 73 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
General Motors EV1 electric car Gen II 1998[136] 102.2 kW / 137 bhp 1,400 kg / 3,086 lb 73 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Dodge RAM 1500 2021[137] 194 kW / 260 hp 2601 kg / 5734 lb 74.5 W/kg / 0.04 hp/lb
Toyota Venza I4 2.7 L FWD 2009[138] 136 kW / 182 bhp 1,706 kg / 3,760 lb 80 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Ford Focus 2.0 L Zetec S 5dr Hatch 2009[139] 107 kW / 143 bhp 1,327 kg / 2,926 lb 81 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Fiat Grande Punto 1.6 L Multijet 120 2005[140] 88 kW / 118 bhp 1,075 kg / 2,370 lb 82 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Mini (classic) 1275GT 1969 57 kW / 76 bhp 686 kg / 1,512 lb 83 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Hyundai i20 2014[141] 88 kW / 118 hp 1045 kg / 2304 lb 84 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden/Chevrolet Astra 2.0 L CTDi 160 2010[142] 118 kW / 158 bhp 1,393 kg / 3,071 lb 85 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Ford Windstar 1996 149 kW / 200 hp 1724 kg / 3800 lb 86.5 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Hyundai Getz 2008 81 kW / 108 hp 930 kg / 2050 lb 87 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Toyota Sienna 1998 157 kW / 210 hp 1802 kg / 3973 lb 87 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Chevrolet Suburban 5.7 L V8 1998[143] 190 kW / 255 hp 2189 kg / 4825 lb 87 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Ford Focus 2.0 auto 2007[144] 104.4 kW / 140 bhp 1,198 kg / 2,641 lb 87.1 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Chevrolet/Geo Prizm 1992 97 kW / 130 hp 1104.5 kg / 2435 lb 87.8 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Subaru Legacy/Liberty 2.0R 2005[145] 121 kW / 162 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 88 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Kia Sportage 2.4 L 4-cyl. FWD 2021[146] 135 kW / 181 hp 1499 kg / 3305 lb 90 W/kg / 0.055 hp/lb
Subaru Outback 2.5i 2008[147] 130.5 kW / 175 bhp 1,430 kg / 3,153 lb 91 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Smart Fortwo 1.0 L Brabus 2009[148] 72 kW / 97 bhp 780 kg / 1,720 lb 92 W/kg / 0.05 hp/lb
Honda Odyssey 3.5 L V6 2001 179 kW / 240 hp 1920 kg / 4233 lb 93 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Chevrolet C/K 3500 1998 216 kW / 290 hp 2194.5 kg / 4838 lb 98.5 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Nissan Leaf 2018 160 kW / 215 hp 1580 kg / 3480 lb 99 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
BMW i3 2021 135 kW / 181 hp 1348 kg / 2972 lb 100 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Ford Crown Victoria 2004 186 kW / 250 hp 1840 kg / 4057 lb 101 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Hyundai Sonata 2.4 L 4-cyl. 2011 147 kW / 197 hp 1451 kg / 3199 lb 101 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz E 320 CDI 2003 167 kW / 224 hp 1649 kg / 3635 lb 101.3 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Acura TSX 2006 153 kW / 205 hp 1505 kg / 3318 lb 102 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Hyundai Santa Fe 3.3 L V6 2007[149] 180 kW / 242 hp 1744.5 kg / 3846 lb 103 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Chevrolet Express 2021[150] 299 kW / 401 hp 2858 kg / 6300 lb 105 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Volvo XC90 4.4 L V8 AWD 4dr 2011[151] 232 kW / 311 hp 2194 kg / 4836 lb 106 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Toyota Venza V6 3.5 L AWD 2009[138] 200 kW / 268 bhp 1,835 kg / 4,045 lb 109 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Venza I4 2.7 L FWD 2009[138] with Lotus mass reduction[152] 136 kW / 182 bhp 1,210 kg / 2,667 lb 112.2 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Hilux V6 DOHC 4 L 4×2 Single Cab Pickup ute 2009[153] 175 kW / 235 bhp 1,555 kg / 3,428 lb 112.5 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Dodge RAM 2500 6.4 L V8 Hemi 2018 306 kW / 410 hp 2694 kg / 5940 lb 113.5 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Venza V6 3.5 L FWD 2009[138] 200 kW / 268 bhp 1,755 kg / 3,870 lb 114 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Tacoma 3.5 L V6 2016 207 kW / 278 hp 1805 kg / 3980 lb 115 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Tundra 4.7 L V8 2005 210 kW / 282 hp 1785 kg / 3935 lb 118 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Dodge Ram 1500 8.0 L Magnum V10 2002 224 kW / 300 hp 1885 kg / 4155 lb 119 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Volkswagen Golf GTI 2.0 L 4-cyl. 2010[154] 157 kW / 210 hp 1315 kg / 2900 lb 119 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Toyota Tundra 5.7 L V8 2021[155] 284 kW / 381 hp 2377 kg / 5240 lb 119.5 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Nissan Titan 2021[156] 298 kW / 400 hp 2495 kg / 5500 lb 120 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Honda Civic Si Coupe 2020 153 kW / 205 hp 1242 kg / 2738 lb 123 W/kg / 0.075 hp/lb
Dodge Ram 2500 5.7 L V8 Hemi 2009 291 kW / 390 hp 2338 kg / 5154 lb 124 W/kg / 0.075 hp/lb
Acura TL 2004 201 kW / 270 hp 1579 kg / 3480 lb 127.5 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Ford Taurus SHO 2009 272 kW / 365 hp 1990 kg / 4388 lb 137 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Chevrolet Silverado 6.2 L V8 2021[157] 313 kW / 420 hp 1996 kg / 4400 lb 157 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Ford F-150 XL SuperCab 3.5 L PowerBoost V6 twin-turbo hybrid 2021[158][159] 321 kW / 430 hp 2090 kg / 4607 lb 153 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Toyota Tacoma TRD 3.4 L V6 1996 189 kW / 254 hp 1161 kg / 2560 lb 163 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
##### Performance luxury, roadsters and mild sports

Increased engine performance is a consideration, but also other features associated with luxury vehicles. Longitudinal engines are common. Bodies vary from hot hatches, sedans (saloons), coupés, convertibles and roadsters. Mid-range dual-sport and cruiser motorcycles tend to have similar power-to-weight ratios.

Vehicle Power Vehicle weight Power-to-weight ratio
eRuf Model A electric car 2008 150 kW / 201 hp 1910 kg / 4211 lb 78.5 W/kg / 0.047 hp/lb
Datsun 510 1969 81 kW / 109 hp 965 kg / 2127 lb 84 W/kg / 0.051 hp/lb
Triumph TR8 1981 110 kW / 148 hp 1204 kg / 2654 lb 92 W/kg / 0.055 hp/lb
Triumph TR6 1968 110 kW / 150 hp 1130 kg / 2491 lb 99 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Mazda MX-5 Miata 1996 99 kW / 133 hp 960 kg / 2120 lb 103 W/kg / 0.063 hp/lb
Honda CR-X del Sol 1992 125 kW / 168 hp 1041 kg / 2295 lb 120 W/kg / 0.073 hp/lb
Honda Accord sedan V6 2011 202 kW / 271 bhp 1630 kg / 3593 lb 124 W/kg / 0.075 hp/lb
Toyota 86 2020 153 kW / 205 hp 1190 kg / 2624 lb 128.5 W/kg / 0.078 hp/lb
Mini (new) Cooper 1.6T S JCW 2008[160] 155 kW / 208 bhp 1205 kg / 2657 lb 129 W/kg / 0.078 hp/lb
Nissan IDx NISMO 2013 172 kW / 230 hp 1315 kg / 2900 lb 130 W/kg / 0.079 hp/lb
Mazda RX-8 1.3 L Wankel 2003 173 kW / 232 bhp 1309 kg / 2888 lb 132 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Holden Statesman/Caprice / Buick Park Avenue / Daewoo Veritas 6 L V8 2007[161] 270 kW / 362 bhp 1891 kg / 4170 lb 143 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Kawasaki KLR650 Gasoline DualSport 650 cc 26 kW / 35 bhp 182 kg / 401 lb 143 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
NATO HTC M1030M1 Diesel/Jet fuel DualSport 670 cc[162] 26 kW / 35 bhp 182 kg / 401 lb 143 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Harley-Davidson FLSTF Softail Fat Boy Cruiser 1,584 cc 2009[163] 47 kW / 63 bhp 324 kg / 714 lb 145 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
BMW 7 Series 760Li 6 L V12 2006[164] 327 kW / 439 bhp 2250 kg / 4960 lb 145 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Subaru Impreza WRX STi 2.0 L 2008[165] 227 kW / 304 bhp 1530 kg / 3373 lb 148 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Honda S2000 roadster 1999[] 183.88 kW / 240 bhp 1250 kg / 2723 lb 150 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Toyota MR2 1994 180 kW / 242 hp 1205 kg / 2657 lb 150 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Kia Stinger GT 2021 272 kW / 365 hp 1737 kg / 3829 lb 157 W/kg / 0.095 hp/lb
Opel Speedster 2000 149 kW / 200 hp 930 kg / 2050 lb 160 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Ginetta G40 2010 130 kW / 175 hp 795 kg / 1753 lb 164 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Honda Civic Type R 2020 235 kW / 316 hp 1395 kg / 3075 lb 169 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
GMH HSV Clubsport / GMV VXR8 / GMC CSV CR8 / Pontiac G8 6 L V8 2006[166] 317 kW / 425 bhp 1831 kg / 4037 lb 173 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Tesla Roadster 2011[167] 215 kW / 288 bhp 1235 kg / 2723 lb 174 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Pontiac GTO 2005 298 kW / 400 hp 1690 kg / 3725 lb 176.5 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Nissan Fairlady Z NISMO 2013 261 kW / 350 hp 1466 kg / 3232 lb 178 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb

#### Sports vehicles

Power-to-weight ratio is an important vehicle characteristic that affects the acceleration of sports vehicles.

