, or Shind? Mus?-ry? ()
, most commonly known by its practice of j?d?
, is a traditional school (kory?
) of the Japanese martial art
, or the art of wielding the short staff (j?
). The technical purpose of the art is to learn how to defeat a swordsman in combat using the j?
, with an emphasis on proper combative distance, timing and concentration. The system includes teachings of other weapon systems which are contained in Shint? Mus?-ry? as auxiliary arts (Fuzoku ryuha
). The school is sometimes abbreviated as SMR.
The art was founded by the samurai Mus? Gonnosuke Katsuyoshi ( , fl. c.1605, dates of birth and death unknown) in the early Edo period (1603–1868) and, according to legend, first put to use in a duel with Miyamoto Musashi ( , 1584–1645). The original art created by Mus? Gonnosuke has evolved and been added upon ever since its inception and up to modern times. The art was successfully brought outside of its original domain in Fukuoka and outside Japan itself in the 19th and 20th century. The spreading of Shint? Mus?-ry? beyond Japan was largely the effort of Takaji Shimizu, (1896–1978), considered the 25th headmaster, who, unlike many other traditional martial arts teachers, wanted Jodo to be known and taught internationally. With the assistance of his own students and the cooperation of the kend? community, Shimizu spread Shint? Mus?-ry? worldwide.
Morihei Ueshiba ( , Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883 - April 26, 1969)
was a Japanese martial artist
and founder of the martial art
. He is often referred to as "the founder" Kaiso ()
or ?sensei (/)
, "Great Teacher".
The son of a landowner from Tanabe, Ueshiba studied a number of martial arts in his youth, and served in the Japanese Army during the Russo-Japanese War. After being discharged in 1907, he moved to Hokkaid? as the head of a pioneer settlement; here he met and studied with Takeda S?kaku, the founder of Dait?-ry? Aiki-j?jutsu. On leaving Hokkaido in 1919, Ueshiba joined the ?moto-ky? movement, a Shinto sect, in Ayabe, where he served as a martial arts instructor and opened his first dojo. He accompanied the head of the ?moto-ky? group, Onisaburo Deguchi, on an expedition to Mongolia in 1924, where they were captured by Chinese troops and returned to Japan. The following year, he had a profound spiritual experience, stating that, "a golden spirit sprang up from the ground, veiled my body, and changed my body into a golden one." After this experience, his martial arts skill appeared to be greatly increased.
Ueshiba moved to Tokyo in 1926, where he set up the Aikikai Hombu Dojo. By now he was comparatively famous in martial arts circles, and taught at this dojo and others around Japan, including in several military academies. In the aftermath of World War II the Hombu dojo was temporarily closed, but Ueshiba had by this point left Tokyo and retired to Iwama, and he continued training at the dojo he had set up there. From the end of the war until the 1960s, he worked to promote aikido throughout Japan and abroad. He died from liver cancer in 1969.
After Ueshiba's death, aikido continued to be promulgated by his students (many of whom became noted martial artists in their own right). It is now practiced around the world.
Lockdown (2008) was a professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by the Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) promotion, which took place on April 13, 2008, at the Tsongas Arena in Lowell, Massachusetts. It was the fourth under the Lockdown chronology and fourth event in the 2008 TNA PPV schedule. Eight professional wrestling matches, two of which for championships, were featured on the card. In the tradition of Lockdown events, every match took place inside a six-sided steel structure known as the Six Sides of Steel.
The main event was for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship between then-champion Kurt Angle and Samoa Joe, with the added stipulation if Joe lost he would retire from professional wrestling. Joe won the encounter, thus winning the TNA World Heavyweight Championship for the first time. Also held on the card was the 2008 Lethal Lockdown match between Team Cage and Team Tomko. Team Cage of Christian Cage, Matt Morgan, Kevin Nash, Rhino, and Sting defeated Tomko, A.J. Styles, James Storm, and Team 3D (Brother Devon and Brother Ray) of Team Tomko in the contest. Two featured bouts were scheduled on the undercard. The first was an Intergender Tag Team match pitting the team of Robert Roode and Payton Banks against the team of Booker T and Sharmell. Booker T and Sharmell were the victors in the match. The TNA X Division Championship was defended in the 2008 TNA Xscape match by Jay Lethal against Consequences Creed, Curry Man, Johnny Devine, Shark Boy, and Sonjay Dutt. Lethal won the competition to retain the championship.
Lockdown marked the fourth time the Lethal Lockdown and Xscape match formats were used by TNA. 55,000 was the reported figure of purchasers for the event by The Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Lockdown had an attendance of 5,500 people. Chris Sokol of the professional wrestling section of the Canadian Online Explorer rated the event a 6.5 out of 10, higher than the 2007 event's ranking of 5.5 out of 10 also by Sokol.
Cowboy mounted shooting (also called western mounted shooting and mounted shooting) is a competitive equestrian sport involving the riding of a horse to negotiate a shooting pattern. Depending on sponsoring organizations, it can be based on the historical reenactment of historic shooting events held at Wild West shows in the late 19th century. Modern events use blank ammunition instead of live rounds, certified to break a target balloon within twenty feet (6 m).