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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [b?a'ziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. It is considered an advanced emerging economy, having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. (Full article...)

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Slavery in Brazil by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834-1839). A slave being assaulted in 19th-century Brazil.

Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1516, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another. Later, colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions called bandeiras ("Flags", from the flag of Portugal they carried in a symbolic claiming of new lands for the country). The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.

During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil received more African slaves than any other country. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa were brought to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. Until the early 1850s, most enslaved Africans who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports, especially in Luanda (present-day Angola). (Full article...)

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Brazil is bigger than Europe, wilder than Africa, and weirder than Baffin Land.

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Marquinhos celebrating the gold medal with Brazil at the 2016 Summer Olympics

Marcos Aoás Corrêa (born 14 May 1994), commonly known as Marquinhos (Brazilian Portuguese: [ma?'k?j?us]), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a defender for Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain, whom he captains, and the Brazil national team. Mainly a central defender, he can also play as a right-back or a defensive midfielder.

He began his career at Corinthians, and after winning the 2012 Copa Libertadores he moved to Roma for an eventual fee of EUR3 million. Marquinhos was a regular in his only season as Roma reached the Coppa Italia Final. In July 2013, he moved to Paris Saint-Germain for EUR31.4 million on a five-year contract, one of the highest fees for a player under the age of 20. He has won 22 trophies at the club, including six Ligue 1 titles. Marquinhos played less frequently after the acquisition of compatriot David Luiz in 2014, returning to an integral role after the latter was sold in 2016. (Full article...)

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Bolsonaro in March 2020

Jair Messias Bolsonaro (Brazilian Portuguese: [?a'i? me'si.?z bowso'na?u, ?a'i? -]; born 21 March 1955) is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer who is the 38th president of Brazil. Elected in 2018 as a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party before cutting ties with them, he has been in office since 1January 2019. From 1991 to 2018 he served in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Bolsonaro was born in the town of Glicério, in the state of São Paulo. He graduated from the Agulhas Negras Military Academy in 1977 and served in the Brazilian Army's field artillery and parachutist units. He became known to the public in 1986, when he wrote an article for Veja magazine criticizing low wages for military officers, after which he was arrested and detained for 15 days. A year later, the same magazine accused him of planning to plant bombs in military units, which he denied. After a first-degree conviction, the Brazilian Supreme Military Court acquitted him in 1988. He moved to the reserve in 1988 with the rank of captain and ran for the Rio de Janeiro City Council that year, elected as a member of the Christian Democratic Party. In 1990 Bolsonaro was elected to the lower chamber of Congress and he was reelected six times. During his 27-year tenure as a congressman, he became known for his strong support of national conservatism. He is a vocal opponent of same-sex marriage and homosexuality, abortion, affirmative action, drug liberalization and secularism. In foreign policy, he has advocated closer relations to the United States and Israel. During the 2018 presidential campaign, he started to advocate economically liberal and pro-market policies. A polarizing and controversial politician, his views and comments, which have been described as far-right and populist, have drawn both praise and criticism in Brazil. (Full article...)

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Port of Fortaleza
Credit: Davidandrade

Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. With a population of over 3.4 million (metropolitan region), Fortaleza has an area of 313 square kilometres (121 sq mi). To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean; to the south are the cities of Pacatuba, Eusébio, Maracanaú and Itaitinga; to the east is the county of Aquiraz and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west is the city of Caucaia.

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2008 Brazilian Grand Prix o Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil o Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias o Mário de Andrade o Brazilian cruiser Bahia o Empire of Brazil o Pedro Álvares Cabral o Chagas disease o Drymoreomys o Euryoryzomys emmonsae o Fôrça Bruta o Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 o Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma o Jaguar o Lundomys o Princess Maria Amélia of Brazil o Master System o Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes o Minas Geraes-class battleship o Noronha skink o Noronhomys o USS Orizaba o Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná o José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco o Pedro I of Brazil o Pedro II of Brazil o Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil o Manuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto Alegre o Brazilian battleship São Paulo o Sonic: After the Sequel o South American dreadnought race o Thalassodromeus o Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies o Uruguayan War o Giant otter o Hawksbill sea turtle

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1995 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2000 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2000 Rio 200 o 2010 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2010 São Paulo Indy 300 o 2012 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2014 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2015 Brazilian Grand Prix o A Puro Dolor o Archaeological interest of Pedra da Gávea o Arena Corinthians o Arise (Sepultura album) o Clube Atlético Mineiro o Brainstorm (2000 film) o Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup) o Brazil at the 1994 Winter Olympics o Brazil at the 1998 Winter Olympics o Brazil at the 2014 Winter Paralympics o Gisele Bündchen o Capybara o Dorival Caymmi o o César Cielo o Clube Atlético Mineiro in international club football o Cavalera Conspiracy o Diego Costa o Ethanol fuel in Brazil o Flexible-fuel vehicles in Brazil o Fortress of Humaitá o Fruta Fresca o Ganga Bruta o Gilberto Gil o Maurício Gugelmin o History of ethanol fuel in Brazil o Hurricane Catarina o Jorge Ben (album) o Mitsuyo Maeda o RMS Magdalena (1948) o Mango Yellow o Marquinhos o The Naturalist on the River Amazons o Legacy of Pedro II of Brazil o Decline and fall of Pedro II of Brazil o Early life of Pedro II of Brazil o Pelé o Brazilian monitor Piauí o Platine War o Potential superpowers o Marie Rennotte o Revolt of the Lash o Rio de Janeiro bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics o Samba rock o Sarcófago o Basil Smallpeice o TAM Airlines Flight 3054 o Tectoy o Amon Tobin o University of Campinas o Vinicius and Tom o Martha Watts

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