The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -, -logia) is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
The Harold and Inge Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
is the industrial engineering
department at the Pennsylvania State University
in State College
. Founded in 1908, it is the oldest such department in the world. According to the most recent U.S. News & World Report
university rankings, both the graduate and undergraduate programs ranked fourth in the United States
. The department is currently headed by Richard J. Koubek and since 2000 has been based in the Leonhard Building, a $12 million structure containing the acclaimed FAME manufacturing lab. Named for alumnus Harold Marcus and his wife Inge, the department employs 25 faculty members, who in 2007 served 163 graduate and 345 undergraduate students. Among the department's alumni are Harold W. Gehman
, a former NATO
Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, and Gregory Lucier, the President and CEO of Invitrogen
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(1830-1911) was an English architect
who designed about 500 buildings in Cheshire
, North Wales and northwest England, in particular in the estate of Eaton Hall
. Douglas' output included the creation, restoration and renovation of churches, church furnishings, houses and other buildings. His architectural styles were eclectic
and many of his works incorporate elements of the English Gothic
style. He was also influenced by architectural styles from the mainland of Europe and included elements of French, German and Netherlandish architecture into his works. He is remembered for his use of half-timbering
, tile-hanging, pargeting
, decorative brick in diapering
and the design of tall chimney stacks. Of particular importance is Douglas' use of joinery
and highly detailed wood carving. Throughout his career he attracted commissions from wealthy landowners and industrialists. Most of his works have survived. The city of Chester
contains a number of his structures, the most admired of which are his half-timbered black-and-white buildings and Eastgate Clock
. The highest concentration of his work is found in the Eaton Hall estate and the surrounding villages of Eccleston
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A windmill is a machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails. Originally developed for milling grain, windmill machinery was adapted to many other industrial uses.
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