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Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age. The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy", which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape; along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."

Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.

Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection. (Full article...)

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Rust and dirt on a baking plate.

Rust is the chemical substance formed when iron compounds corrode in the presence of oxygen and water. It is a mixture of iron oxides and hydroxides. Rusting is a common term for corrosion, and usually corrosion of steel. Iron is found naturally in the ore haematite as iron oxide, and metallic iron tends to return to a similar state when exposed to air, (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) and water. This corrosion is due to the oxidation reaction when iron metal returns to an energetically favourable state. Energy is given off when rust forms. The process of rusting can be summarized as three basic stages: The formation of iron(II) ions from the metal; the formation of hydroxide ions; and their reaction together, with the addition of oxygen, to create rust.

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Francis Crick, Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 - 28 July 2004), was a British molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. He, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material" .[2]

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Science News

4 November 2020 - SGR 1935+2154
Astronomers announce the discovery of the first fast radio burst (FRB) signal detected in the Milky Way galaxy. The signal is believed to be coming from a magnetar. (The Independent)
28 October 2020 -
Scientists announce that last week they discovered a reef structure in the Great Barrier Reef that is 500 m (1,600 ft)-tall, surpassing the height of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur. The discovery is the first of its type in the region since the 1800s. (BBC)
20 October 2020 - 2020 in spaceflight, New Frontiers program
NASA's OSIRIS-REx space probe successfully lands and collects samples from the asteroid Bennu. The samples will be returned to Earth in 2023. (CNN) (BBC)
15 October 2020 - 2020 in paleontology
Researchers announce the fossil discoveries of Triassic drepanosaur Skybalonyx skapter at the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona. (Los Angeles Times)
A boy discovers a fossilized hadrosaur skeleton at the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta, Canada, dating back 69 million years. (BBC) (Global News)
13 October 2020 - Geology of Pluto
Scientists determine that white mountains previously discovered on Pluto during New Horizons flyby owe their color to methane frost directly condensed from the atmosphere, rather than snow. (NPR)

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