Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains--most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.
Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.
Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. (Full article...)
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is the production of alcoholic beverages
and alcohol fuel
. The term is used for the production of beer
, although the word "brewing" is also used to describe the fermentation process used to create wine
. It can also refer to the process of producing sake
and soy sauce
. "Brewing" is also sometimes used to refer to any chemical mixing process.
Brewing specifically refers to the process of steeping, such as with tea and water, and extraction, usually through heat. Wine and cider technically aren't brewed, rather vinted, as the entire fruit is pressed, and then the liquid extracted. Mead isn't technically brewed, as heating often isn't used in the mixing process, and the honey is used entirely, as opposed to being heated with water, and then discarded, as are hops and barley in beer, and or tea leaves for tea, and coffee beans for coffee. Spices could technically be brewed into a mead though.
Brewing has a very long history, and archeological evidence suggests that this technique was used in ancient Egypt. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in Sumerian writings, some of the oldest known writing of any sort.
The brewing industry is part of most western economies. (Full article...)
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known as Madam Nyman
(1719-1795) was a Swedish brewer. She was a major figure in contemporary Stockholm business life and known as a benefactor of culture. She is perhaps most known for establishing the Stenborg Theatre
in partnership with Carl Stenborg
(1784). She, as well as her brothers and nephews, belonged to the political allies of king Gustav III of Sweden
among the merchant class, and he reportedly treated her as a valuable partner. (Full article...
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||It is nice when you can sit back with some friends, drink some beer and have a good time.
||-- Dave Matthews|
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(Appeltofftska Bryggeri AB) is a Swedish brewery
founded in 1836 by Anders Julius Appeltofft in Halmstad
Krönleins Brewery was founded on February 15th 1836 when grocery businessman Anders Julius Appeltofft bought an old half-timbered hospital, or "curhuset", at Stora Torg in Halmstad, Sweden, and converted it into an office and a bar. The beer was brewed in the building next door. For the first ten years he made Svensköl, a traditional sweet, low alcohol Swedish beer. Today the house is a café and is in excellent condition due to a complete renovation in 2004.
In the beginning the business was quite modest. Every step in the production process was done manually. For instance the malt mill and the waterpump were worked manually which must have been very hard work. In 1849 new ground was bought, situated a couple of hundred meters from the brewery. On the new ground there was an old bastion from early 17th century, placed next to the old moat. The purpose of the bastion was to protect the town from enemies from the west - hence the name "Wester Katt". Remains of the old city defense wall can still be seen in Krönleins's Pub. The purchase of the ground had two purposes. An ice cellar was built and control was gained over the water supply. A malting for the production of malt was also built. Below the bastion was a well with spring water, where many citizens in Halmstad fetched their water. The water was of very high quality - pure with a fresh natural taste. It is from this well that Krönleins has taken its water since the start in 1836. If you use your imagination you can picture how the water was put into huge barrels and then taken by horse carriage through town.
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La Wambrenchies beer.Credit: Jérôme Sautret (Zubro)
La Wambrechiess beer.
The following are images from various beer- and brewing-related articles on Wikipedia.
D. G. Yuengling & Son is the oldest operating brewing company in the US, established in 1829. It is also the largest craft brewer, and the 6th largest brewing company overall.
The Alulu beer receipt records a purchase of "best" beer from a brewer, c. 2050 BC from the Sumerian city of Umma in Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq).
Traditional fermenting building (center) and modern fermenting building (left) in Pilsner Urquell Brewery (Czech Republic)
Malted barley before kilning or roasting
A can of Juicy Ass IPA from Flying Monkeys Craft Brewery in Barrie, Canada
Open vessels showing fermentation taking place
Casks of real ale from British microbreweries at a beer festival
Spent grain, a brewing by-product
Modern closed fermentation vessels
Irish Craft Beer Festival, 2015
Yeast ring used by Swedish homebrewers in the 19th century to preserve the yeast between brewing sessions.
Cask ales at a beer festival, with gravity dispense
Robohop, a session IPA from Cervisiam in Oslo, Norway
Brew kettles at Brasserie La Choulette in France
Alulu beer receipt - This records a purchase of "best" beer from a brewer, c. 2050 BC from the Sumerian city of Umma in ancient Iraq.
Bill Urquhart at Litchborough Brewery
Garden of Eden
A replica of ancient Egyptian beer, brewed from emmer wheat by the Courage brewery in 1996
Bottling beer in a modern facility, 1945, Australia
Microbreweries, regional breweries, and brew pubs per capita
World beer consumption per capita
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WikiProject Beer is an association of Wikipedians with an interest in beer and beer-related subjects. They have come together to coordinate the development of beer and brewery articles here on Wikipedia. Additionally, other groups have formed other projects that entertain subjects that are directly related to beer, bartending and pubs. Additionally, the mixed drinks project covers topics that include beer cocktails. If any of these subjects pique your interest, please feel free to visit their projects. These groups would love to have you participate!