Vehicle Power Vehicle weight Power-to-weight ratio
Nissan Skyline 2000GT-R 1969 119 kW / 160 hp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 108.5 W/kg / 0.065 hp/lb
Jaguar XK120 SE 1951 157 kW / 210 hp 1368 kg / 3015 lb 114.5 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Porsche 356-B/2000GS Carrera 2 1962[168][169] 96.9 kW / 130 hp 825 kg / 1819 lb 117.5 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupe 1954 180 kW / 241 hp 1500 kg / 3307 lb 120 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
BMW 3.0 CSL 1973 152 kW / 203 hp 1165 kg / 2568 lb 130 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Chevrolet Camaro Z-28 1991 183 kW / 245 hp 1400 kg / 3086.5 lb 130.5 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Mitsubishi FTO 1994 147 kW / 197 hp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 133.5 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Saleen S331 Supercab 2008 336 kW / 450 hp 2495 kg / 5500 lb 134.5 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Ford F-150 SVT Raptor 2010 373 kW / 500 hp 2729 kg / 6016 lb 137 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Porsche 911 Carrera RS 1973 154 kW / 207 hp 1111 kg / 2450 lb 139 W/kg / 0.08 hp/lb
Mitsubishi 3000GT VR-4 1994 238.4 kW / 320 hp 1695 kg / 3737 lb 141 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz #24 Tankpool24 European Truck Racing Championship racing truck 2015[170] 783 kW / 1050 hp 5500 kg / 12125 lb 142 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 206 kW / 276 hp 1430 kg / 3153 lb 144 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Jaguar XJR-S 1988[171] 245 kW / 329 hp 1755 kg / 3869 lb 144 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Nissan 300ZX 1989 224 kW / 300 hp 1552 kg / 3422 lb 144 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Buick Regal GNX 1987[172] 224 kW / 300 hp 1608 kg / 3545 lb 146 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Nissan Skyline GT-R R33 1993 224 kW / 301 hp 1530 kg / 3373 lb 147 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Ferrari Dino 1967 132 kW / 178 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 147.5 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Renault Alpine A110 1973 104 kW / 140 hp 706 kg / 1556 lb 148 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Top Gear Track-Tor 2018[173] 373 kW / 500 hp 2495 kg / 5500 lb 149.5 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Jaguar E-Type 1961 198 kW / 265 hp 1315 kg / 2900 lb 150 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Lotus Eleven 1956 62 kW / 83 hp 412 kg / 908 lb 150 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
BMW E30 M3 Sport Evolution 1989 175 kW / 235 hp 1165 kg / 2568 lb 150 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Nissan 350Z 2007 228 kW / 306 hp 1515 kg / 3339 lb 151 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
AMC Rebel "The Machine" 1970 254 kW / 340 hp 1656 kg / 3650 lb 153 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Porsche Boxster 2003 191 kW / 258 hp 1250 kg / 2756 lb 154 W/kg / 0.09 hp/lb
Lotus Seven 1973 78 kW / 105 hp 499 kg / 1100 lb 157 W/kg / 0.095 hp/lb
BMW M1 1978 203.6 kW / 273 hp 1300 kg / 2866 lb 157 W/kg / 0.095 hp/lb
Ferrari 166MM Barchetta 1948 103 kW / 138 hp 650 kg / 1433 lb 158 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 1999 244 kW / 327 hp 1540 kg / 3395 lb 158 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
Dodge Ram SRT-10 2004 373 kW / 500 hp 2327 kg / 5130 lb 160 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
Aston Martin DB5 Vantage 1964 242 kW / 325 hp 1502 kg / 3311 lb 161 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
Mazda RX-7 Spirit R (Type A) 2002 206 kW / 276 hp 1270 kg / 2800 lb 162 W/kg / 0.1 hp/lb
Toyota Supra 1993 243 kW / 326 hp 1490 kg / 3285 lb 163 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Jaguar XJ 2003 298 kW / 400 hp 1790 kg / 3946 lb 167 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Acura/Honda NSX-R 1992 206 kW / 276 hp 1230 kg / 2712 lb 167 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
BMW 1M Coupé 2011 250 kW / 335 hp 1495 kg / 3296 lb 167 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Porsche Boxster 2007 217 kW / 291 hp 1295 kg / 2855 lb 167.5 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport 1996 246 kW / 330 hp 1469 kg / 3239 lb 167.5 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Dodge Ram Rebel TRX 2021[174][175] 523.5 kW / 702 hp 3114 kg / 6866 lb 168 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
BMW Z3 BMW M Coupé and Roadster 2002 239 kW / 321 hp 1420 kg / 3130.6 lb 168.5 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Lotus Esprit 1978 157 kW / 210 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 174 W/kg / 0.10 hp/lb
Porsche 914/6 GT 1970[176] 157 kW / 210 hp 898 kg / 1980 lb 174 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
De Tomaso Pantera GT5-S 1988 257 kW / 345 hp 1474 kg / 3250 lb 174.5 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Ford Mustang SVT Cobra 2003 291 kW / 390 hp 1662 kg / 3665 lb 175 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Oldsmobile Hurst/Olds 442 1968 291 kW / 390 hp 1650 kg / 3637 lb 176 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Nissan 370Z NISMO 2009 261 kW / 350 hp 1466 kg / 3232 lb 178 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
BMW i8 2020 275 kW / 369 hp 1539 kg / 3394 lb 179 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Lotus Elise SC 2008 163 kW / 218 hp 910 kg / 2006 lb 179 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution WRC 2001 221 kW / 296 hp 1230 kg / 2717 lb 179 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Lotus Evora S 2010 258 kW / 346 hp 1437 kg / 3168 lb 179.5 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Subaru Impreza WRC 1997-2008 224 kW / 300 hp 1230 kg / 2712 lb 182 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Plymouth Road Runner Superbird 1970 317 kW / 425 hp 1742 kg / 3841 lb 182 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Audi TT RS plus 2012 265 kW / 355 hp 1450 kg / 3197 lb 183 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Can-Am Spyder RT[177] 86 kW / 115 hp 464 kg / 1021 lb 185 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Ferrari 250 California 1957 195 kW / 262 hp 1050 kg / 2315 lb 186 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Hennessey VelociRaptor 6x6 2020[178][179] 565 kW / 758 hp 3038 kg / 6697 lb 186 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Local Motors Rally Fighter 2010 321 kW / 430 hp 1720 kg / 3792 lb 186 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato 1961 234 kW / 314 hp 1225 kg / 2701 lb 191 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Bentley Bentayga 2020 467 kW / 626 hp 2440 kg / 5379 lb 191 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Jaguar D-Type 1954 183 kW / 245 hp 953 kg / 2100 lb 192 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Dodge Challenger R/T 1970[180] 317 kW / 425 hp 1650 kg / 3638 lb 192 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Ferrari Testarossa 1984 291 kW / 390 hp 1506 kg / 3320 lb 193 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Dodge Charger R/T 1969[181] 1633 kg / 3600 lb 1633 kg / 3600 lb 194 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Citroën DS3 WRC rally car 2011[182] 235 kW / 315 hp 1200 kg / 2,645.5 lb 196 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Pontiac GTO 1969 276 kW / 370 hp 1397.5 kg / 3081 lb 197 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Ford Mustang Boss 429 1969 280 kW / 375 hp 1416 kg / 3122 lb 197.5 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Alpine A110S 2017 221 kW / 296 hp 1114 kg / 2456 lb 198 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Golden Arrow land speed record car 1928[183] 690 kW / 925 hp 3490 kg / 7694 lb 198 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Shelby Series 1 1999 239 kW / 320 hp 1202 kg / 2650 lb 198.5 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Lotus 340R 2000 139 kW / 187 hp 701 kg / 1545 lb 199 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Alfa Romeo 4C 2013 177 kW / 237 hp 895 kg / 1973 lb 199 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Lamborghini Miura 1966 257 kW / 345 hp 1292 kg / 2848 lb 199 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Artega GT[184] 220 kW / 300 hp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 200 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Dodge Viper 1991 298 kW / 400 hp 1490 kg / 3285 lb 200 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Suzuki GSX-R/4 2001 129 kW / 173 hp 640 kg / 1410 lb 202 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Audi R8 Spyder 4.2 FSI Quattro 2011 319 kW / 428 hp 1560 kg / 3439 lb 205 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Plymouth Barracuda 1970 317 kW / 425 hp 1540 kg / 3395 lb 206 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Lotus Exige GT3 2006[185] 202.1 kW / 271 hp 980 kg / 2160 lb 206 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz E 63 AMG 2009 378 kW / 507 hp 1830 kg / 4035 lb 207 W/kg / 0.125 hp/lb
Ferrari F355 1994 280 kW / 375 hp 1350 kg / 2976 lb 207 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Ligier JS F4 Formula 4 2016[186] 119 kW / 160 hp 570 kg / 1254 lb 209 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 2001 302 kW / 405 hp 1439 kg / 3172 lb 210 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
BMW M3 GTR 2001 285 kW / 382 hp 1350 kg / 2980 lb 211 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Porsche 718 Cayman GT4 2019 309 kW / 414 hp 1451 kg / 3199 lb 213 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette (C2) Stingray 427 1967 324 kW / 435 hp 1525 kg / 3362 lb 213 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Chevrolet 'COPO' Camaro 1969 321 kW / 430 hp 1498 kg / 3300 lb 214 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Porsche Cayman GT4 2015 283 kW / 380 hp 1310 kg / 2888 lb 216 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifolio 2021[187] 377 kW / 505 hp 1734 kg / 3822 lb 217 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Lamborghini Urus 2019[188] 478 kW / 641 hp 2200 kg / 4850 lb 217 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Ford Fairlane Thunderbolt 1964 317 kW / 425 hp 1453 kg / 3203 lb 218 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Audi e-tron GT 2020 482 kW / 646 hp 2200 kg / 4850 lb 219 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Campagna T-Rex 1988[189] 119 kW / 160 hp 544 kg / 1199 lb 219 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Ferrari 360 Challenge Stradale 2003 313 kW / 420 hp 1430 kg / 3152 lb 219 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz C 63 AMG Coupé Black Series 2011[190] 380 kW / 517 hp 1748 kg / 3854 lb 220.5 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C6 2008[191] 321 kW / 430 hp 1441 kg / 3177 lb 223 W/kg / 0.13 hp/lb
Spark-Renault SRT_01E Formula E 2014 201 kW / 270 hp 898 kg / 1980 lb 224 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Bentley Continental Supersports 2017 522 kW / 700 hp 2320 kg / 5115 lb 225 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Lamborghini Countach LP-5000 QV 1985 339 kW / 455 hp 1488 kg / 3280 lb 228 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Nissan GT-R R35 3.8 L Turbo V6[192] 406 kW / 545 hp 1779 kg / 3922 lb[193] 228 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Aston Martin DB9 GT 2015 402 kW / 540 hp 1760 kg / 3880 lb 229 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Lamborghini Diablo 1990 362 kW / 485 hp 1576 kg / 3474 lb 230 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Tesla Model S P85D 85kWh AWD Performance[194] 515 kW / 691 hp 2239 kg / 4936 lb 230 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Ford Mustang Shelby GT350R 2020[195] 392 kW / 526 hp 1686 kg / 3717 lb 233 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Ford GT-70 1970 179 kW / 240 hp 765 kg / 1687 lb 234 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Ford Fiesta WRC 2017[196] 283 kW / 380 hp 1200 kg / 2646 lb 236 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Aston Martin DBR1 1956 190 kW / 255 hp 801 kg / 1765 lb 237.5 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Hyundai i20 WRC 2021[197] 283 kW / 380 hp 1190 kg / 2623.5 lb 238 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Ferrari California T 2014 412 kW / 553 hp 1730 kg / 3813 lb 238 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Spyker C8 Laviolette 2001 298 kW / 400 hp 1250 kg / 2756 lb 239 W/kg / 0.145 hp/lb
TVR Griffith 1993 254 kW / 340 hp 1060 kg / 2337 lb 239 W/kg / 0.145 hp/lb
TVR Chimaera 1992 254 kW / 340 hp 1060 kg / 2337 lb 239 W/kg / 0.145 hp/lb
Cizeta-Moroder V16T 1989[198] 403 kW / 540 hp 1678 kg / 3700 lb 240 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Spark ODYSSEY 21 2021 400 kW / 536 hp 1650 kg / 3368 lb 242 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
