Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers (until 1996, jointly with the President). Legislative power is vested in the parliament (Verkhovna Rada). Scholars have described Ukraine's political system as "weak, fractured, highly personal and ideologically vacuous while the judiciary and media fail to hold politicians to account" (Dr. Taras Kuzio in 2009). Ukrainian politics has been categorised as "over-centralised" which is seen as both a legacy of the Soviet system and caused by a fear of separatism.Corruption in Ukraine is rampant, and widely cited, at home and abroad, as a defining characteristic (and decisive handicap) of Ukrainian society, politics and government.
Shortly after becoming independent in 1991, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. A new, democratic constitution was adopted on 28 June 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection of basic human rights and liberties, and a semi-presidential form of government.
The Constitution was amended in December 2004 to ease the resolution of the 2004 presidential election crisis. The consociationalist agreement transformed the form of government in a semi-presidentialism in which the President of Ukraine had to cohabit with a powerful Prime Minister. The Constitutional Amendments took force between January and May 2006.
The Constitutional Court of Ukraine in October 2010 overturned the 2004 amendments, considering them unconstitutional. The present valid Constitution of Ukraine is therefore the 1996 text. On November 18, 2010 The Venice Commission published its report titled The Opinion of the Constitutional Situation in Ukraine in Review of the Judgement of Ukraine's Constitutional Court, in which it stated "It also considers highly unusual that far-reaching constitutional amendments, including the change of the political system of the country - from a parliamentary system to a parliamentary presidential one - are declared unconstitutional by a decision of the Constitutional Court after a period of 6 years. ... As Constitutional Courts are bound by the Constitution and do not stand above it, such decisions raise important questions of democratic legitimacy and the rule of law".
On February 21, 2014 the parliament passed a law that reinstated the December 8, 2004 amendments of the constitution. This was passed under simplified procedure without any decision of the relevant committee and was passed in the first and the second reading in one voting by 386 deputies. The law was approved by 140 MPs of the Party of Regions, 89 MPs of Batkivshchyna, 40 MPs of UDAR, 32 of the Communist Party, and 50 independent lawmakers. According to Radio Free Europe, however, the measure was not signed by the then-President Viktor Yanukovych, who was subsequently removed from office.
The Article 1 of the Constitution defines Ukraine in particular sovereign, independent, social (welfare) state.
According to the Article 5 of the Constitution, the bearer of sovereignty and the single source of power in Ukraine are people. The people exercise their power directly and through state and local authorities. Nobody can usurp power in Ukraine.
The Article 15 of the Constitution established that public life in Ukraine is based on principles of political, economical and ideological diversity. No ideology could be recognized by the state as mandatory.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by law, although religious organizations are required to register with local authorities and with the central government. The Article 35 of the Constitution defines that no religion could be recognized by the state as mandatory, while church and religious organizations in Ukraine are separated from state.
Minority rights are respected in accordance with a 1991 law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schools and cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting personal business. According to the Ukrainian constitution, Ukrainian is the only official state language. However, in Crimea and some parts of eastern Ukraine--areas with substantial ethnic Russian minorities--use of Russian is widespread in official business.
Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed by law, but authorities sometimes interfere with the news media through different forms of pressure (see Freedom of the press in Ukraine). In particular, the failure of the government to conduct a thorough, credible, and transparent investigation into the 2000 disappearance and murder of independent journalist Georgiy Gongadze has had a negative effect on Ukraine's international image. Over half of Ukrainians polled by the Razumkov Center in early October 2010 (56.6%) believed political censorship existed in Ukraine.
Official labor unions have been grouped under the Federation of Labor Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during 1992, among them the Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine, have formed the Consultative Council of Free Labor Unions. While the right to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands are prohibited.
|President||Volodymyr Zelensky||Servant of the People||20 May 2019|
|Prime Minister||Volodymyr Groysman||Petro Poroshenko Bloc||14 April 2016|
The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The President nominates the Prime Minister, who must be confirmed by parliament. The Prime-minister and cabinet are de jure appointed by the Parliament on submission of the President and Prime Minister respectively. Pursuant to Article 114 of the Constitution of Ukraine.
The Verkhovna Rada (Parliament of Ukraine) has 450 members, elected for a four-year term (five-year between 2006 and 2012 with the 2004 amendments). Prior to 2006, half of the members were elected by proportional representation and the other half by single-seat constituencies. Starting with the March 2006 parliamentary election, all 450 members of the Verkhovna Rada were elected by party-list proportional representation. The Verkhovna Rada initiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget.
The overall trust in legislative powers in Ukraine is very low.
