Portal:New France
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Portal:New France

Introduction

New France (French: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris (1763).

At its peak in 1712 (before the Treaty of Utrecht), the territory of New France, also sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal (before 1717, extending south through the Illinois Country); Hudson's Bay; Acadie, in the northeast; Plaisance, on the island of Newfoundland, and Louisiane. (after 1717, extending north through the Illinois Country); Thus, it extended from Newfoundland to the Canadian prairies and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico, including all the Great Lakes of North America.

Selected article

An early 20th-century illustration from a Quebec school text depicting Montcalm inspiring the defenders of Fort Carillon.

The Battle of Carillon, also known as the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga, was fought on July 8, 1758, during the French and Indian War (which was part of the larger Seven Years' War and is also known in modern Canada as the War of Conquest). It was fought near Fort Carillon (known to the attacking British as Fort Ticonderoga), on the shore of Lake Champlain in the frontier area between the British colony of New York and the French colony of Canada (roughly present-day Quebec).

In the battle, which took place primarily on a rise about three-quarters of a mile (one km) from the fort itself, a French army of about 4,000 men under General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and the Chevalier de Levis decisively defeated an overwhelmingly numerically superior force of British troops under General James Abercrombie, which frontally assaulted an entrenched French position without using field artillery. The battle was the bloodiest of the war, with over 3,000 casualties suffered, of which over 2,000 were British.

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Louisbourg rue.JPG
Port of cod fishing founded in 1713, Louisbourg lived peacefully for three decades as a port of the French colony.

A fortress was built in 1719 to protect the interests of France in the New World and to serve as a center of operations for seasonal fishing industry. In 1758, the British took Louisbourg to the French. The fortifications were destroyed in 1760.

Over 200 years later, in 1961, the Government of Canada began to rebuild a fifth of the historic town of Louisbourg to provide work for coal miners out of work and awareness of the city as a museum of living history.

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Québec-Drapeau-400e.jpg

  • ...On July 3, 2008, Quebec City celebrated its 400th birthday! It was the first city founded by Europeans in North America, always on the same site. All year 2008 is devoted to festivities.
  • ...The Battle of Quebec occurred on October 16, 1690 between the British and French forces. When the British sent a request for the city to surrender, Frontenac replied "I have no reply to make to your general other than from the mouths of my cannons and muskets.". This legendary response, and a poor assessment of the fortifications by the British, allowed France to keep Quebec for almost another seventy years.
  • ...During the Great Upheaval of the Acadians in 1755, seventy-eight survivor families settled on Belle Île in France while the British took possession of French colonies in America. Since then, their descendents have remained on the island. Today most islanders have Acadian ancestry.

Timelines of New France history

For the detailed chronology of this epic of New France, simply visit this
Nuvola apps kworldclock.png Timeline of New France history.

Selected biography

Jean Talon.

Jean Talon, Comte d'Orsainville (1625, baptised 8 January 1626 – November 1694) was a French colonial administrator who was the first and most highly regarded Intendant of New France under King Louis XIV.

He was born at Châlons-en-Champagne, to Philippe Talon and Anne de Bury in 1625. He was very entrepreneurial and as Intendant during 1665–1672, he attempted to diversify the colony's economy by encouraging agriculture, fishing, lumbering, and industry as well as the traditional fur trade. He approved Robert La Salle's plan to mount expeditions to seek a western passage to China. As the first intendant to arrive in New France, his mission was to boost the growth and prosperity of the remote colony by making it self-sufficient.

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Quebec City

Québec or Quebec City, also Quebec City or Québec City (French: Québec, or Ville de Québec), is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in the province - after Montreal, about 233 kilometres (145 mi) to the southwest. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America.

Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain on 3 July 1608 at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. It was to this settlement that the name "Canada" refers. Although called the cradle of the Francophone population in North America, the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal antedates it. The place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.

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