TVR Tamora 2002 261 kW / 350 hp 1050 kg / 2315 lb 248.5 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Jaguar XKR-S 2011 404 kW / 542 hp 1595 kg / 3516 lb 253 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Porsche 959 1986 335 kW / 450 hp 1450 kg / 3197 lb 231 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette 2020 369 kW / 495 hp 1527 kg / 3366 lb 242 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Porsche Taycan Turbo S 560 kW / 751 hp 2295 kg / 5060 lb 244 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Jeep Trailcat 2016[199] 527 kW / 707 hp 2087 kg / 4600 lb 253 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Aston Martin V12 Vantage S 2013 421 kW / 565 hp 1665 kg / 3671 lb 253 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Ferrari 288 GTO 1984 294 kW / 395 hp 1160 kg / 2557 lb 254 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Dodge Charger SRT Hellcat 6.2 L Hemi V8[192] 527 kW / 707 hp 2075 kg / 4575 lb 254 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Ferrari 250 GTO 1962 224 kW / 300 hp 880 kg / 1940 lb 254.5 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Cooper T51 Formula One 1959[200] 179 kW / 240 hp 701 kg / 1545 lb 255 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Porsche 911 GT2 (993) 1994 331 kW / 444 hp 1295 kg / 2855 lb 256 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Yamaha OX99-11 sports car 1992 300 kW / 400 hp 1150 kg / 2540 lb 259 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Ford GT 2005 410 kW / 550 hp 1581 kg / 3485 lb 259.5 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Ferrari 430 Scuderia 2007 375 kW / 503 hp 1429 kg / 3150 lb 262.5 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Tatuus USF-17 U.S. F2000 2017[201] 130.5 kW / 175 hp 497 kg / 1095 lb 263 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR 1955 230 kW / 310 hp 880 kg / 1940 lb 263 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz SL65 AMG Black Series 2008[202] 493 kW / 661 hp 1870 kg / 4123 lb 264 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Jaguar F-Type SVR 2016 423 kW / 567 hp 1597 kg / 3521 lb 265 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06[191] 376 kW / 505 hp 1421 kg / 3133 lb 265 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Porsche 911 GT3 RS 2018 382 kW / 513 hp 1430 kg / 3153 lb 267.5 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Porsche 911 (996) GT2 2002 355 kW / 476 hp 2904 lb / 1317 kg 269.5 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Porsche 911 GT2 2007 390 kW / 523 hp 1440 kg / 3200 lb 271 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Ferrari F50 1995 382 kW / 512 hp 1397 kg / 3080 lb 273 W/kg / 0.16 hp/lb
Jaguar XJ220 1992 404 kW / 542 hp 1470 kg / 3241 lb 275 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Spark SRT05e Formula E 2018 250 kW / 335 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 278 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Lexus LF-A 2010 412 kW / 552 hp 1480 kg / 3263 lb 278 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Ferrari 250 TR 1957 224 kW / 300 hp 800 kg / 1764 lb 280 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Lotus 2-Eleven 2007 188 kW / 252 hp 670 kg / 1477 lb 280.5 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
TVR Sagaris 2005 303 kW / 406 kW 1078 kg / 2376 lb 281 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Ferrari F40 1987 352 kW / 471 hp 1254 kg / 2765 lb 281 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
KTM X-Bow R 2011 224 kW / 300 hp 790 kg / 1740 lb 283 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Ferrari 458 Speciale 2013 445 kW / 597 hp 1565 kg / 3450 lb 284.5 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Dodge Charger Hellcat Redeye 2021[203] 594 kW / 797 hp 2086.5 kg / 4600 lb 285 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale 1967 201 kW / 270 hp 700 kg / 1543 lb 287 W/kg / 0.17 hp/lb
Ferrari 512 BB LM 1974 350 kW / 470 hp 1200 kg / 2646 lb 292 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C7.R GT3 2014 1245 kg / 2745 lb 366 kW / 491 hp 294 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Bugatti 16C Galibier 2009[204] 735 kW / 986 hp 2495 kg / 5500 lb 295 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz W196 Formula One 1954[205] 192 kW / 257 hp 650 kg / 1433 lb 295 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Ford GT-40 Mk II 1966 362 kW / 485 hp 1217 kg / 2682 lb 297 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
TVR Tuscan Speed Six 2003 328 kW / 440 hp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 298 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Black Series 2013 464 kW / 622 hp 1549 kg / 3415 lb 299 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Campbell-Napier-Railton Blue Bird land speed record car 1931 1081 kW / 1450 hp 3607 kg / 7952 lb 300 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
NSU Delphin III land speed record streamliner motorcycle 1956[206] 80.3 kW / 110 hp 273 kg / 602 lb 300.5 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Maserati 250F Formula One 1954[207] 201 kW / 270 hp 640 kg / 1411 lb 300.5 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C8.R 2020 GT3[208] 373 kW / 500 hp 1240 kg / 2733 lb 301 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Honda ST1300 sport touring motorcycle 2013 87 kW / 117 hp 286 kg / 631 lb 305 W/kg / 0.185 hp/lb
White Triplex land speed record car 1928 1118.5 kW / 1500 hp 3629 kg / 8000 lb 308 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz C-Coupé DTM touring car 2012[209] 343 kW / 460 hp 1110 kg / 2,447 lb 309 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
McLaren 570S 2020[210] 419 kW / 562 hp 1356 kg / 2989 lb 309 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Maserati Tipo 61 "Birdcage" 1959 186 kW / 250 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 311 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Ford Indigo 1996 324 W/kg / 435 hp 1043 kg / 2300 lb 311 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Lamborghini Gallardo LP 570-4 Superleggera 2010 419 kW / 562 hp 1340 kg / 2954 lb 313 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
BMW R1200RT sport touring motorcycle 2005 81 kW / 109 hp 259 kg / 571 lb 314 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Bugatti EB 110 1991 450 kW / 603 hp 1418 kg / 3126 lb 317 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Saleen S5S Raptor 2008 485 kW / 650 hp 1526 kg / 3365 lb 317.5 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Lamborghini Murciélago LP 670-4 SV 2009[211] 493 kW / 661 hp 1550 kg / 3417 lb 318 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Light Car Company Rocket 1991 123 kW / 165 hp 385 kg / 850 lb 319 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Ferrari 156 F1 1961 140 kW / 187 hp 460 kg / 1014 lb 303 W/kg / 0.18 hp/lb
Maserati MC20 2021 464 kW / 622 hp 1500 kg / 3307 lb 309 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Ascari KZ1-R 2005 388 kW / 520 hp 1250 kg / 2756 lb 310 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Formula Renault 2.0 Eurocup car 2016 157 kW / 210 hp 490 kg / 1080 lb 319.5 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
McLaren MP4-12C 2012 459 kW / 616 hp 1434 kg / 3161 lb 320 W/kg / 0.195 hp/lb
Dodge Viper 2015 481 kW / 645 hp 1495 kg / 3297 lb 321.6 W/kg / 0.195 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR 1998 464 kW / 622 hp 1440 kg / 3175 lb 322 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ford Mustang Shelby GT500 Super Snake 2020[212][213] 615 kW / 825 hp 1905 kg / 4200 lb 323 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ford GT 2020 492 kW / 660 hp 1521 kg / 3354 lb 323.5 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Aston Martin DBR4 Formula One 1959 190 kW / 250 hp 575 kg / 1268 lb 324 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Dodge Challenger SRT Demon 2018 626 kW / 840 hp 1930 kg / 4255 lb 324.5 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Porsche Carrera GT 2004 450 kW / 605 hp 1380 kg / 3042 lb 326 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Cadillac Sixteen 2003[214] 746 kW / 1000 hp 2270 kg / 5005 lb 328.5 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ferrari 458 Italia GT3 2011 410 kW / 550 hp 1245 kg / 2745 lb 329 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Dallara GP3/10 GP3 Series 2010 209 kW / 280 hp 630 kg / 1389 lb 331 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ginetta G50Z 2008 365 kW / 490 hp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 332 W/kg/ 0.20 hp/lb
McLaren Artura 2021[215] 500 kW / 671 hp 1498 kg / 3303 lb 334 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ferrari 158 Formula One 1964[216] 157 kW / 210 hp 468 kg / 1032 lb 334.5 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ferrari F430 GT3 2006 410 kW / 550 hp 1219 kg / 2687 lb 336.5 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Caterham 7 CSR-260 2005 194 kW / 260 hp 575 kg / 1268 lb 337 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ferrari 812 Superfast 2017 588 kW / 789 hp 1744 kg / 3845 lb 337 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Ferrari 156 F1 Formula One 1961[217] 142 kW / 190 hp 420 kg / 926 lb 337 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Shelby Cobra 427 S/C 1965 362 kW / 485 hp 1066 kg / 2350 lb 339 W/kg / 0.20 hp/lb
Stadium Super Truck 447 kW / 600 hp 1300 kg / 2900 lb 340 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Lamborghini Huracán LP 640-4 Performanté 2017 470.5 kW / 631 hp 1382 kg / 3047 lb 340.5 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Lancia D50 Formula One 1955 213 kW / 285 hp 620 kg / 1367 lb 343 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Aston Martin One-77 2009 559 kW / 750 hp 1630 kg / 3594 lb 343 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Dallara Stradale 2017 294 kW / 395 hp 855 kg / 1885 lb 344.5 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Ferrari 158 Formula One 1964 162 kW / 217 hp 468 kg / 1032 lb 346 kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Australian V8 Supercars 485 kW / 650 hp 1395 kg / 3075 lb 347.5 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Maserati Birdcage 75th 2005 522 kW / 700 hp 1500 kg / 3300 lb 349 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR-1 2019 563 kW / 755 hp 1615 kg / 3560 lb 349 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Joss JT1 2004 328 kW / 440 hp 940 kg / 2072 lb 349 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Porsche 911 GT2 RS 2017 515 kW / 691 hp 1470 kg / 3241 lb 350.5 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C6.R GT1 2005 440 kW / 590 hp 1245 kg / 2745 lb 353 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Sector111 Drakan Spyder[218] 321 kW / 430 hp 907 kg / 2000 lb 354 W/kg / 0.21 hp/lb
Campbell-Railton Blue Bird Land speed record car 1933 1715 kW / 2300 hp 4826 kg / 10640 lb 355 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Verge TS electric motorcycle 2019[219][220] 80 kW / 107 hp 225 kg / 496 lb 356 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Porsche 910 Carrera 10 1966 205 kW / 275 hp 575 kg / 1270 lb 356 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Chevrolet Corvette C5-R GTS 1999 455 kW / 610 hp 1277 kg / 2815 lb 356 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Enzo Ferrari 2002 485 kW / 651 hp 1365 kg / 3009 lb 356 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ginetta G61-LT-P3 Le Mans Prototype 2019 339 kW / 455 hp 950 kg / 2094 lb 357 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ford RS200 Evolution Group B 1985 377 kW / 506 hp 1050 kg / 2315 lb 359 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ferrari 599XX Evoluzione 2011 544 kW / 730 hp 1504 kg / 3315 lb 362 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ascari A10 2006 466 kW / 625 hp 1280 kg / 2822 lb 364 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
B.S.C. Superkart 75 kW / 100 hp 205 kg / 452 lb 366 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Volkswagen W-12 Nardò 2001 441 kW / 591 hp 1200 kg / 2646 lb 367 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ferrari F8 2019 530 kW / 710 hp 1435 kg / 3164 lb 369 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ford GT-90 1995 537 kW / 720 hp 1451 kg / 3199 lb 370 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
Ducati Monster 696 2008 59 kW / 80 hp 161 kg / 355 lb 370.5 W/kg / 0.225 hp/lb
Lamborghini Aventador SVJ LP770-4 2018 566 kW / 760 hp 1525 kg / 3362 lb 372 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
Ferrari 246 F1 Formula One 1958[221] 209 kW / 280 hp 560 kg / 1235 lb 373 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
R.J. Anderson #37 Polaris RZR-Rockstar Energy Pro 2 trophy truck 2016[222] 634 kW / 850 hp 1701 kg / 3750 lb 373 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
McLaren 675LT 2016 497 kW / 666 hp 1328 kg / 2927 lb 374 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
Lotus 3-Eleven 2015 343 kW / 460 hp 890 kg / 1962 lb 385 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 2005 736 kW / 987 hp 1888 kg / 4162 lb 390 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Honda Project 2&4 2015[223] 158 kW / 212 hp 405 kg / 893 lb 390 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
BAC Mono 2011[224] 213 kW / 285 hp 540 kg / 1190 lb 394 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz W154 Grand Prix race car 1939 360 kW / 483 hp 910 kg / 2006 lb 396 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Lamborghini Sián FKP 37 2020 602 kW / 807 hp 1520 kg / 3351 lb 396 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Maserati 420M/58 1958 302 kW / 404 hp 758 kg / 1671 lb 397.5 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Aston Martin DBR9 GT1 2005 466 kW / 625 hp 1170 kg / 2579 lb 398 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Ferrari Monza SP1 2019 596.5 kW / 800 hp 1500 kg / 3307 lb 398 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Volvo Iron Knight 2016[225] 1790 kW / 2400 hp 4500 kg / 9921 lb 398 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Porsche 918 Spyder[226] 661 kW / 887 hp 1656 kg / 3650 lb 399 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Donkervoort D8 GTO 2013 695 kg / 1532 lb 280 kW / 375 hp 402 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