Ukrainian parties tend not to have clear-cut ideologies but incline to centre around civilizational and geostrategic orientations (rather than economic and socio-political agendas, as in Western politics), around personalities and business interests. Party membership is lower than 1% of the population eligible to vote (compared to an average of 4.7% in the European Union).
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|Petro Poroshenko Bloc||People's Front||Opposition Bloc||Self Reliance||Radical Party||Fatherland||Revival[a 1]||People's Will[a 2][a 3]||Non-affiliated[a 4]|
|End of previous convocation||DNP[a 5]||DNP[a 6]||DNP[a 7]||DNP||1||86||41||35||93||445||5|
|Seats won in 2014 election||132||82||29||33||22||19||DNP||DNP||96||423||27|
|November 27, 2014
|December 2, 2014||147||420||30|
|February 5, 2015||150||82||31||21||18||42||422||28|
|June 24, 2015||144||81||43||22||19||422||28|
|October 22, 2015||142||26||20||48||422||28|
|February 13, 2016||136||23||53||422||28|
|April 11, 2016||141||47||422||28|
|April 12, 2016||145[a 8]||19||44||422||28|
|July 19, 2016||142||42||422||28|
|September 21, 2016||143||21||46||422||28|
|December 23, 2016||142||20||24||18||48||422||28|
|September 10, 2017||138||20||17||51||422||28|
|July 31, 2017||135||25||24||19||55||422||28|
|November 22, 2018||135||38||60||422||28|
|Latest voting share||32.7%||19.2%||10.2%||6.2%||4.7%||4.7%||6.2%||4.0%||12.1%||93.8%||6.2%|
|Individual parties||years in parliament||Block association (years)|
|People's Movement of Ukraine||1990-2014||Our Ukraine Bloc (2002-2006)|
Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
|Communist Party of Ukraine||1994-2014|
|Party of Regions||1997-2014||For United Ukraine (2002)|
|For United Ukraine (2002)|
Lytvyn Bloc (2006-2014)
|People's Self-Defense (also as Forward, Ukraine!)||2002-2014||Our Ukraine Bloc (2002-2006)|
Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
|For Ukraine!||2012-2014||Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)|
|Social Christian Party||2012-2014||Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)|
|Civil Position||2012-2014||Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)|
|Ukrainian Social Democratic Party||2002 - 2012||Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2012)|
|Ukrainian Platform "Assembly"||2002 - 2006
2006 - 2012
|Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2006) |
Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
|Our Ukraine||2006 - 2012||Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)|
|Solidarity (Ukraine)||2002 - 2006||Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)|
|Ukrainian People's Party||2002 - 2006
2007 - 2012
|Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006) |
Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
|Republican Christian Party||2002 - 2006||Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)|
|Youth Party of Ukraine||2002 - 2006||Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)|
|Motherland Defenders Party||2007 - 2012||Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)|
|It's time!||2007 - 2012||Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)|
|Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists||1994 - 2002
2002 - 2007
|National Front (1998-2002)|
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (Our Ukraine) (2002-2007)
|Ukrainian Republican Party||1994 - 2002||National Front (1998-2002)|
|Labour Party Ukraine||2007 - 2012||Bloc of Volodymyr Lytvyn (2007-2012)|
|Socialist Party of Ukraine||1994 - 2007||Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)|
|Peasant Party of Ukraine||1994 - 2002||Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)|
|Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs||2002 - 2006
2006 - 2007
|For United Ukraine (2002-2006) |
Our Ukraine bloc (2006-2007)
|People's Democratic Party||1998 - 2006||For United Ukraine (2002-2006)|
|Labour Ukraine||2002 - 2006||For United Ukraine (2002-2006)|
|Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united)||1994 - 2006|
|Democratic Party of Ukraine||1994 - 2006||Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)|
|Democratic Union||2002 - 2006||Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)|
|Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine||2002 - 2006|
|Ukrainian Marine Party||2002 - 2006|
|Unity||2002 - 2006||Unity (2002-2006)|
|Social Democratic Union||2002 - 2006||Unity (2002-2006)|
|Young Ukraine||2002 - 2006||Unity (2002-2006)|
|Ukrainian Party of Justice - Union of Veterans, Handicapped, Chornobilians, Afghans||2002 - 2006||Unity (2002-2006)|
|Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine||1998 - 2002|
|Party of Greens of Ukraine||1998 - 2002|
|Hromada||1998 - 2002|
|Party "Union"||1998 - 2002|
|Ukrainian National Assembly||1994 - 1998|
|Party of Labor||1994 - 1998|
|Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party||1994 - 1998|
|Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine||1994 - 1998|
|Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine||1994 - 1998|
|Social Democratic Party of Ukraine||1994 - 1998|
|Party of Economic Revival of Crimea||1994 - 1998|
|Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union)||1937 - 1994|
A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name Reforms for the Future existed between 16 February 2011 and 15 December 2012. A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name For Peace and Stability existed between 2 July 2014 and 27 November 2014.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) was prohibited in 1991, however its members were not excluded from the Ukrainian parliament. They formed a parliamentary faction of the Socialist Party of Ukraine. For the 1994 parliamentary elections however the ban on communist parties was lifted and there were two parties with similar ideologies running for parliament the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine that was reestablished in 1993.
