Portal:Egypt
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Portal:Egypt

The Egypt Portal

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Location of Egypt
Flag of Egypt
Coat of Arms for Egypt (Official)

Egypt ( EE-jipt; Arabic: ?Mi?r, Egyptian Arabic: ?Ma?r), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestinian territories) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean Sea lie Greece, Cyprus and Turkey, although none of these share a land border with Egypt. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the thirteenth-most populous in the world.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th-4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

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Muizz Street - Egypt.jpg

Muizz Street (Egyptian Arabic: ? Share? El Muizz, full name; Shari?a al-Muizz li-Din Illah), in Islamic Cairo, Egypt is one of the oldest streets in Cairo, approximately one kilometer long. A United Nations study found it to have the greatest concentration of medieval architectural treasures in the Islamic world. The street (shari?a in Arabic) is named for Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah, the fourth caliph of the Fatimid dynasty. It stretches from Bab Al-Futuh in the north to Bab Zuweila in the south. Starting in 1997, the national government carried out extensive renovations to the historical buildings, modern buildings, paving, and sewerage to turn the street into an "open-air museum". On April 24, 2008, Al-Muizz Street was rededicated as a pedestrian only zone between 8:00 am and 11:00 pm; cargo traffic will be allowed outside of these hours.

The northern part of the street extends from the Al-Hakim Mosque in the north to the Spice Market at Al-Azhar Street and includes the antiques markets section, Al-Aqmar Mosque (one of the few extant Fatimid mosques), the Qalawun complex, and several well preserved medieval mansions and palaces. The southern part extends from the Ghuriya complex to the Bab Zuweila and includes the magnificent Tent Market in the Gamaliya district.

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Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria by Chuck Kennedy (Official White House Photostream).jpg

Pope Shenouda III (Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [?e'nu:dæ]; Coptic: ? ?   Papa Abba ?enoude pimah ?oumt; Arabic: ? ? B?b? al-Iskandar?yah Shin?dah al-Th?lith; 3 August 1923 - 17 March 2012) was the 117th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. His episcopate lasted 40 years, 4 months, and 4 days from 14 November 1971 until his death on 17 March 2012.

His official title was Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. He was also the head of the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria. He was a conservative figure within the Church and was also respected within the Muslim community.

Born Nazir Gayed Roufail (? ?, IPA: [n?'z?i:? '?æjjed fæ'?i:l]) on 3 August 1923, he became a monk in 1954 under the name Father Antonios the Syrian after joining the Syrian Monastery of the Ever-Virgin Mary the Theotokos. In 1958, he was elevated to the priesthood. In 1962, Pope Cyril VI summoned Fr. Antonios and consecrated him General Bishop for Christian Education and as Dean of the Coptic Orthodox Theological Seminary, whereupon he assumed the name Shenouda, which was the name of the Coptic saint Shenoute the Archimandrite (lived 347/348-465/466), as well as two previous popes: Shenouda I (Episcopate 859-880) and Shenouda II.

Following the death of Pope Cyril VI on 9 March 1971, the selection process resulted in Bishop Shenouda's becoming the new Pope. He was consecrated on 14 November 1971. During his papacy, the Coptic church grew significantly. He appointed the first bishops for North American dioceses, which now contain over two hundred parishes (214 in the United States, 38 in Canada and one in Mexico), up from four in 1971. He also appointed the first Coptic bishops in Europe, Australia and South America. Within Egypt, he struggled for the welfare of his people and the Church. Pope Shenouda III was known for his commitment to ecumenism and advocated inter-denominational Christian dialogue. He devoted his writings, teachings and actions to spreading and propagating guidelines for understanding, peace, dialogue and forgiveness.

At the time of his death, Pope Shenouda III was viewed as one of the Great Patriarchs of the ancient Church of Alexandria, a well-known church father and teacher, a chief defender of the faith, and a noted Egyptian leader of the 20th and 21st centuries.

News

26 November 2019 - 2019 in spaceflight
Egypt's first ever communications satellite TIBA 1 is launched by Arianespace on a Ariane 5 rocket from the Guiana Space Centre. (Reuters)
16 November 2019 - Iran-United States relations, Iran-Saudi Arabia relations, Egypt-Iran relations, Iran-United Arab Emirates relations, Bahrain-Iran relations, Shia-Sunni relations
United States Air Force Chief of Staff David Goldfein asks Gulf States to be united amid rising tensions with Iran as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain and Egypt have divided opinions with Qatar. (Reuters)
4 November 2019 - Sinai insurgency
Egypt military kill over 80 Islamic State militants in central and North Sinai over the month. (Reuters)
12 October 2019 - Sinai insurgency
Shelling in Bir Al Abd, Egypt kills nine members of the same family. A further six people are wounded. (Gulf News)
20 September 2019 - 2019 Egyptian protests
Thousands of protestors march across Egypt, including at Tahrir Square, demanding the resignation of President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. (Al-Jazeera)

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