McLaren F1 GT 1997[227] 467.6 kW / 627 hp 1220 kg / 2690 lb 403 W/kg / 0.24 hp/lb
Lotus 12 Formula One 1958[228] 130.5 kW / 175 hp 320 kg / 706 lb 408 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Lola T70 1969 343 kW / 460 hp 840 kg / 1852 lb 408 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Venturi Buckeye Bullet 3 land speed record electric vehicle 2016[229] 1480 kW / 1985 hp 3629 kg / 8000 lb 408 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Tatuus PM-18 Pro Mazda 2018 205 kW / 275 hp 500 kg / 1102 lb 410 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Pagani Zonda Cinque 2009 499 kW / 669 hp 1210 kg / 2668 lb 412 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Ferrari 488 GT Modificata 2020 515 kW / 690 hp 1245 kg / 2745 lb 413 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
JCB Dieselmax land speed record streamliner 2006 1118.5 kW / 1500 hp 2700 kg / 5952.5 lb 414 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Energica Ego+ electric motorcycle 2019[230][231] 107 kW / 145 hp 258 kg / 569 lb 415 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Koenigsegg CC8S 2002 488 kW / 655 hp 1175 kg / 2590 lb 416 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Hennessey CTS-V 2020[232] 746 kW / 1000 hp 1792 kg / 3950 lb 416 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Ferrari 330 P4 1967 331 kW / 450 hp 792 kg / 1746 lb 418 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Ford Mustang Boss 10.0L Concept 1994[233][234] 637.5 kW / 855 hp 1517 kg / 3345 lb 420 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
McLaren 765LT 2020 563 kW / 755 hp 1339 kg / 2952 lb 420.5 W/kg / 0.25 hp/lb
Dallara F3 2019 Formula 3 2019 283 kW / 380 hp 673 kg / 1484 lb 421 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Porsche 911 GT1-98 Group GT1 1998 400 kW / 536 hp 950 kg / 2094 lb 421 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
W Motors Lykan HyperSport 2014 581.6 kW / 780 hp 1380 kg / 3042 lb 421.5 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Auto Union Type D 1939 362 kW / 485 hp 850 kg / 1874 lb 425.5 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Ariel Atom 3S 2014[235] 272 kW / 365 hp 639 kg / 1400 lb 426 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Scuderia Cameron Glickenhaus SCG 003 2014 559 kW / 750 hp 1300 kg / 2866 lb 430 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
unrestricted NASCAR Sprint Cup Series stock cars[236][237][238] 671 kW / 900 hp 1542 kg / 3400 lb 435 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Nissan R390 GT1 Group GT1 1997 478 kW / 641 hp 1098 kg / 2421 lb 435 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
Hennessey Exorcist Camaro 2021[239] 746 kW / 1000 hp 1705.5 kg / 3760 lb 437 W/kg / 0.26 hp/lb
W Motors Fenyr SuperSport 2019 596 kW / 799 hp 1350 kg / 2976 lb 441 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Porsche Type 360 Cisitalia Grand Prix car 1946[240] 287 kW / 385 hp 650 kg / 1433 lb 442 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Elemental RP1 2021[241] 276 kW / 370 hp 620 kg / 1367 lb 445 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Ferrari LaFerrari[242] 708 kW / 950 hp 1585 kg / 3495 lb 447 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Volkswagen I.D. R 2018 507 kW / 680 hp 1100 kg / 2500 lb 447 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Mosler MT900S 2003 447 kW / 600 hp 998 kg / 2200 lb 448 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Dallara GP3/16 GP3 Series 2016 298 kW / 400 hp 661 kg / 1457 lb 451 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
McLaren P1 2013[243] 673 kW / 903 hp 1490 kg / 3280 lb 452 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Aston Martin Vulcan 2015 611 kW / 820 hp 1350 kg / 2976 lb 453 W/kg / 0.27 hp/lb
Ferrari Modulo 1970 410 kW / 550 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 456 W/kg / 0.28 hp/lb
McLaren Elva 2021[244] 600 kW / 804 hp 1315 kg / 2900 lb 456 W/kg / 0.28 hp/lb
Hulme F1 2020[245] 447 kW / 600 hp 980 kg / 2160.5 lb 456.5 W/kg / 0.28 hp/lb
Arc Vector electric motorcycle 2018[246][247] 102 kW / 137 hp 220 kg / 485 lb 464 W/kg / 0.28 hp/lb
Auto Union Type C 1936 382 kW / 513 hp 824 kg / 1817 lb 464 W/kg / 0.28 hp/lb
Ferrari SF90 Stradale 2019 735 kW / 986 hp 1570 kg / 3461 lb 468 W/kg / 0.285 hp/lb
Chaparral 2E Can-Am 1966[248] 354 kW / 475 hp 749 kg / 1651 lb 473 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Dallara GP3/13 GP3 Series 2013 298 kW / 400 hp 630 kg / 1389 lb 473.5 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Hennessey Viper Venom 1000 Twin Turbo 2005[249] 746 kW / 1000 hp 1574 kg / 3469 lb 474 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Acura ARX-01b Le Mans Prototype 2008 380 kW / 510 hp 800 kg / 1764 lb 475 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Ginetta G58 sports prototype 2018 429 kW / 575 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 476 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Lotus Elise GT1 453 kW / 607 hp 950 kg / 2094 lb 476.5 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
BMW V12 LMR Le Mans Prototype 1999 432.5 kW / 580 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 480.5 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Super Sport 882 kW / 1183 hp 1834 kg / 4044 lb 481 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Zenvo ST1 2009 812 kW / 1089 hp 1688 kg / 3721 lb 481 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Acura ARX-05 DPi sports prototype 2018 447 kW / 600 hp 930 kg / 2050 lb 481 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
McLaren F1 LM 1995 500 kW / 671 hp 1062 kg / 2341 lb 483.5 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Chrysler ME Four-Twelve 2004 634 kW / 850 hp 1310 kg / 2888 lb 484 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Oreca 07 Le Mans Prototype 2017 450 kW / 603 hp 930 kg / 2050 lb 484 W/kg / 0.29 hp/lb
Hot Wheels Twin Mill 1969 1045 kW / 1401 hp 2130 kg / 4696 lb 491 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
McLaren Senna 2019 588 kW / 789 hp 1198 kg / 2641 lb 491 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Rimac Concept One 2013 913 kW / 1224 hp 1850 kg / 4080 lb 493.5 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Pagani Huayra Imola 2020 617 kW / 827 hp 1246 kg / 2747 lb 495 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Mazda Furai 2008 336 kW / 450 hp 675 kg / 1488 lb 497 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Ascari A410 Le Mans Prototype 2000 447 kW / 600 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 497 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Bentley Speed 8 Le Mans Prototype 2003 447 kW / 600 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 497 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Radical SR8LM 2007 339 kW / 455 hp 680 kg / 1500 lb 498.5 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Thunderbolt land speed record car 3504 kW / 4700 hp 7 t / 15432 lb 500 W/kg / 0.30 hp/lb
Ferrari FXX 2005 588 kW / 788.5 hp 1155 kg / 2546 lb 509 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
Koenigsegg CCR 2004 601 kW / 806 hp 1180 kg / 2601 lb 509 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
BUB Seven Streamliner land speed record streamlined motorcycle 2006 373 kW / 500 hp 730 kg / 1600 lb 514 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
Suzuki Hayabusa 2007 128.4 kW / 172.2 hp 250 kg / 550 lb 514 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
Lancia LC1 Group 6 sports car 1982[250] 343 kW / 460 hp 665 kg / 1466 lb 516 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
Acura ARX-02a Le Mans Prototype 2009 466 kW / 625 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 518 W/kg / 0.31 hp/lb
Koenigsegg CCX-R Edition 759 kW / 1018 hp 1456 kg / 3210 lb 521 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Gordon Murray Automotive T.50 2022 488 kW / 654 hp 986 kg / 2174 lb 522 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Polaris Industries Assault Snowmobile 2009[251] 115 kW / 154 hp 221 kg / 487 lb 523 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Ford Mustang Mach-E 1400 2020[252] 1044 kW / 1400 hp 1993 kg / 4394 lb 524 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Audi R10 TDI Le Mans Prototype 2006[253] 485 kW / 650 hp 925 kg / 2039 lb 524 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Ginetta-Zytek GZ09S Le Mans Prototype 2009 473.5 W/kg / 635 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 526 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Kawasaki Ninja ZX-14 2012 143 kW / 191.7 hp 269 kg / 593 lb 532 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
McLaren P1 LM 2016 735 kW / 986 hp 1380 kg / 3042 lb 533 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
Porsche RS Spyder Evo 2007[254] 375 kW / 503 hp 775 kg / 1709 lb 533.5 W/kg / 0.325 hp/lb
Brabham BT62 2018 522 kW / 700 hp 972 kg / 2143 lb 537 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 Le Mans Prototype 2008 480 kW / 650 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 539 W/kg / 0.32 hp/lb
McLaren Speedtail 2020 772 kW / 1035 hp 1430 kg / 3153 lb 540 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
Lotus 29 USAC IndyCar 1963 281 kW / 376 hp 513 kg / 1130 lb 547 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
Dodge Tomahawk 2003 373 kW / 500 hp 680 kg / 1500 lb 548 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
Pagani Zonda Revolución 2012 588 kW / 789 hp 1070 kg / 2359 lb 550 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
McLaren M10A Formula 5000 1969[255][256][257] 373 kW / 500 hp 680 kg / 1500 lb 548 W/kg / 0.33 hp/lb
Aston Martin Valhalla 2021 746 kW / 1000 hp 1350 kg / 2976 lb 552 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Bugatti Chiron 2016 1103 kW / 1479 hp 1995 kg / 4398 lb 553 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Ferrari 333 SP sports prototype 1994 478 kW / 641 hp 863 kg / 1900 lb 554 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Zenvo TSR-S 2018 878 kW / 1177 hp 1580 kg / 3483 lb 555.5 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Ferrari 512 M Group 5 sports car 1970[258] 449 kW / 610 hp 815 kg / 1798 lb 558 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Lotus 72 Formula One 1970-1975 335.5 kW / 450 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 559 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Bugatti Divo 2019 1103 kW / 1479 hp 1941 kg / 4280 lb 568 W/kg / 0.34 hp/lb
Ferrari 312 P Group 6 sports car 1969 331 kW / 450 hp 585 kg / 1290 lb 574 W/kg / 0.35 hp/lb
NIO EP9 2016 1000 kW / 1341 hp 1735 kg / 3825 lb 576 W/kg / 0.35 hp/lb
Lightfighter v2.0 electric motorcycle 2020[259] 105 kW / 141 hp 181 kg / 399 lb 581 W/kg / 0.35 hp/lb
Ultima GTR 720 2006[260] 536.9 kW / 720 hp 920 kg / 2183 lb 583 W/kg / 0.35 hp/lb
Honda CBR954RR 2002 115 kW / 154 hp 195 kg / 430 lb 589 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
McLaren M7A 1968[261] 306 kW / 410 hp 517 kg / 1140 lb 591 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Porsche 956 Group C sports prototype 1982 474 kW / 635 hp 800 kg / 1962 lb 592.5 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Dallara T08 World Series Formula V8 3.5 2008 373 kW / 500 hp 628 kg / 1385 lb 593.5 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Rebellion R13 Le Mans Prototype 496 kW / 665 hp 833 kg / 1836.5 lb 595 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Aston Martin AMR1 1989 537 kW / 720 hp 902 kg / 1988 lb 595 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Bugatti Centodieci 2020 1176 kW / 1578 hp 1976 kg / 4356 hp 595.5 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Dallara IL-15 Indy Lights 2015[262] 373 kW / 500 hp 626 kg / 1380 lb 596 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
TVR Cerbera Speed 12 1996 597 kW / 800 hp 1000 kg / 2205 lb 596.5 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Dallara SP1 Le Mans Prototype 2001 544 kW / 730 hp[263] 909 kg / 2004 lb 599 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz Sauber C11 Group C sports prototype 1990 545 kW / 730 hp 905 kg / 1995 lb 601.5 W/kg / 0.365 hp/lb
Lotus 78 Formula One 1977-1978 354 kW / 475 hp 588 kg / 1296 lb 602 W/kg / 0.36 hp/lb
Porsche 962C sports prototype 1987 537 kW / 720 hp 890 kg / 1962 lb 603 W/kg / 0.37 hp/lb
Tyrrell P34 Formula One 1976 362 kW / 485 hp 595 kg / 1312 lb 608 W/kg / 0.37 hp/lb
Lotus 38 USAC Indy car 373 kW / 500 hp 612 kg / 1349 lb 609 W/kg / 0.37 hp/lb
Mazda MXR-01 Group C sports prototype 1992[264] 462 kW / 600 hp 750 kg / 1654 lb 616 W/kg / 0.375 hp/lb
Brabham BT24 Formula One 1969[265][266] 321 kW / 430 hp 517 kg / 1140 lb 620 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Lotus 49B Formula One 1968 313 kW / 420 hp 501 kg / 1105 lb 625 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Mazda 787B Group C 1990 522 kW / 700 hp 830 kg / 1830 lb 629 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Lola T92/10 Group C sports prototype 1992[267] 485 kW / 650 hp 771 kg / 1700 lb 629 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Gordon Murray Automotive T.50s 2022[268][269] 541 kW / 725 hp 852 kg / 1653 lb 634 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz W125 Grand Prix race car 1937 475 kW / 637 hp 750 kg / 1878 lb 633 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Jaguar XJR-9 Group C 1988 560 kW / 750 hp 880 kg / 1940 lb 634 W/kg / 0.38 hp/lb
