The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences (the history of the arts and humanities is termed history of scholarship). Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real-world phenomena. Historiography of science, in contrast, studies the methods employed by historians of science.
The English word scientist is relatively recent, first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Before that, investigators of nature called themselves "natural philosophers". While empirical investigations of the natural world have been described, since classical antiquity (for example, by Thales and Aristotle), and the scientific method has been employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon), modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.
From the 18th through the late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented as a progressive accumulation of knowledge, in which true theories replaced false beliefs. More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in terms of competing paradigms or conceptual systems within a wider matrix of intellectual, cultural, economic and political trends. These interpretations, however, have met with opposition for they also portray the history of science as an incoherent system of incommensurable paradigms, not leading to any actual scientific progress but only to the illusion that it has occurred.
A watercolour by ship's artist Conrad Martens painted during the survey of Tierra del Fuego
shows the Beagle
being hailed by native Fuegians.
The Voyage of the Beagle is a title commonly given to the book written by Charles Darwin published in 1839 as his Journal and Remarks, which brought him considerable fame and respect. The title refers to the second survey expedition of the ship HMS Beagle which set out on 27 December 1831 under the command of captain Robert FitzRoy. While the expedition was originally planned to last two years, it lasted almost five—the Beagle did not return until 2 October 1836. Darwin spent most of this time exploring on land (three years and three months on land; 18 months at sea).
Darwin's account of the voyage is a vivid and exciting travel memoir as well as a detailed scientific field journal covering biology, geology and anthropology that demonstrates Darwin's keen powers of observation, written at a time when the West were still discovering and exploring much of the rest of the world. With hindsight, one can find hints of the ideas Darwin would later develop into the theory of evolution.
"Fuji at Torigoe" is the eightieth woodblock print from One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It depicts the observatory of the Calendar Bureau during the Edo period, with astronomers working on the roof, Mt. Fuji in the background. According to Hokusai scholar Henry D. Smith II, the instrument is best seen as an indication of Hokusai's interest in Western science rather than a representation of Japanese astronomical practice.
Did you know
...that the travel narrative The Malay Archipelago, by biologist Alfred Russel Wallace, was used by the novelist Joseph Conrad as a source for his novel Lord Jim?
...that the seventeenth century philosophers René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, and Gottfried Leibniz, along with their Empiricist contemporary Thomas Hobbes all formulated definitions of conatus, an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself?
...that the history of biochemistry spans approximately 400 years, but the word "biochemistry" in the modern sense was first proposed only in 1903, by German chemist Carl Neuberg?
...that the Great Comet of 1577 was viewed by people all over Europe, including famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe and the six year old Johannes Kepler?
...that the Society for Social Studies of Science (often abbreviated as 4S) is, as its website claims, "the oldest and largest scholarly association devoted to understanding science and technology"?
- 1471 – Birth of Konrad Mutian, German humanist (d. 1526)
- 1564 – Death of Vesalius, Flemish anatomist (b. 1514)
- 1608 – Birth of Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist (d. 1647)
- 1715 – Death of Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (b. 1675)
- 1829 – Birth of Asaph Hall, American astronomer (d. 1907)
- 1878 - The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation
- 1909 – Birth of Jesse Leonard Greenstein, American astronomer (d. 2002)
- 1919 – Birth of Malcolm Ross, American balloonist and atmospheric physicist (d. 1985)
- 1940 – Birth of Peter Doherty, Australian immunologist, Nobel laureate
- 1953 - British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia
- 1959 – Death of Lipót Fejér, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1880)
- 1980 – Death of Mikhail Lavrentyev, Russian physicist and mathematician (b. 1900)
- 1997 - The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
- 2000 – Death of Konrad Emil Bloch, German-born biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
- 2001 - NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io
- 2003 – Death of Bertram N. Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)