Originally scheduled to take place on 29 March 2015, the date was changed to 25 May 2014 following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.Petro Poroshenko won the elections with 54.7% of the votes. His closest competitor was Yulia Tymoshenko, who emerged with 12.81% of the votes. The Central Election Commission reported voter turnout at over 60% excluding those regions not under government control, Crimea and a large part of the Donbass. Since Poroshenko obtained an absolute majority in the first round, a run-off second ballot was unnecessary.
|Yulia Tymoshenko||All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"||2,310,050||12.81|
|Oleh Lyashko||Radical Party||1,500,377||8.32|
|Anatoliy Hrytsenko||Civil Position||989,029||5.48|
|Mykhailo Dobkin||Party of Regions||546,138||3.03|
|Petro Symonenko||Communist Party of Ukraine||272,723||1.51|
|Oleh Tyahnybok||All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda"||210,476||1.16|
|Dmytro Yarosh||Right Sector||127,772||0.70|
|Vasyl Kuybida||People's Movement of Ukraine||12,391||0.06|
|Oleksandr Klymenko||Ukrainian People's Party||10,542||0.05|
|Registered voters/turnout||29,625,200 (without FED)
|60.19 (without FED)|
|Source: CEC[dead link]|
|Party of Regions||6,116,815||30.00||4.37||72||113||10|
|Fatherland (including United Opposition)[a]||5,208,390||25.55||5.17[b]||62||39||55|
|Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (UDAR) of Vitali Klitschko||2,847,878||13.97||New||34||6||New|
|Communist Party of Ukraine||2,687,246||13.18||7.79||32||--||5|
|Party of Natalia Korolevska "Ukraine - Forward!"||322,202||1.58||New||--||--||--||New|
|Radical Party of Oleh Lyashko||221,136||1.08||New||--||1||New|
|Party of Pensioners of Ukraine||114,198||0.56||0.41[d]||--||--||--||0|
|Socialist Party of Ukraine||93,081||0.46||2.41||--||--||--||0|
|Party of Greens of Ukraine||70,316||0.35||0.06||--||--||--||0|
|Ukrainian Party "Green Planet"||70,117||0.35||--||--||--||--||0|
|Ukraine of the Future||38,544||0.19||New||--||--||--||New|
|Political Association "Native Fatherland"||32,724||0.16||New||--||--||--||New|
|People's Labor Union of Ukraine||22,854||0.11||New||--||--||--||New|
|All-Ukrainian Association "Community"||17,678||0.08||--||--||--||--||0|
|Liberal Party of Ukraine||15,566||0.07||--||--||--||--||0|
|Total valid votes||20,388,138||100||225||220||445|
|Invalid ballot papers||409,068||1.97|
|Vacant (constituencies with no result)||5|
|Source: CEC (Proportional votes, Single-member constituencies)|
|Candidates||Nominating Party||First round||Second round|
|Viktor Yanukovych||Party of Regions||8,686,642||35.32||12,481,266||48.95|
|Yulia Tymoshenko||All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"||6,159,810||25.05||11,593,357||45.47|
|Serhiy Tihipko||Strong Ukraine||3,211,198||13.05|
|Petro Symonenko||Communist Party of Ukraine||872,877||3.54|
|Volodymyr Lytvyn||People's Party||578,883||2.35|
|Oleh Tyahnybok||All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom"||352,282||1.43|
|Oleksandr Moroz||Socialist Party of Ukraine||95,169||0.38|
|Yuriy Kostenko||Ukrainian People's Party||54,376||0.22|
|Liudmyla Suprun||People's Democratic Party||47,349||0.19|
|Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine|
The first round of voting took place on January 17, 2010. Eighteen candidates nominated for election in which incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko was voted out of office having received only 5.45% of the vote. The two highest polling candidates, Viktor Yanukovych (34.32%) and Yulia Tymoshenko (25.05%), will face each other in a final run-off ballot scheduled to take place on February 7, 2010
|Parties and coalitions||Votes||%||±pp||Seats||+/-|
|Party of Regions||8,013,895||34.37||2.23||11|
|Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc||Fatherland
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party
Reforms and Order Party
|Our Ukraine -- People's Self-Defense||Our Ukraine
People's Movement of Ukraine
Ukrainian People's Party
Ukrainian Republican Party "Sobor"
Christian Democratic Union
European Party of Ukraine
Motherland Defenders Party
|Communist Party of Ukraine||1,257,291||5.39||1.72||6|
|Lytvyn Bloc||People's Party
Labour Party of Ukraine
|Socialist Party of Ukraine||668,234||2.87||2.83||--||33|
|Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine||309,008||1.33||1.60[a]||--||0|
|Party of Greens of Ukraine||94,505||0.41||0.13||--||0|
|Ukrainian Regional Asset (Hurray!)||People's Democratic Party
Democratic Party of Ukraine
Republican Christian Party
|Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed)||68,602||0.29||--[c]||--||0|
|Party of Free Democrats||50,852||0.22||New||--||New|
|Bloc of the Party of Pensioners of Ukraine||Party of Pensioners of Ukraine
Party of Protection of Pensioners of Ukraine
|Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine||33,489||0.14||0.10||--||0|
|Ukrainian People's Bloc||Ukraine United
For the Welfare and Protection of the People
|Peasants' Bloc "Agrarian Ukraine"||Rural Revival Party
|Christian Bloc||Social Christian Party
Ecology and Social Protection
|All-Ukrainian Community||Party of Peace and Unity
National-Democratic Association "Ukraine"
Conscience of Ukraine
Political Party of Small and Medium-sized Businesses of Ukraine
|Party of People's Trust||5,342||0.02||0.10||--||0|
|Invalid ballot papers||379,658||1.63||0.32|
|Source: Central Electoral Commission|
The initial second round of the Presidential Election 2004 (on November 17, 2004) was followed by the Orange Revolution, a series of peaceful protests that resulted in the nullification of the second round. The Supreme Court of Ukraine ordered a repeat of the re-run to be held on December 26, 2004, and asked the law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of election fraud.
|Candidates -- nominating parties||Votes first round 31-Oct-04||%||Votes run-off 21-Nov-04||%||Votes rerun 26-Dec-04||%|
|Viktor Yushchenko -- Self-nomination||11,188,675||39.90||14,222,289||46.61||15,115,712||51.99|
|Viktor Yanukovych -- Party of Regions||11,008,731||39.26||15,093,691||49.46||12,848,528||44.20|
|Oleksandr Moroz -- Socialist Party of Ukraine||1,632,098||5.82|
|Petro Symonenko -- Communist Party of Ukraine||1,396,135||4.97|
|Nataliya Vitrenko -- Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine||429,794||1.53|
|Participation rate from 37,613,022||74.54||81.12||77.28|
|Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine. On December 3, the Supreme Court of Ukraine declared the results of the November 21, 2004 run-off ballot to be invalid. The re-run ballot was held on December 26, 2004.|
Laws, acts of the parliament and the Cabinet, presidential edicts, and acts of the Crimean parliament (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) may be nullified by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, when they are found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.
The Constitution of Ukraine provides for trials by jury. This has not yet been implemented in practice. Moreover, some courts provided for by legislation as still in project, as is the case for, e.g., the Court of Appeals of Ukraine. The reform of the judicial branch is presently under way. Important is also the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine, granted with the broad rights of control and supervision.
Administrative divisions of Ukraine are 24 oblasts (regions), with each oblast further divided into rayons (districts). The current administrative divisions remained the same as the local administrations of the Soviet Union. The heads of the oblast and rayon are appointed and dismissed by the President of Ukraine and serve as representatives of the central government in Kyiv. They govern over locally elected assemblies. This system encourages regional elites to compete fiercely for control over the central government and the position of the president.
During 1992, a number of pro-Russian political organizations in Crimea advocated secession of Crimea and annexation to Russia. During USSR times Crimea was ceded from Russia to Ukraine in 1954 by First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to mark the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining significant cultural and economic autonomy, thus creating the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
The Crimean peninsula--while under Ukraininan sovereignty, served as site for major military bases of both Ukrainian and Russian forces, and was heavily populated by ethnic Russians.
In early 2014, Ukraine's pro-Russian president, Viktor Yanukovich, was ousted by Ukraininans over his refusal to ally Ukraine with the European Union, rather than Russia. In response, Russia invaded Crimea in February 2014 and occupied it.
On 18 March 2014, Russia and the new, self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Russian Federation. In response, the UN General Assembly passed non-binding resolution 68/262 declaring the referendum invalid, and officially supporting Ukraine's claim to Crimea. Although Russia administers the peninsula as two federal subjects, Ukraine and the majority of countries do not recognise Russia's annexation.
BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS (participating), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee
Center for Adaptation of Civil Service to the Standards of EU - public institution established by the Decree of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine to facilitate administrative reform in Ukraine and to enhance the adaptation of the civil service to the standards of the European Union.
Yanukovych, however, failed to sign the measure.