Ferrari F50 GT 1996 552 kW / 740 hp 860 kg / 1900 lb 641 W/kg / 0.39 hp/lb
Dallara T12 World Series Formula V8 3.5 2012 395 kW / 530 hp 616 kg / 1358 lb 642 W/kg / 0.39 hp/lb
Dallara F2 2018 Formula 2 2018 462 kW / 620 hp 720 kg / 1587 lb 642 W/kg / 0.39 hp/lb
Jaguar XJR-14 Group C sports prototype 1991 485 kW / 650 hp 750 kg / 1653 lb 646 W/kg / 0.39 hp/lb
JAWA motorcycle speedway bike 1996[270] 56 kW / 75 hp 85 kg / 187 lb 659 W/kg / 0.40 hp/lb
Ferrari FXX-K 2015 772 kW / 1036 hp 1165 kg / 2568 lb 663 W/kg / 0.40 hp/lb
Dallara GP2/11 GP2 Series 2011 456 kW / 612 hp 688 kg / 1517 lb 663 W/kg / 0.40 hp/lb
Lightning LS-218 electric motorcycle 2014 150 kW / 200 ho 225 kg / 500 lb 667 W/kg / 0.40 hp/lb
Honda CBR1000RR 2009 133 kW / 178 hp 199 kg / 439 lb 668 W/kg / 0.40 hp/lb
Railton Special land speed record car 1938 2013 kW / 2700 hp 3000 kg / 6614 lb 671 W/kg / 0.4 hp/lb
Dallara GP2/08 GP2 Series 2008 462 kW / 620 hp 688 kg / 1517 lb 671.5 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Kawasaki Ninja ZX-12R 2000 140 kW / 190 hp 210 kg / 463 lb 675 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Mercedes-Benz Sauber C9 Group C 1989 611 kW / 820 hp 905 kg / 1995 lb 675 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Ariel Atom 500 V8 2011 372 kW / 500 hp 550 kg / 1212 lb 676.3 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Suzuki GSX-R1000 2017 138 kW / 185 hp 202 kg / 445 lb 683 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Peugeot 905B EVO 1991 533 kW / 715 hp 780 kg / 1720 lb 683.3 W/kg / 0.41 hp/lb
Koenigsegg Gemera 2021 1268 kW / 1700 hp 1850 kg / 4079 lb 685 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
Miss GEICO Mystic #113 offshore powerboat 2006 3132 kW / 4200 hp 4536 kg / 10,000 lb 690.5 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
BMW S1000RR 2009 144 kW / 193 hp 207.7 kg / 458 lb 693.3 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
RAESR Tachyon Speed 2019[271] 932 kW / 1250 hp 1338 kg / 2950 lb 697 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
Lotec Sirius 2000[272] 895 kW / 1200 hp 1280 kg / 2822 lb 699 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
Dallara DW12 IndyCar 2012 522 kW / 700 hp[273] 750 kg / 1650 lb 700 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
Pininfarina Battista 2020 1400 kW / 1877 hp 2000 kg / 4409 lb 700 W/kg / 0.42 hp/lb
Lancia LC2 Group C sports prototype 1983[274] 597 kW / 800 hp 850 kg / 1874 lb 702 W/kg / 0.43 hp/lb
Koenigsegg Regera 2016 1119 kW / 1500 hp 1590 kg / 3510 lb 703.5 W/kg / 0.43 hp/lb
Ferrari 312T 1975-1980 380 kW / 510 hp 540 kg / 1190.5 lb 704 W/kg / 0.43 hp/lb
Bugatti Vision Gran Turismo Sport 2015 1214 kW / 1627 hp 1724 kg / 3800 lb 704 W/kg / 0.43 hp/lb
Lola B02/50 Formula 3000 2002 388 kW / 520 hp 545 kg / 1202 lb 711 W/kg / 0.43 hp/lb
Toyota TS010 Group C sports prototype 1992[275][276][277] 537 kW / 720 hp 750 kg / 1653 lb 716 W/kg / 0.435 hp/lb
Dallara IR-03 IndyCar 2003[278][279][280][281] 522 kW / 700 hp 726 kg / 1600 lb 719 W/kg / 0.44 hp/lb
Rimac Concept Two 2021 1408 kW / 1888 hp 1950 kg / 4300 lb 722 W/kg / 0.44 hp/lb
A1 Grand Prix car 2008 450 kW / 60 hp 615 kg / 1356 lb 727.5 W/kg / 0.44 hp/lb
Midget cars 298 kW / 400 hp 410 kg / 900 lb 731 W/kg / 0.44 hp/lb
Koenigsegg One:1 2015 1000 kW / 1341 hp 1360 kg / 2998 lb 735 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
Peugeot 208 T16 Pikes Peak 2013 652 kW / 875 hp 875 kg / 1930 lb 745 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
Lotus 56 Formula One 1971 447 kW / 600 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 746 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
Toyota WRC Group S 222D MR2 Prototype rally car 1986 559 kW / 750 hp 750 kg / 1653.5 lb 746 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
Saleen S7 Le Mans 2017[282] 969 kW / 1300 hp 1300 kg / 2865 lb 746 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
Panoz DP09 Superleague Formula 2008 559 kW / 750 hp 748 kg / 1650 lb 747 W/kg / 0.45 hp/lb
SSC Ultimate Aero XT 2013 969 kW / 1300 hp 1270 kg / 2800 lb 763 W/kg / 0.46 hp/lb
Mercedes-AMG ONE 2021 918 kW / 1231 hp 1200 kg / 2646 lb 765 W/kg / 0.465 hp/lb
Ken Block Hoonigan "Hoonicorn" Ford Mustang RTR v2 1965[283] 1044 kW / 1400 hp 1360 kg / 2998 lb 768 W/kg / 0.47 hp/lb
RUF 9ff GT9 Vmax 2007[284] 1030 kW / 1381 hp 1326 kg / 2923 lb 777 W/kg / 0.47 hp/lb
Honda CBR1000RR-R Fireblade SP 2021[285] 160 kW / 215 hp 201 kg / 443 lb 798 W/kg / 0.485 hp/lb
McLaren M8D 1970 507 kW / 680 hp 634 kg / 1398 lb[286] 800 W/kg / 0.49 hp/lb
Lotus 64 USAC IndyCar 1969 522 kW / 700 hp 635 kg / 1400 lb 822 W/kg / 0.50 hp/lb
Triumph Rocket land speed record streamliner motorcycle[287] 750 kW / 1000 hp 907 kg / 2000 lb 822 W/kg / 0.50 hp/lb
Chaparral 2K CART Indy car 1979[288] 582 kW / 780 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 827 W/kg / 0.50 hp/lb
Nissan R90C Group C 1990[289] 746 kW / 1000 hp 900 kg / 1984 lb 829 W/kg / 0.50 hp/lb
Lancia Delta S4 Group B rally car 1985 746 kW / 1000 hp 890 kg / 1962 lb 838 W/kg / 0.51 hp/lb
Aston Martin Valkyrie 2022[290] 865 kW / 1160 hp 1030 kg / 2271 lb 840 W/kg / 0.51 hp/lb
Koenigsegg Jesko 2020 1195 kW / 1603 hp 1420 kg / 3131 lb 841.5 W/kg / 0.51 hp/lb
Penske PC-18 CART IndyCar 1989[291][292] 596.5 kW / 800 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 848.5 W/kg / 0.52 hp/lb
Penske PC-25 CART IndyCar 1996 596.5 kW / 800 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 848.5 W/kg / 0.52 hp/lb
Hennessey Venom GT Spyder 2016 1082 kW / 1451 hp 1258 kg / 2773 lb 860 W/kg / 0.52 hp/lb
March 84C USAC IndyCar 1984[293][294] 596.5 kW / 800 hp 685 kg / 1510 lb 871 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
Red Bull RB9 Formula One 2013 560 kW / 750 hp 642 kg / 1415 lb 872 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
McLaren MP4-26 Formula One 2011 560 kW / 750 hp 640 kg / 1411 lb 874 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
Lotus Evija 2021 1470 kW / 1,970 hp 1680 kg / 3700 lb 875 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
Ferrari 412 T2 Formula One 1995[295][296] 522 kW / 700 hp 595 kg / 1312 lb 877 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
Reynard 94I CART Indy car 619 kW / 830 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 880 W/kg / 0.53 hp/lb
Reynard 99I CART Indy car[297][298] 634 kW / 850 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 901.5 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
MV Agusta F4 Claudio 2018 158 kW / 212 hp 174.5 kg / 385 lb 906 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
Nissan R383 Group 7 sports prototype 1970[299] 671 kW / 900 hp 740 kg / 1631 lb 907 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
Bluebird CN7 land speed record car 1964 3320 kW / 4450 hp 3658 kg / 8064 lb 907 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
Lotus 101 Formula One 1989 455 kW / 610 hp 500 kg / 1100 lb 909.75 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
Caparo T1 2006 470 kg / 1036 lb 429 kW / 575 hp 912 W/kg / 0.55 hp/lb
Ducati 1199 Panigale R (WSB) 2012 151 kW / 202 hp 165 kg / 364 lb 915 W/kg / 0.56 hp/lb
Mercedes F1 W05 Hybrid Formula One 2014 630 kW / 850 hp 691 kg / 1523 lb 917 W/kg / 0.56 hp/lb
KillaCycle Drag racing electric motorcycle 260 kW / 350 hp 281 kg / 619 lb 925 W/kg / 0.56 hp/lb
MTT Turbine Superbike 2008[300] 213.3 kW / 286 hp 227 kg / 500 lb 940 W/kg / 0.57 hp/lb
BMW Sauber F1.06 Formula One 2006 567 kW / 760 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 944.5 W/kg / 0.57 hp/lb
Fahlke Larea GT1 S12 2014[301][302] 940 kW / 1260 hp 980 kg / 2160.5 lb 959 W/kg / 0.58 hp/lb
McLaren MP4/4 Formula One 1988 522 kW / 700 hp 540 kg / 1190.5 lb 967 W/kg / 0.59 hp/lb
Benetton B190 Formula One 1990 485 kW / 650 hp 500 kg / 1102 lb 969 W/kg / 0.59 hp/lb
Ferrari 248 F1 Formula One 2006 585 kW / 785 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 975 W/kg / 0.59 hp/lb
Hennessey Venom F5 2021 1355 kW / 1817 hp 1385 kg / 3053 lb 978 W/kg / 0.59 hp/lb
Vyrus 987 C3 4V V supercharged motorcycle 2010[303] 157.3 kW / 211 hp 158 kg / 348.3 lb 996 W/kg / 0.60 hp/lb
McLaren MP4-22 Formula One 2007 604 kW / 810 hp 605 kg / 1334 lb 998 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
Benetton B192 Formula One 1992 507 kW / 680 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1003 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
McLaren MP4/8 Formula One 1993 507 kW / 680 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1004 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
McLaren MP4/14 Formula One 1999 604 kW / 810 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1007 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
Panoz DP01 Champ Car 2007 708 kW / 950 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 1008 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
Ferrari 641 Formula One 1990[304] 507 kW / 680 hp 503 kg / 1109 lb 1008 W/kg / 0.61 hp/lb
Ferrari F1-2000 Formula One 2000[305][306] 608 kW / 815 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1013 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
Tyrrell 022 Formula One 1994 522 kW / 700 hp 515 kg / 1135 lb 1014 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
TOP 1 Ack Attack land speed record streamlined motorcycle 2010 750 kW / 1000 hp 733 kg / 1617 lb 1017 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
Porsche 919 EVO 2018[307] 865 kW / 1160 hp 849 kg / 1872 lb 1019 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
Mercedes-AMG F1 EQ Power+ Formula One 2017 746 kW / 1000 hp 728 kg / 1605 lb 1024 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
Porsche 917/30 Can-Am 1972-1973 820 kW / 1100 hp 800 kg / 1764 lb 1025 W/kg / 0.62 hp/lb
Funco Motorsports F-9 sandrail 1305 kW / 1750 hp 1270 kg / 2800 lb 1027.5 W/kg / 0.625 hp/lb
Sprint cars 670 kW / 950 hp 640 kg / 1,400 lb 1046 W/kg / 0.64 hp/lb
SSC Tuatara 2020 1305 kW / 1750 hp 1247 kg / 2750 lb 1046.5 W/kg / 0.64 hp/lb
Kawasaki Ninja H2R 2015[308] 230 kW / 310 hp 216 kg / 476 lb 1065 W/kg / 0.65 hp/lb
Ferrari F2004 Formula One 2004 645 kW / 865 hp 600 kg / 1334 lb 1066 W/kg / 0.65 hp/lb
McLaren MP4/6 Formula One 1991 541 kW / 725 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1070.5 W/kg / 0.65 hp/lb
Lotus 107C 1994 541 kW / 725 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1071 W/kg / 0.65 hp/lb
Benetton B195 Formula One 1995 559 kW / 750 hp 515 kg / 1135 lb 1086 W/kg / 0.66 hp/lb
Penske PC-23 CART Indy car 1994 764 kW / 1024 hp 703 kg / 1550 lb 1087 W/kg / 0.66 hp/lb
Suzuki GSV-R 2002 165.5 kW / 225 hp 150 kg / 330 lb 1121 W/kg / 0.68 hp/lb
Suzuki GSX-RR 2016 177 kW / 237 hp 157 kg / 346 lb 1127 W/kg / 0.69 hp/lb
Ducati Superleggera V-4 2020[309] 174.5 kW / 234 hp 152.2 kg / 335.5 lb 1146.5 W/kg / 0.70 hp/lb
Bluebird K7 jet-engined hydroplane 1955[310][311] 2610 kW / 3500 hp 2268 kg / 5000 lb 1151 W/kg / 0.70 hp/lb
Williams FW15C Formula One 1993 582 kW / 780 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1152 W/kg / 0.70 hp/lb
Yamaha YZR-M1 2002 183 kW / 245 hp 157 kg / 346 lb 1165.6 W/kg / 0.71 hp/lb
Williams FW25 Formula One 2003[312] 701 kW / 940 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1168 W/kg / 0.71 hp/lb
BMW Williams FW27 Formula One 2005[313][314] 708 kW / 950 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1181 W/kg / 0.72 hp/lb
Renault R25 Formula One 2005[315] 708 /kW / 950 hp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1181 W/kg / 0.72 hp/lb
Williams FW16 Formula One 1994 600 kW / 800 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1188 W/kg / 0.72 hp/lb
Honda RC211V MotoGP 2004 176.73 kW / 237 hp 148 kg / 326 lb 1194 W/kg / 0.73 hp/lb
Ferrari 412 T1 Formula One 1994[316] 619 kW / 830 hp 505 kg / 1113 lb 1226 W/kg / 0.75 hp/lb
KTM RC16 2020[317] 198 kW / 265 hp 157 kg / 346 lb 1259 W/kg / 0.77 hp/lb
Ferrari F1/87 Formula One 1987 708 kW / 950 hp 540 kg / 1190 lb 1312 W/kg / 0.80 hp/lb
Ford GT 300 MPH[318] 2237 kW / 3000 hp 1581 kg / 3485 lb 1415 W/kg / 0.86 hp/lb
Rapom V8 motorcycle 2007[319] 746 kW / 1000  hp 454 kg / 1000 lb 1644 W/kg / 1 hp/lb
Patrik Furstenhoff's (a.k.a. "Ghost Rider") turbocharged Suzuki Hayabusa[320] 403 kW / 540 hp 240 kg / 529 lb 1678 W/kg / 1.02 hp/lb
Lotus 98T Formula One 1986 895 kW / 1200 hp 540 kg / 1190 lb 1772 W/kg / 1.1 hp/lb
BMW Benetton B186, Brabham BT55, & Arrows A9 Formula One 1986 1030 kW / 1400 hp 540 kg / 1190 lb 1907 W/kg / 1.16 hp/lb
BMW Brabham BT52 Formula One 1983 1120 kW / 1500 hp 540 kg / 1190 lb 2074 W/kg / 1.26 hp/lb
Mosler MT900 GT-R XX Twin-Turbo 'Land Shark' 2009[321] 1864 kW / 2500 hp 861 kg / 1898 lb 2165 W/kg / 1.32 hp/lb
John Force Racing Funny Car NHRA Drag Racing 2008[322] 5,963.60 kW / 8000 hp 1043 kg / 2,300 lb 5717 W/kg / 3.50 hp/lb
Thrust SSC land speed record car 1997 76,000 kW / 102,000 hp 10,600 kg / 23,369 lb 7176 W/kg / 4.36 hp/lb
Top Fuel dragster[323] 8203 kW / 11,000 hp 1057 kg / 2330 lb 7761 W/kg / 4.72 hp/lb
Shockwave jet-powered Peterbuilt 359 semi-truck 1985[324] 26,845 kW / 36,000 hp 3084 kg / 6800 lb 8703.5 W/kg / 5.29 hp/lb
Blue Flame land speed record car 1970 43,000 kW / 58,000 hp 1800 kg / 4000 lb 23,838 W/kg / 14.5 hp/lb

#### Aircraft

Propeller aircraft depend on high power-to-weight ratio to generate sufficient thrust to achieve sustained flight, and then to fly fast.

