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(; Israel Hebrew: ?; Arabic: ), officially known as the State of Israel ( Hebrew: ?, ), is a country in Medinat Yisra'el Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited.
Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of
hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from to Iudaea . Syria Palaestina Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.
During the first half of the 20th century, the land was controlled as a
mandate of the British Empire from 1920-1948, having been ceded by the Ottomans at the end of the First World War. Not long after, the Second World War saw the mandate bombed heavily and Yishuv Jews serve for the Allies, after the British agreed to supply arms and form a Jewish Brigade in 1944. Amidst growing tension and with the British eager to appease both Arab and Jewish factions, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab-Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan.
Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness. ( )
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Sea of Galilee
? , ?,
), also called
, is a
. It is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world (after the
), at levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level. It is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. Its area is 166.7 km
(64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and its maximum depth is approximately 43 metres (141 ft). The lake is fed partly by underground springs but its main source is the
, which flows through it from north to south and exits the Sea at the
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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
( Zion Square Hebrew: ? ?, Kikar Tziyon) is a public square in Jerusalem, located at the intersection of Jaffa Road, Ben Yehuda Street, Herbert Samuel Street, and Yoel Moshe Salomon Street.
The square is one of the
commercial district. Since the
British Mandate era
, Zion Square has been the focal point of the cultural life of downtown Jerusalem. The square is busy day and night with tourists, elderly immigrants, overseas students, local youth,
, and religious activists. In recent decades, the square has become a hangout for disaffected and homeless youth. (
Selected fare or cuisine -
is produced by hundreds of Israeli wine wineries, ranging in size from small boutique enterprises to large companies producing over ten million bottles per year. Wine has been produced in the Land of Israel since biblical times. In 2011, Israeli wine exports totaled over $26.7 million.
The modern Israeli wine industry was founded by Baron
Edmond James de Rothschild
, owner of the
. Today, Israeli winemaking takes place in five vine-growing regions: Galil (
, including the
), the region most suited for viticulture due to its high elevation, cool breezes, marked day and night temperature changes and rich, well-drained soils; the
, surrounding the city of
(Samson), located between the Judean Hills and the
desert region, where
has made grape growing possible; and the
coast and just south of
, surrounding the towns of
, which is the largest grape growing area in Israel. Several of these terms for Israeli wine-growing regions, such as the Judean Hills, the Golan Heights and the Shimshon, actually refer to areas that are largely
. The definition of wines produced in the latter as Israeli is a subject of legal contention abroad. (
General images -
The following are images from various Israel-related articles on Wikipedia.
Gal Fridman, winner of Israel's first Olympic gold medal
Illustration for the
Song of Songs. Along with the Book of Esther, the ancient poem is an example of an ancient Israeli literature with no mention of God, and is traditionally read as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel
The route of the exiles to Babylon
Intel core i7-940. Intel developed its
dual-core Core Duo processor at its Israel Development Center in Haifa.
Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.
Bookplate done for Martin Buber; The plate is adorned with the walls of Jerusalem in the shape of a Shield of David, viewed from above
Patriot missiles launched to intercept an Iraqi Scud over Tel Aviv during the Gulf War
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, 15 July 1945
Heraclius returning the True Cross to Jerusalem, 15th-century painting by Miguel Ximénez
Tzofim Israeli scout movement fire ceremony in Tel Aviv
Israeli paratroopers dig in near the
Mitla Pass, 31 October 1956
Habimah Theater in Tel Aviv
A portion of the
Isaiah scroll. One of the earliest known manuscripts of biblical literature
Jewish workers in
Kerem Avraham neighbourhood of Jerusalem (c. 1850s)
. The practice of psalms is referred to as a philosophical and theological problem
David dictating the Psalms
Shrine of the Báb, built between 1949 and 1953, is an example of the architecture in Israel
The Bahri Mamluk dynasty 1250-1382
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