Polynesians
Get Polynesians essential facts below. View Videos or join the Polynesians discussion. Add Polynesians to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Polynesians
Polynesians
Total population
c. 2,000,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
New Zealand887,338
United States820,000[2]
French Polynesiac. 215,000 [3]
Australia210,843
Samoa192,342
Tonga103,036
Tuvalu9,234+ [4]
Chile5,682
Languages
Polynesian languages (Hawaiian, M?ori, Rapa Nui, Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan, Tuvaluan and others), English, French and Spanish
Religion
Christianity (96.1%)[5] and Polynesian mythology[6]
Related ethnic groups
other Austronesians

Polynesians are an ethnolinguistic group of closely related peoples who are native to Polynesia (islands in the Polynesian Triangle), an expansive region of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. They trace their origins to Island Southeast Asia and are part of the larger Austronesian ethnolinguistic group with an Urheimat ultimately from Taiwan. They speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.

There are an estimated 2 million ethnic Polynesians (full and part) worldwide, the vast majority of whom inhabit independent Polynesian nation states (Samoa, Niue, Cook Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu) and form minorities in Australia, Chile (Easter Island), New Zealand, France (French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna), United Kingdom Overseas Territories (Pitcairn Islands) and the United States (Hawaii and American Samoa).

Origins

The Polynesian spread of colonization of the Pacific throughout the so-called Polynesian Triangle.

Polynesians, including Fijians, Samoans, Tongans, Niueans, Cook Islands M?ori, Tahitian M?'ohi, Hawaiian M?oli, Marquesans and New Zealand M?ori, are a subset of the Austronesian peoples. They share the same origins as the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, Southeast Asia (especially the Philippines, Malaysia and eastern Indonesia), Micronesia, and Madagascar.[7] This is supported by genetic,[8] linguistic[9] and archaeological evidence.

Chronological dispersal of the Austronesian peoples[10]

There are multiple hypotheses on the ultimate origin and mode of dispersal of the Austronesian peoples, but the most widely accepted theory is that modern Austronesians originated from migrations out of Taiwan between 3000 and 1000 BC. Using relatively advanced maritime innovations like the catamaran, outrigger boats, and crab claw sails, they rapidly colonized the islands of both the Indian and the Pacific oceans. They were the first humans to cross vast distances of water on ocean-going boats.[11][10][12] Polynesians are known to have definitely originated from a branch of the Austronesian migrations in Island Melanesia, despite the popularity of rejected hypothesis like Thor Heyerdahl's belief that Polynesians are descendants of "bearded white men" who sailed on primitive rafts from South America.[13][14]

The direct ancestors of the Polynesians were the Neolithic Lapita culture, which emerged in Island Melanesia and Micronesia at around 1500 BC from a convergence of migration waves of Austronesians originating from both Island Southeast Asia to the west and an earlier Austronesian migration to Micronesia to the north. The culture was distinguished by distinct dentate-stamped pottery. However, their eastward expansion stopped when they reached the western Polynesian islands of eastern Fiji, Samoa and Tonga by around 900 BC. This remained the furthest extent of the Austronesian expansion in the Pacific for around 1,500 years, during which the Lapita culture in these islands abruptly lost the technology of making pottery for unknown reasons. They resumed their eastward migrations by around 700 AD, spreading to the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, and the Marquesas. From here, they spread further to Hawaii by 900 AD, Easter Island by 1000 AD, and finally New Zealand by 1200 AD.[10][15][16]

There are proposals that Polynesians may have also had pre-Columbian contact with the Americas. But evidence for this remains highly contentious.[17]

Genetic studies

Best-fit genomic mixture proportions of ethnic and tribal Austronesians in Island Southeast Asia and their inferred population movements (Lipson et al., 2014)[10][18]
1827 depiction of Tahitian pahi double-hulled war canoes

Analysis by Kayser et al. (2008) discovered that only 21% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of Australo-Melanesian origin, with the rest (79%) being of Austronesian origin.[19] Another study by Friedlaender et al. (2008) also confirmed that Polynesians are closer genetically to Micronesians, Taiwanese Aborigines, and Islander Southeast Asians, than to Papuans. The study concluded that Polynesians moved through Melanesia fairly rapidly, allowing only limited admixture between Austronesians and Papuans.[20] Polynesians belong almost entirely to the Haplogroup B (mtDNA) and thus the high frequencies of mtDNA B4a1a1 in the Polynesians are the result of drift and represent the descendants of a few Austronesian females who mixed with Papuan males.[21] The Polynesian population experienced a founder effect and genetic drift.[22][23] As a result of founder effect, the Polynesian may be distinctively different in both genotypically and phenotypically from the parent population from which it is derived, this is due to new population being established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population which also causes a loss of genetic variation.[24][25]