Aircraft Power MTOW Power-to-weight ratio
Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose 21,120 kW / 24,000 hp 180,000 kg / 400,000 lb 117 W/kg / 0.06 hp/lb
Boeing B-29 Superfortress 6,400 kW / 8,800 hp 60,555 kg / 133,500 lb 106 W/kg / 0.07 hp/lb
Antonov An-22 44,744 kW / 60,000 hp 250,000 kg / 551,160 lb 179 W/kg / 0.11 hp/lb
Lockheed C-130 Hercules 13,691 kW / 18,360 hp 70,307 kg / 155,000 lb 195 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules 13,831 kW / 18,548 hp 70,307 kg / 155,000 lb 197 W/kg / 0.12 hp/lb
North American P-51 Mustang Fighter aircraft 1941 1,280 kW / 1,720 hp 5,488 kg / 12,100 lb 233 W/kg / 0.14 hp/lb
Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 turboprop airliner 7,562 kW / 10,142 bhp 30,481 kg / 67,200 lb 248 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Mitsubishi A6M Zero Fighter aircraft 1939 710 kW / 950 hp 2,796 kg / 6,164 lb 254 W/kg / 0.15 hp/lb
Messerschmitt Bf 109 Fighter aircraft 1935 1,085 kW / 1,455 bhp 3,400 kg / 7,495 lb 319 W/kg / 0.19 hp/lb
Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey 9,180 kW / 12,300 hp 27,400 kg / 60,500 lb 335 W/kg / 0.2 hp/lb
Supermarine Spitfire Fighter aircraft 1936 1,096 kW / 1,470 bhp 3,049 kg / 6,700 lb 359 W/kg / 0.22 hp/lb
de Havilland Hornet Fighter aircraft 1946 3,087 kW / 4,140 hp 8,278 kg / 18,250 lb 373 W/kg / 0.23 hp/lb
##### Thrust-to-weight ratio

Jet aircraft produce thrust directly.

Aircraft Thrust MTOW Thrust-to-weight ratio
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit 4 × 77 kN (17,000 lbf) 170.6 t / 376,000 lb 0.181
Boeing 747-300 4 × 247 kN (56,000 lbf) 378 t / 833,000 lb 0.269
Airbus A380 4 × 80,210 lbf (356.8 kN) 575 t / 1,267,658 lb 0.127
Airbus A340-500 4 × 61,902 lbf (275.35 kN) 380 t / 840,000 lb 0.295
Boeing 777-300ER 2 × 115,300 lbf (513 kN) 351.5 t / 775,000 lb 0.298
Concorde 4 × 38,050 lbf (169.3 kN) 185.07 t / 408,010 lb 0.373
Grumman F-14 Tomcat 2 × 23,400 lbf (104 kN) 33.725 t / 74,350 lb 0.629
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 2 × 22,000 lbf (98 kN) 29.937 t / 66,000 lb 0.667
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon 1 × 29,500 lbf (131 kN) 19.187 t / 42,300 lb 0.697
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle 2 × 23,770 lbf (105.7 kN) 30.844 t / 68,000 lb 0.699
Eurofighter Typhoon 2 × 20,000 lbf (89 kN) 23.5 t / 51,809 lb 0.772
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II 1 × 43,000 lbf (190 kN) 31.751 t / 70,000 lb 0.614
Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor 2 × 37,000 lbf (160 kN) 38 t / 83,500 lb 0.886

### Human

Power to weight ratio is important in cycling, since it determines acceleration and the speed during hill climbs. Since a cyclist's power to weight output decreases with fatigue, it is normally discussed with relation to the length of time that he or she maintains that power. A professional cyclist can produce over 20 W/kg (0.012 hp/lb) as a 5-second maximum.[325]

## References

1. ^ a b c "General Motors 2009 Data Book" (PDF). September 5, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2012.
2. ^ a b Ryan, Richard. "Lessons in Systems Engineering - The SSME Weight Growth History" (PDF). NASA.
3. ^ "The world's most powerful Engine enters service" (Press release). Wärtsilä. 2006-09-12. Retrieved .
4. ^ https://www.rotax.com/en/products/rotax-powertrains/details/rotax-900-ace-marine.html
5. ^ https://www.sea-doo.com/us/en/models/rec-lite/spark.html#2-up
6. ^ "Suzuki Marine - DF25 - Features and Specifications". Suzuki. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
7. ^ a b Noel P. Nightingale (October 1986). "Automotive Stirling Engine - Mod II Design Report" (PDF). NASA Lewis Research Center. Retrieved 2010.
8. ^ https://www.yamahawaverunners.com/waverunner/series/stand-up/superjet/
9. ^ https://www.kawasaki.com/en-us/watercraft/jet-ski/jet-ski-3-passenger-supercharged/jet-ski-ultra-310/2021-jet-ski-ultra-310lx#specs
10. ^
11. ^ Jane's 1989, p. 294.
12. ^ "LM2500+ Marine Gas Turbine" (PDF). GE Aviation. Retrieved .
13. ^ "What Is A Rotary Engine?". Mazda. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
14. ^ "UAV Wankel Engines". O.S. Engines. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved .
15. ^ "Turbine details for SPT10-RX-H". Retrieved .
16. ^ "LM6000 Marine Gas Turbine" (PDF). GE Aviation. Retrieved .
17. ^
18. ^ https://www.statsf1.com/en/moteur-bmw.aspx
19. ^ "BMW engines". All Formula One Info. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved .
20. ^ Wevers, Chris (31 May 2014). "The Most Powerful F1 Car Ever - GTspirit".
21. ^ "AE 1107C- Liberty turboshaft" (PDF). Rolls-Royce plc. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-16.
22. ^ "Test Shows Top Fuel Engine Makes 11,000+ Horsepower". EngineLabs. 2015-12-08.
23. ^ "28VDC Electric Motors". Kawak Aviation. Retrieved 2020.
24. ^ "Panasonic MINAS-A4 AC Servo - Motor Specifications and Ratings 200V MSMA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-09. Retrieved .
25. ^ "400 Hz Electric Motors - High Frequency AC Induction Motors for Aircraft". Kawak Aviation. Retrieved 2018.
26. ^ "Cypress HPL Series Permanent Magnet Motors - Product Brochure" (PDF). Canopy Technologies, LLC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-16. Retrieved .
27. ^ Jewell, Geraint (2009-09-11). "Permanent Magnet Machines and Actuators" (PDF). Symposium on Materials for a Sustainable Future. Birmingham, England: Magnetic Materials Group, University of Birmingham. pp. 11-18. Retrieved .
28. ^ "Himax Brushless Outrunner Motor HC6332-250" (PDF). Maxx Products International, Inc. Retrieved .
29. ^ "Hi-Pa Drive". PML Flightlink. Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. Retrieved .
30. ^
31. ^ "YASA-400 Electric Motor Specification". Archived from the original on 2015-07-01. Retrieved .
32. ^ "Great Planes ElectriFly AMMO Inrunner Brushless Motors". Archived from the original on 2015-05-02. Retrieved .
33. ^ "HVH250 R3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-15. Retrieved .
34. ^ "TP POWER TP100XL". Retrieved .
35. ^ "EMRAX268". Archived from the original on 2015-06-23. Retrieved .
36. ^ "Custom axial flux permanent magnet BLDC". Turncircles. Retrieved 2020.
37. ^ a b "Platypus Power Micro Hydro Electric Generator - Specifications". Platypus Power. Archived from the original on 2009-10-01. Retrieved .
38. ^ "Atlas Copco Air motor catalogue, page 52 - Product data at air pressure 6.3 bar (91 psi) - LZL 35 Unrestricted" (PDF). Atlas Copco. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-01. Retrieved .
39. ^ "LZB 14 Technical data". Atlas Copco. Retrieved .
40. ^ a b "Bosch Production Tools - Air Tools - Motors". Bosch. Retrieved .
41. ^ "LZB 46 Technical data". Atlas Copco. Retrieved .
42. ^ SAI. "GM Series - GM7 Hydraulic Motor" (PDF). SAI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-16. Retrieved .
43. ^ SAI. "GM03 Motor - Extremely Compact Unit" (PDF). SAI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-16. Retrieved .
44. ^ Parker Hannifin Corporation. "Denison GOLD CUP Product Catalog" (PDF). Parker Hannifin Corporation. Retrieved .
45. ^ Denison Hydraulics. "TB Vane-Type Single Pump" (PDF). Parker Hannifin Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-12. Retrieved .
46. ^ "M motor (ISO)". Hydroleduc. Retrieved .
47. ^ Bennett, G.L. (2006). "Space Nuclear Power" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists.
48. ^ a b Caillat, T. (August 2006). "Development of a New Generation of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Unicouples for Space Applications" (PDF). NASA, JPL and Caltech. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved .
49. ^ Leavitt, Fred (2019-04-08). "HZ-20 – 20 watt module data sheet" (PDF). Hi-Z Technology, Inc. Retrieved .
50. ^ Peukert, W. (1897). "Über die Abhängigkeit der Kapazität von der Entladestromstärke bei Bleiakkumulatoren". Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift. 20.
51. ^ "Product Datasheet - Energizer 675 ZnAir" (PDF). Energizer Holdings. 2010-02-15. Retrieved .
52. ^ "GE Durathon Batteries - NaMx Battery System for Telecom Applications" (PDF). Pennsylvania State University. 2010-09-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-09. Retrieved .
53. ^ "Zinc Carbon Batteries" (PDF). Panasonic. August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
54. ^ "Specification for Zinc-Carbon Dry Battery R03(NB)" (PDF). Panasonic. June 25, 1998.
