The Opera Portal
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work (called an opera) which combines a text (called a libretto) and a musical score. Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery and costumes and sometimes includes dance. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble.
Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's lost Dafne, produced in Florence around 1597) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Schütz in Germany, Lully in France, and Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. However, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, except France, attracting foreign composers such as Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s. Today the most renowned figure of late 18th century opera is Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as The Magic Flute, a landmark in the German tradition.
The first third of the 19th century saw the highpoint of the bel canto style, with Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini all creating works that are still performed today. It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Meyerbeer. The mid to late 19th century is considered by some a golden age of opera, led by Wagner in Germany and Verdi in Italy. This 'golden age' developed through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Puccini and Strauss in the early 20th century. During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism (Schoenberg and Berg), Neo-Classicism (Stravinsky), and Minimalism (Philip Glass and John Adams). With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso became known to audiences beyond the circle of opera fans. Operas were also performed on (and written for) radio and television.
Between 1769 and 1773 the young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
and his father Leopold
made three Italian journeys
. The first, an extended tour of 15 months, was financed by performances for the nobility
and by public concerts, and took in the most important Italian cities. The later journeys were to Milan
, for Wolfgang to complete operas that had been commissioned there on the first visit. Leopold had been employed since 1747 as a musician in the Archbishop of Salzburg
's court, becoming deputy Kapellmeister
in 1763; but he had also devoted much time to Wolfgang's and sister Nannerl
's musical education. He took them on a "grand tour
" between 1764 and 1766, and spent some of 1767 and most of 1768 with them in the imperial
. The children's performances had captivated audiences, especially early in these journeys; and they made a considerable impression on European society. By 1769 Nannerl had reached adulthood, but Leopold was anxious to continue 13-year-old Wolfgang's education in Italy, a crucially important destination for any young composer of the 18th century.
Frontispiece to the first edition vocal score of Gaetano Donizetti's La favorite which premiered in 1840. The opera's story unfolds against the background of the Moorish invasions of Spain and power struggles between church and state. At its centre is a love triangle involving the King of Castile, Alfonso XI, his mistress ('the favourite') Léonor, and her lover Fernand. The frontispiece shows Rosine Stoltz and Gilbert Duprez, the original Léonor and Fernand.
In this month
- 1 July 1995 - Powder Her Face, an opera by Thomas Adès and based on the scandalous life of Margaret, Duchess of Argyll, had its world premiere at the Cheltenham Music Festival.
- 5 July 1953 - Titta Ruffo, considered one of the greatest Italian baritones of his generation, died in Florence at the age of 76.
- 6 July 1845 - Soprano Ángela Peralta, a leading figure in the operatic life of 19th century Mexico, was born in Mexico City.
- 11 July 1937 - George Gershwin, the composer of Porgy and Bess, died in Los Angeles at the age of 38.
- 13 July 1924 - The Italian tenor Carlo Bergonzi, admired for his warm timbre and elegant phrasing, was born in Vidalenzo, near Parma.
- 17 July 1852 - Salvadore Cammarano, who wrote the libretto for Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor, died in his native Naples at the age of 51.
- 22 July 1847 - Verdi's opera I masnadieri had its world premiere at Her Majesty's Theatre in London. The performance was conducted by Verdi himself, with Jenny Lind (pictured) singing the role of Amalia.
- 30 July 1793 - The Teatro Nacional de São Carlos in Lisbon, Portugal's leading opera house, was opened by Queen Maria I.
(15 January 1853 – 31 May 1922) was an English
, comedian, and Edwardian musical comedy
star. Best remembered for originating the lyric baritone
roles in the Gilbert and Sullivan
operas from 1877 to 1896, his performing career spanned more than four decades. He also wrote at least a dozen works for the stage. After two years with a comic touring company, Barrington joined Richard D'Oyly Carte
's opera company and, over the next two decades, created a number of memorable comic opera
roles, including Captain Corcoran in H.M.S. Pinafore
(1878), the Sergeant of Police in The Pirates of Penzance
(1880), and Pooh Bah in The Mikado
(1885), among many others. Failing in an 1888 attempt to become a theatrical manager, Barrington refocused his energies on acting and occasional playwriting. Beginning in 1896 and continuing for ten years, Barrington played in a series of very successful musical comedies under the management of George Edwardes
at Daly's Theatre
. After leaving Daly's he continued to appear in musical comedy roles and performed in music hall
. His career ended in 1918, after which he suffered a stroke and lived the last few years of his life in poverty.
From Giuseppe Verdi's Il trovatore, sung by Gabriella Besanzoni (1920)
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