Soares et al. (2008) have argued for an older pre-Holocene Sundaland origin in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) based on mitochondrial DNA.[26] The "out of Taiwan model" was challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving in ISEA for longer than previously believed. Ancestors of the Polynesians arrived in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea at least 6,000 to 8,000 years ago.[27]

A 2014 study by Lipson et al. using whole genome data supports the findings of Kayser et al. Modern Polynesians were shown to have lower levels of admixture with Australo-Melanesians than Austronesians in Island Melanesia. Regardless, both show admixture, along with other Austronesian populations outside of Taiwan, indicating varying degrees of intermarriage between the incoming Neolithic Austronesian settlers and the preexisting Paleolithic Australo-Melanesian populations of Island Southeast Asia and Melanesia.[18][28][29]

Other studies in 2016 and 2017 also support the implications that the earliest Lapita settlers mostly bypassed New Guinea, coming directly from Taiwan or the northern Philippines. The intermarriage and admixture with Australo-Melanesian Papuans evident in the genetics of modern Polynesians (as well as Islander Melanesians) occurred after the settlement of Tonga and Vanuatu.[30][31][30][32]

People

Female dancers of the Hawaii Islands depicted by Louis Choris, c. 1816
A portrait of M?ori man, by Gottfried Lindauer.
Kava ('ava) makers (aumaga) of Samoa. A woman seated between two men with the round tanoa (or laulau) wooden bowl in front. Standing is a third man, distributor of the 'ava, holding the coconut shell cup (tauau) used for distributing the beverage.

There are an estimated 2 million ethnic Polynesians and many of mix Polynesian descent worldwide, the majority of whom live in Polynesia, the United States, Australia and New Zealand.[1] The Polynesian peoples are shown below in their distinctive ethnic and cultural groupings (estimates of the larger groups are shown):

Polynesia:

Polynesian outliers:

Physical characteristics

Polynesian persons are noted to have, on average, larger bone structure and muscle mass than Caucasian persons,[35] which has implications for BMI (Body Mass Index) comparability in measuring obesity.[36][37] Polynesians' physical characteristics help them perform well in some physical sports, including American football[38] and rugby.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "The Pacific Islands & New Zealand".
  2. ^ Population Movement in the Pacific: A Perspective on Future Prospects. Wellington: New Zealand Department of Labour Archived 2013-02-07 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ See page 80 in Landfalls of Paradise: Cruising Guide to the Pacific Islands, Earl R. Hinz & Jim Howard, University of Hawaii Press, 2006.
  4. ^ "Population of communities in Tuvalu". world-statistics.org. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ Christianity in its Global Context, 1970-2020 Society, Religion, and Mission, Center for the Study of Global Christianity
  6. ^ Wellington, Victoria University of (1 December 2017). "Arts, humanities and social sciences". victoria.ac.nz. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell (2005). The Austronesians: historical and comparative perspectives. ISBN 9781920942854.
  8. ^ "Mitochondrial DNA Provides a Link between Polynesians and Indigenous Taiwanese". PLoS Biology. 3 (8): e281. 2005. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030281. PMC 1166355.
  9. ^ "Pacific People Spread From Taiwan, Language Evolution Study Shows". ScienceDaily. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Edinur, Hisham A. (2015). "The Austronesian Diaspora: A Synthetic Total Evidence Model". Global Journal of Anthropology Research. 2 (2): 53-65. doi:10.15379/2410-2806.2015.02.02.06.
  11. ^ Meacham, Steve (11 December 2008). "Austronesians were first to sail the seas". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ Dr. Martin Richards. "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 2010.
  13. ^ Magelssen, Scott (March 2016). "White-Skinned Gods: Thor Heyerdahl, the Kon-Tiki Museum, and the Racial Theory of Polynesian Origins". TDR/The Drama Review. 60 (1): 25-49. doi:10.1162/DRAM_a_00522.
  14. ^ Coughlin, Jenna (2016). "Trouble in Paradise: Revising Identity in Two Texts by Thor Heyerdahl". Scandinavian Studies. 88 (3): 246-269. doi:10.5406/scanstud.88.3.0246. JSTOR 10.5406/scanstud.88.3.0246.
  15. ^ Heath, Helen; Summerhayes, Glenn R.; Hung, Hsiao-chun (2017). "Enter the Ceramic Matrix: Identifying the Nature of the Early Austronesian Settlement in the Cagayan Valley, Philippines". In Piper, Philip J.; Matsumara, Hirofumi; Bulbeck, David (eds.). New Perspectives in Southeast Asian and Pacific Prehistory. terra australis. 45. ANU Press. ISBN 9781760460952.
  16. ^ Carson, Mike T.; Hung, Hsiao-chun; Summerhayes, Glenn; Bellwood, Peter (January 2013). "The Pottery Trail From Southeast Asia to Remote Oceania". The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology. 8 (1): 17-36. doi:10.1080/15564894.2012.726941.
  17. ^ Jones, Terry L.; Storey, Alice A.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez-Aliaga, Jose Miguel, eds. (2011). Polynesians in America: Pre-Columbian Contacts with the New World. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759120068.
  18. ^ a b Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia" (PDF). Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4689L. doi:10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
  19. ^ Kayser, Manfred; Lao, Oscar; Saar, Kathrin; Brauer, Silke; Wang, Xingyu; Nürnberg, Peter; Trent, Ronald J.; Stoneking, Mark (2008). "Genome-wide analysis indicates more Asian than Melanesian ancestry of Polynesians". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 194-198. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.010. PMC 2253960. PMID 18179899.
  20. ^ Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Reed, Floyd A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Kidd, Judith R.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Lea, Rodney A.; et al. (2008). "The genetic structure of Pacific Islanders". PLoS Genetics. 4 (1): e19. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0040019. PMC 2211537. PMID 18208337.
  21. ^ Assessing Y-chromosome Variation in the South Pacific Using Newly Detected, By Krista Erin Latham [1] Archived 2015-07-13 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ http://www.pnas.org/content/95/15/9047.full.pdf
  23. ^ Kallen, Evelyn (1982-01-01). The Western Samoan Kinship Bridge: A Study in Migration, Social Change, and the New Ethnicity. Brill Archive. ISBN 978-9004065420.
  24. ^ Provine, W. B. (2004). "Ernst Mayr: Genetics and speciation". Genetics. 167 (3): 1041-6. PMC 1470966. PMID 15280221.
  25. ^ Templeton, A. R. (1980). "The theory of speciation via the founder principle". Genetics. 94 (4): 1011-38. PMC 1214177. PMID 6777243.
  26. ^ Martin Richards. "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 2017.
  27. ^ DNA Sheds New Light on Polynesian Migration, by Sindya N. Bhanoo, Feb. 7, 2011, The New York Times
  28. ^ Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (19 August 2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia". Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4689L. doi:10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
  29. ^ Kayser, M.; Brauer, S; Cordaux, R; Casto, A; Lao, O; Zhivotovsky, L. A.; Moyse-Faurie, C; Rutledge, R. B.; Schiefenhoevel, W; Gil, D; Lin, A. A.; Underhill, P. A.; Oefner, P. J.; Trent, R. J.; Stoneking, M (2006). "Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: MtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (11): 2234-44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093. PMID 16923821.
  30. ^ a b Pontus Skoglund; et al. (27 October 2016). "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific". Nature. 538 (7626): 510-513. Bibcode:2016Natur.538..510S. doi:10.1038/nature19844. PMC 5515717. PMID 27698418.
  31. ^ Skoglund, P; Posth, C; Sirak, K; Spriggs, M; Valentin, F; Bedford, S; Clark, GR; Reepmeyer, C; Petchey, F; Fernandes, D; Fu, Q; Harney, E; Lipson, M; Mallick, S; Novak, M; Rohland, N; Stewardson, K; Abdullah, S; Cox, MP; Friedlaender, FR; Friedlaender, JS; Kivisild, T; Koki, G; Kusuma, P; Merriwether, DA; Ricaut, FX; Wee, JT; Patterson, N; Krause, J; Pinhasi, R; Reich, D (3 October 2016). "Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific - Supplementary Note 1: The Teouma site / Supplementary Note 2: The Talasiu site". Nature. 538 (7626): 510-513. doi:10.1038/nature19844. PMC 5515717. PMID 27698418.
  32. ^ "First ancestry of Ni-Vanuatu is Asian: New DNA Discoveries recently published". Island Business. December 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  33. ^ "M?ori population estimates: At 30 June 2018 | Stats NZ". www.stats.govt.nz. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "One in six M?ori now living in Australia, research shows". Stuff. Retrieved .
  35. ^ Stride, Peter (10 January 2016). "Polynesian Bones". British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 16 (7): 1-9. doi:10.9734/BJMMR/2016/25651. Retrieved 2018 – via ResearchGate.
  36. ^ https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324695104578417043182612254[full ]
  37. ^ Snowdon, Wendy; Malakellis, Mary; Millar, Lynne; Swinburn, Boyd (2014). "Ability of body mass index and waist circumference to identify risk factors for non-communicable disease in the Pacific Islands". Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 8 (1): e36-45. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2012.06.005. PMID 24548575.
  38. ^ Sonny, Julian. "Why Polynesians Are Genetically Engineered To Be The Best Football Players In The World". elitedaily.com. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ "Why Pacific-island nations are so good at rugby". The Economist. Retrieved 2018.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Polynesians
 



 



 
Music Scenes