55. ^ EaglePicher Technologies, LLC (February 6, 2003). "Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) Batteries - Single Pressure Vessel" (PDF). University of Padua. Retrieved 2010.
56. ^ Clayton Power (2010). "Lithium Ion Battery Packs". Clayton Power. Archived from the original on 2010-10-22. Retrieved .
57. ^ Clayton Power (2010). "Complete Power Systems - 24VDC/230VAC". Clayton Power. Archived from the original on 2011-02-11. Retrieved .
58. ^ "Product Datasheet - Energizer 522 9V" (PDF). Energizer Holdings. Retrieved 2010.
59. ^ "Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries - Individual Data Sheet - HHR900D" (PDF). Panasonic. August 2005. Retrieved 2010.
60. ^ Yang, Shaohua & Harold Knickle (2002). "Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles". Journal of Power Sources. 112 (1): 162-173. Bibcode:2002JPS...112..162Y. doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00370-1. ISSN 0378-7753.
61. ^ Zhang, Xin; Yang, Shao Hua; Knickle, Harold (2004). "Novel operation and control of an electric vehicle aluminum/air battery system". Journal of Power Sources. 128 (2): 331-342. Bibcode:2004JPS...128..331Z. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.09.058. ISSN 0378-7753.
62. ^ LG Chem. (2005-03-24). "E2 General Information" (PDF). Lucky Goldstar Chemical Ltd. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-16. Retrieved .
63. ^ LG Chem. (2009-01-12). "Press Release - LG Chem Battery Cells to Power Chevrolet Volt" (PDF). Lucky Goldstar Chemical Ltd., CompactPower division. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-28. Retrieved .
64. ^ JCI-SAFT (June 2010). "Rechargeable LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery Super-Phosphate VL 45E Fe Very High Energy cell" (PDF). SAFT Batteries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-22. Retrieved .
65. ^ "Product Datasheet - Energizer CH35 C" (PDF). Energizer Holdings. Retrieved 2010.
66. ^ "Microcell Technology AGM Deep Cycle Group 31 Battery" (PDF). FireFly Energy, Inc. 2009. Retrieved 2010.
67. ^ "Lithium Ion Batteries - Individual Data Sheet - CGA103450A" (PDF). Panasonic. January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
68. ^ "Mission Extended - Advanced Zinc-Air Battery Technology" (PDF). Electric Fuel Battery Corporation. 2003-03-30. Retrieved .
69. ^ "Lithium Sulfur Rechargeable Battery Data Sheet" (PDF). Sion Power. 3 October 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 2010.
70. ^ Pasta, Mauro; Colin D. Wessells; Nian Liu; Johanna Nelson; Matthew T. McDowell; Robert A. Huggins; Michael F. Toney; Yi Cui (2014-01-06). "Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage". Nature Communications. 5: 3007. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.3007P. doi:10.1038/ncomms4007. PMID 24389854.
71. ^ Fukunaga, Hiroshi; Kishimi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kishimoto, Tomonori; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Sakai, Tetsuo (2006). "Improvement of Nickel Metal Hydride Battery with Non-foam Nickel Electrode for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Applications". Electrochemistry. Japan. 75 (5): 385-393. doi:10.5796/electrochemistry.74.385. ISSN 1344-3542.
72. ^ "Rechargeable Battery SCiB - Description". Toshiba Corporation. Archived from the original on 2010-08-27. Retrieved .
73. ^ "Rechargeable Battery SCiB - Specifications". Toshiba Corporation. Archived from the original on 2010-08-27. Retrieved .
74. ^ "Lithium Ion Battery Research". Ionix Power Systems. Archived from the original on March 15, 2017. Retrieved 2010.
75. ^ "A123Systems Products". A123 Systems. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
76. ^ "High Power Lithium Ion ANR26650M1A - Datasheet" (PDF). A123 Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
77. ^ JCI-Saft (June 2009). "Rechargeable lithium-ion battery VL 6A Very High Power cell" (PDF). SAFT Batteries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved .
78. ^ "Typical Characteristics of Premlis". Advanced Capacitor Technologies, Inc. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved 2010.
79. ^ "Nesccap Ultracapacitor Products - EDLC - Prismatic" (PDF). Nesscap Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2010.
80. ^ "Nesccap Ultracapacitor (EDLC)". Nesscap Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
81. ^ US patent 7466536, Weir; Richard Dean & Nelson; Carl Walter, "Utilization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) plastic and composition-modified barium titanate powders in a matrix that allows polarization and the use of integrated-circuit technologies for the production of lightweight ultrahigh electrical energy storage units (EESU)", published 16 December 2008, issued 16 December 2008, assigned to EEStor, Inc
82. ^ "SERIES CMX - Self-Healing Energy Storage Capacitors". Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 2012.
83. ^ "Redflow Power+BOS ZB600 Stand Alone Power System" (PDF). Redflow. March 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
84. ^ "BlueGen Modular Generator - Power + Heat" (PDF). Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
85. ^ "The Jenny fuel cell by SFC". Smart Fuel Cell AG. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2020.
86. ^ "UTC Power - Model 400 PureCell System" (PDF). South Windsor, Connecticut, United States: UTC Power. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
87. ^ "GEFC 50V50A-VRB Vanadium Redox Battery Stack". GEFC. 2010. Retrieved 2010.
88. ^ "Transportation Fuel Cells - Technical Info" (PDF). Fuel Cells 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-10-13. Retrieved .
89. ^ "Space Orbiter". UTC Power. 2008. Archived from the original on September 5, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
90. ^ a b "PEM Fuel Cell Product Portfolio" (PDF). Ballard Power Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
91. ^ "High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cell" (PDF). NASA Glenn Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 18, 2013. Retrieved 2015.
92. ^ "Press Information Honda Fuel Cell Power FCX" (PDF). Honda. December 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
93. ^ Murphy, O.J.; Cisar, A.; Clarke, E. (1998). "Low-cost light weight high power density PEM fuel cell stack". Proceedings of the Symposium on Batteries and Fuel Cells for Portable Applications and Electric Vehicles. INIST. pp. 3829-3840.
94. ^ "PowerCell S3 Data Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2020.
95. ^ "The photovoltaic roof and façade system" (PDF). Thyssen Solartec. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-03. Retrieved .
96. ^ "Suntech HiPerforma Module PLUTO220-Udm PLUTO215-Udm" (PDF). Suntech Power. Retrieved .
97. ^ "Power the Possibilities". Global Solar. Archived from the original on 2017-04-01. Retrieved .
98. ^ "A Heritage-Technology Rigid Substrate Solar Array for Traditional Applications" (PDF). Able Engineering Company, Inc. Retrieved .
99. ^ Turner, Martin J. L. (28 January 2018). Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion: Principles, Practice And New Developments. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540221906 – via Google Books.
100. ^ a b "What is VAM and How to Calculate it?". Cycling Fitness. 2009-07-24. Archived from the original on 2009-10-12. Retrieved .
101. ^ "1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. 2006-06-01.
102. ^ Karwatka, Dennis (ed.). "Robert Stephenson and 19th-Century Transportation Technology". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved .
103. ^ Cobb, Harold M. (June 2006). "The Burlington Zephyr Stainless Steel Train". Advanced Materials & Processes: 24-28. Retrieved .
104. ^ Minidor Diesel 3-seater (PDF), Force Motors, archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2008, retrieved
105. ^ "Balaji Force Minidor Autorickshaw". Balaji Force. Retrieved .
106. ^ Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor (2007-04-25). "Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems" (PDF). Journal of Power Sources. Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Elsevier. 170 (2): 401-411. Bibcode:2007JPS...170..401A. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.04.036. ISSN 0378-7753.
107. ^ "Abrams Tank Fact File for the United States Army". US Army. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved .
108. ^ Leno, Jay (March 2005). "A Tonka Toy comes to life--really big life". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 2010-01-24.
109. ^ "TH!NK City - Specifications - Technical Data". TH!NK Global. Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved .
110. ^
111. ^ "Bombardier Transportation - Rail Vehicles - Intercity/Highspeed - JetTrain". June 2000. Retrieved .
112. ^ "About i MiEV". Mitsubishi Motors. July 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved .
113. ^ "Holden FJ Technical Specifications". Unique Cars and Parts. Retrieved .
114. ^ Quiroga, Tony (November 2005). "GMC TopKick C4500 by Monroe Truck Equipment - Specs; Hummer This". Car And Driver. Retrieved .
115. ^
116. ^ https://www.cyclechaos.comhttp://www.popflock.com/learn?s=Yamaha_PW50
117. ^ "Land Rover Defender 4×4 110 2.4D Hard Top 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
118. ^ https://www.topspeed.com/motorcycles/motorcycle-reviews/honda/2018-2020-honda-monkey-ar181098.html
119. ^
120. ^
121. ^ https://www.conceptcarz.com/s1659/chevrolet-bel-air.aspx
122. ^ https://www.topspeed.com/cars/chevrolet/1957-chevrolet-bel-air-ar34067.html
123. ^ a b "Toyota Prius 2010 Performance & Specifications". Toyota. Archived from the original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved .
124. ^ "Details of Bajaj Platina 100 cc". AutoIndia. Retrieved .
125. ^ "2003 Subaru R2 S Technical specifications". Car Folio. Retrieved .
126. ^ "Ford Fiesta Hatchback 1.6 TDCi Econetic 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
127. ^
128. ^
129. ^ "Ford Focus Hatchback 1.8 TDCi Zetec S 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
130. ^ "The History of the Honda FCX Clarity, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle FCEV". Honda. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved .
131. ^ "2006 HUMMER H1 specifications". InternetAutoguide.com. Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved .
132. ^ "2003 Audi A2 1.4 TDi Technical specifications". Car Folio. Retrieved .
133. ^ "Vauxhall Astra Hatchback 1.7 CDTi 125 Elite 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
134. ^ "Mini Cooper Hatchback 1.6D 3dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
135. ^ "Ford Focus Hatchback 1.8 TDCi Style 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
136. ^ "1998 GM EV1 GenII Lead-Acid 2 door fixed-head coupe technical specifications". Car Folio. Retrieved .
137. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/ram/1500
138. ^ a b c d "Toyota Venza Performance & Specs". Toyota Motor North America. 2010. Retrieved .
139. ^ "Ford Focus Hatchback 2.0 Zetec S 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
140. ^
141. ^ https://www.autoevolution.com/cars/hyundai-i20-2014.html#aeng_hyundai-i20-2014-10-6mt-120-hp
142. ^ "Vauxhall Astra Hatchback 2.0 CDTi 160 Elite 5dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
143. ^ https://www.edmunds.com/chevrolet/suburban/1998/features-specs/
144. ^
145. ^ "2005 Subaru Legacy 2.0R Technical specifications". Retrieved .
146. ^ https://www.kia.com/us/en/sportage/specs
147. ^
148. ^
150. ^ https://www.chevrolet.com/commercial/express
151. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/volvo/xc90/specs/2011/volvo_xc90_volvo-xc90_2011
152. ^ "An Assessment of Mass Reduction Opportunities for a 2017-2020 Model Year Vehicle Program" (PDF). International Council on Clean Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-04.
153. ^ "Toyota HiLux 4×2 Utes 2009" (PDF). Toyota. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-02. Retrieved .
154. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/a15146936/2010-volkswagen-gti-first-drive-review/
155. ^ https://www.toyota.com/tundra/features/weights_capacities/8261/8252/8275
156. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/nissan/titan
158. ^ https://www.ford.com/trucks/f150/features/power/
159. ^ https://www.ford.com/trucks/f150/models/f150-xl/
160. ^
161. ^ "2007 Holden WM Caprice". Topspeed. Retrieved .
162. ^ M1030M1 JP8/Diesel Military Motorcycle (PDF), Hayes Diversified Technologies, archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-07, retrieved
163. ^ "2009 Harley-Davidson FLSTF Softail Fat Boy Preview". Topspeed. Retrieved .
164. ^ "The new BMW 760i; The new BMW 760Li; Contents" (PDF) (Press release). BMW. March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-08. Retrieved .
165. ^ Edmunds, Dan. "Full Test: 2008 Subaru Impreza WRX STI". edmunds InsideLine. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved .
166. ^ "Vauxhall VXR8 Saloon 6.2 V8 Bathurst 4dr". What Car?. Retrieved .
167. ^ "Roadster Features and Specifications". Tesla Motors, Inc.. Archived from the original on 2013-02-12. Retrieved .
168. ^ https://www.porsche.com/usa/accessoriesandservices/classic/models/356/356-b/
169. ^ https://www.supercars.net/blog/1962-porsche-356b2000gs-carrera-2/
170. ^ https://www.mercedes-benz.com/en/vehicles/trucks/truck-racer-the-european-truck-racing-championship/
171. ^ https://www.ultimatespecs.com/car-specs/Jaguar/408/Jaguar-XJS-HE-V12.html
172. ^ https://fastestlaps.com/models/buick-regal-grand-national
174. ^
175. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/ram/1500-trx
176. ^ https://revsinstitute.org/the-collection/1970-porsche-9146-gt/
178. ^ http://hennesseyperformance.com/v8-raptor/
179. ^
180. ^ https://fastestlaps.com/models/dodge-challenger-r-t-super-track-pack
181. ^ https://fastestlaps.com/models/dodge-charger-r-t-1969
182. ^ "Citroën DS3 RRC: A new addition to the family!". Archived from the original on 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012.
183. ^
184. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh. "Artega GT now on sale". Motor Authority. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved .
185. ^ "2006 Lotus Exige GT3 Technical specifications". Car Folio. Retrieved .
186. ^ https://ligierautomotive.com/en/vehicles/single-seaters/ligier-js-f4-en/#slide-fiche-tech-1
187. ^
188. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/news/a14782872/2019-lamborghini-urus-suv-arrives-with-641-hp-news/
189. ^ https://www.guideautoweb.com/en/makes/campagna-motors/t-rex-16s/2017/specifications/base/
190. ^ https://media.daimler.com/marsMediaSite/en/instance/ko/The-new-Mercedes-Benz-C-63-AMG-Coup-Black-Series-The-most-powerful-C-Class-of-all-time.xhtml?oid=9694288
191. ^ a b "2008 Chevrolet Corvette". MSN Autos. Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved .
192. ^ a b "Is Nissan GTR Beating Hellcat Charger a Big Deal?". Allpar. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26. Retrieved .
193. ^ "gt-r versions-specs". Nissan. Retrieved .
194. ^ "Tesla Model S P85D: Dual motors, AWD, 691 hp, 3.2 to 60". RoadAndTrack. Retrieved .
195. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/a34304882/2020-ford-mustang-shelby-gt350r-by-the-numbers/
196. ^ https://www.racecar-engineering.com/cars/ford-fiesta-wrc/#:~:text=The%20engine%20has%20been%20revised,centre%20differential%20offers%20enhanced%20control
197. ^ https://motorsport.hyundai.com/rally/wrc/i20-coupe-wrc/
198. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/a33955185/1989-cizeta-moroder-v16t-drive/
200. ^ http://www.grandprixhistory.org/cooper.htm
202. ^ https://fastestlaps.com/models/mercedes-benz-sl65-amg-black-series
203. ^ https://www.automobilemag.com/news/2021-dodge-charger-hellcat-revealed-specifications/
204. ^ https://www.thethings.com/ranking-the-most-powerful-sports-car-concepts-of-all-time/
205. ^ http://www.grandprixhistory.org/merc196.htm
206. ^ https://bikez.com/motorcycles/nsu_delphin_iii_1956.php
207. ^ http://www.grandprixhistory.org/mas250.htm
208. ^
209. ^ mercedes-benz.com. "The New 2012 Mercedes-Benz C-Coupé DTM". mercedes-benz.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 2011.
210. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/mclaren/570s-570gt
211. ^ "Press Release - Lamborghini Murciélago LP 670-4 SuperVeloce - the new king of the bulls - is even more powerful, lighter and faster" (PDF). MotorStars. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-27. Retrieved .
212. ^ https://www.motorauthority.com/news/1126504_2020-ford-shelby-super-snake-delivers-up-825-horsepower-retro-color-package
213. ^ http://www.shelby.com/Vehicles/Shelby-Super-Snake
214. ^ https://www.thethings.com/ranking-the-most-powerful-sports-car-concepts-of-all-time/
215. ^
216. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/years/1964
217. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/148/ferrari-dino-156
218. ^ "Sector111 Project Dragon (Drakan Spyder)". sector111. Retrieved .
219. ^ https://www.topspeed.com/motorcycles/motorcycle-news/this-is-the-verge-ts-a-hubless-738-lb-ft-electric-superbike-ar187136.html
220. ^ https://www.vergemotorcycles.com/
221. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/116/ferrari-246-f1
222. ^ https://rj37.com/
223. ^ https://www.topspeed.com/cars/honda/2016-honda-project-2-4-ar171154.html
224. ^ "BAC Mono review". Autocar. Retrieved 2014.
225. ^ https://www.motortrend.com/news/volvos-iron-knight-2400-hp-claims-worlds-fastest-truck/
226. ^ "Porsche 918 Spyder". car and driver. 2015. Retrieved .
227. ^ "1997 McLaren F1 GT Technical specifications". Car Folio. Retrieved .
228. ^ https://www.ultimatecarpage.com/spec/1455/Lotus-12-Climax.html
229. ^ http://www.americantraction.com/electric_vehicles/research_vehicles/
230. ^ https://www.energicamotorusa.com/electric-motorcycle-energica-ego/
231. ^ https://www.zigwheels.com/news-features/news/5-most-powerful-electric-motorcycles-in-the-world/35934/
233. ^ https://www.supercars.net/blog/1994-ford-mustang-boss-10-0l-concept-2/
234. ^ https://www.mustangspecs.com/1994-ford-mustang-boss-10-concept/
235. ^ "2014 Ariel Atom 3S". sector111. Retrieved .
236. ^ https://apnews.com/article/afc78dd8f564c79e5b9d3fa5323cfe84
237. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160226090120/http://www.nascar.com/en_us/news-media/articles/2014/9/23/nascar-rules-package-changes-for-2015-horsepower-reduction-testing-changes.html
238. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160502224842/http://motorsports.nbcsports.com/2014/03/23/nascar-reportedly-considering-sprint-cup-engine-horsepower-reduction-in-2015/
239. ^
240. ^
241. ^ https://elementalcars.co.uk/technical/
242. ^ "Ferrari LaFerrari". car and driver. 2015. Retrieved .
243. ^ Steve Sutcliffe (7 May 2014). "McLaren P1 Review". Autocar. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 2014.
244. ^ https://www.motortrend.com/news/2021-mclaren-elva-first-drive-review/
245. ^ http://www.hulmesupercars.com/company/
246. ^ https://www.arcvehicle.com/
247. ^ https://www.zigwheels.com/news-features/news/5-most-powerful-electric-motorcycles-in-the-world/35934/
248. ^ https://www.caranddriver.com/features/a15388275/chaparral-2e/
249. ^
250. ^ https://www.supercars.net/blog/1983-lancia-lc1/
251. ^ "2009 Polaris 800 Assault RMK146 Snowmobile Specifications & Price". Polaris Industries. Retrieved .
252. ^ https://media.ford.com/content/fordmedia/fna/us/en/news/2020/07/21/all-electric-mustang-mach-e-1400-prototype.html
253. ^ Michael J. Fuller. "2006 Audi R10". Mulsanne's Corner.
254. ^ https://fastestlaps.com/models/porsche-rs-spyder
255. ^
256. ^ https://bruce-mclaren.com/list-by-name/
257. ^ https://www.conceptcarz.com/vehicle/z9088/mclaren-m10.aspx
258. ^ https://www.ferrari.com/en-US/auto/512-m
259. ^ https://www.lightfighter-racing.com/thebiketech
260. ^ "Ultima GTR 720 (2006 - date)". SupercarWorld. Retrieved .
261. ^ https://www.mclaren.com/racing/heritage/cars/1968-Formula-1-McLaren-M7A/
263. ^ https://juddpower.com/our-engines/judd-gv-4-litre-v10/
264. ^ https://drivetribe.com/p/identity-crisis-1992-mazda-mxr-SwdozVXHQLW3vfC6VdPWSg?iid=A8o-hgdTTfmzNcBwzeIAlw
265. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/210/brabham-bt24
266. ^ https://www.statsf1.com/en/moteur-ford-cosworth.aspx
268. ^ https://www.motorauthority.com/news/1131349_gordon-murray-automotive-t-50s-niki-lauda-pays-tribute-to-triple-f1-champion
270. ^ https://motocrossactionmag.com/the-mxa-wrecking-crew-rides-a-75-hp-jawa-500-speedway-bike/
271. ^ https://www.raesr.com/
272. ^ https://www.autocar.co.uk/slideshow/power-list-best-power-weight-ratios-world-0#11
273. ^ https://www.indycar.com/Fan-Info/INDYCAR-101/The-Car-Dallara/IndyCar-Series-Chassis-Specifications
274. ^ https://www.supercars.net/blog/1983%E2%86%921986-lancia-lc2/
275. ^ https://media.toyota.co.uk/2004/06/1992-toyota-ts010-group-c-sports-car/
276. ^ http://www.dailysportscar.com/2012/12/11/a-toyota-ts010-restored.html
277. ^ https://global.toyota/en/detail/7832832
278. ^ https://www.dallara.it/en/racing/indycar
279. ^ https://www.ultimatecarpage.com/car/1673/Dallara-IR-03-Honda.html
281. ^ http://www.popflock.com/video?id=AE63B_KSD7A
282. ^ https://www.saleen.com/2017/12/18/steve-saleen-brings-back-s7-supercar-with-1300-hp-le-mans-edition/
283. ^ https://www.hooniganracing.com/pages/garage
284. ^ https://www.autocar.co.uk/slideshow/power-list-best-power-weight-ratios-world-0#14
286. ^ https://www.conceptcarz.com/s21781/mclaren-m8d.aspx
287. ^ https://www.cycleworld.com/2013/12/17/triumph-powered-castrol-rocket-streamliner-to-attempt-bonneville-speed-record/
288. ^ https://petroleummuseum.org/chaparral-2k/
289. ^ Lis, Alan. "The One That Got Away". Racecar Engineering. Chelsea Magazines.
290. ^
291. ^ https://www.conceptcarz.com/s28451/penske-pc-18.aspx
292. ^ https://www.unitedautosports.com/historic-motorsport/cars/1989-penske-pc18
293. ^ https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-collections/artifact/190318/
294. ^ https://www.unitedautosports.com/historic-motorsport/cars/1984-march-84c
295. ^ https://www.ferrari.com/en-EN/formula1/412-t2
296. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/766/ferrari-412t2
297. ^ http://www.dlg.speedfreaks.org/archive/cars/reynard/autos/4667.php
299. ^ https://www.nissan-global.com/EN/HERITAGE/nissan_r383.html
300. ^ "The MTT Turbine Superbike" (PDF). Marine Turbine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-07. Retrieved .
301. ^ http://larea-gt1.de/en/larea/gt1-s12.php
302. ^ https://www.autocar.co.uk/slideshow/power-list-best-power-weight-ratios-world-0#18
303. ^ [htt2 //www.motorcycle.com/manufacturer/2010-vyrus-987-review-89399.html "2010 Vyrus 987 Review"] Check |url= value (help). Motorcycle.com. Retrieved .
304. ^ https://www.f1technical.net/f1db/cars/664/ferrari-641-f1-90
305. ^ https://www.statsf1.com/en/moteur-ferrari.aspx
306. ^ https://www.ferrari.com/en-EN/formula1/f1-2000
307. ^ https://newsroom.porsche.com/en/motorsports/porsche-919-hybrid-evo-top-5-series-technical-check-16834.html
308. ^ "Kawasaki H2R". F1 Technical. Retrieved .
309. ^ https://www.ducati.com/ww/en/bikes/panigale/superleggera-v4
310. ^ http://www.gregwapling.com/hotrod/land-speed-racing-australia/land-speed-racing-australia-bluebird-k7.html
311. ^ https://www.beautifullife.info/automotive-design/fastest-speed-boats-in-the-world/
312. ^ https://www.bmwblog.com/2015/07/25/one-of-the-greatest-engines-in-history-of-formula-1-bmw-v10/
313. ^ "Williams FW27". F1 Technical. Retrieved .
314. ^ https://www.statsf1.com/en/moteur-bmw.aspx
315. ^ https://www.statsf1.com/en/moteur-renault.aspx
316. ^ http://www.scuderia.com/2017/06/01/ferraris-f1-engines-pursuit-power/
317. ^ https://riders.drivemag.com/news/2020-ktm-motogp-bike-unveiled-265-hp-and-157-kg/
318. ^ https://www.jepistons.com/blog/under-the-hood-of-the-worlds-only-300mph-ford-gt
319. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/motoring/features/rapom-v8-bike-runs-alcohol-434200.html
320. ^
321. ^ https://www.motor1.com/news/15429/mosler-mt900-gtr-xx-twin-turbo-land-shark-revealed/
322. ^ "John Force - Funny Car Legend". Automobile Magazine. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved .
323. ^
324. ^
325. ^ "Power Profiling - TrainingPeaks". 10 October 2008.