Political Divisions of Taiwan (1895-1945)
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Political Divisions of Taiwan 1895%E2%80%931945

Taiwan was under Japanese rule after the First Sino-Japanese War, as per the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895. There were still several changes until the Japanese political system was adopted in 1920.

Introduction

Administrative divisions of Taiwan by types and times. Like the administrative divisions in mainland Japan, most of them are translated to "prefectures" in English.

Number of divisions
Start date End date Timespan Summary Start date End date Timespan Summary
May 1895 Aug 1895 3 3 Ken, 1 Ch? May 1901 Nov 1901 7 3 Ken, 4 Ch?
Aug 1895 Mar 1896 7 1 Ken, 2 Minseishibu, 1 Ch? Nov 1901 Oct 1909 95 20 Ch?
Apr 1896 Jun 1897 15 3 Ken, 1 Ch? Oct 1909 Aug 1920 130 12 Ch?
Jun 1897 Jun 1898 12 6 Ken, 3 Ch? Sep 1920 Jun 1926 70 5 Sh?, 2 Ch?
Jun 1898 Apr 1901 34 3 Ken, 3 Ch? Jul 1926 Oct 1945 232 5 Sh?, 3 Ch?
Types of the divisions
Name Kanji Kana
Ken ?
Sh? ?
Ch? ?
Minseishibu ?

Early years (1895-1901)

The political divisions changed frequently between 1895 and 1901.

Date May. 1895 - Aug. 1895 Aug. 1895 - Mar. 1896 Mar. 1896 - Jun. 1897
Names Taihoku Ken Taihoku Ken Taihoku Ken
Taiwan Ken Taiwan Minseishibu ? Taich? Ken ?
Tainan Ken Tainan Minseishibu ? Tainan Ken
H?kot? Ch? ? H?kot? Ch? ? H?kot? Ch? ?
Div. No. 3 Ken, 1 Ch? 1 Ken, 2 Minseishibu, 1 Ch? 3 Ken, 1 Ch?
Date Jun. 1897 - Jun. 1898 Jun. 1898 - Apr. 1901 May. 1901 - Nov. 1901
Names Taihoku Ken Taihoku Ken Taihoku Ken
Shinchiku Ken
Taich? Ken ? Taich? Ken ? Taich? Ken ?
Kagi Ken ?
Tainan Ken Tainan Ken Tainan Ken
H?zan Ken K?shun Ch?
Giran Ch? Giran Ch? Giran Ch?
Tait? Ch? ? Tait? Ch? ? Tait? Ch? ?
H?ko Ch? H?ko Ch? H?ko Ch?
Div. No. 6 Ken, 3 Ch? 3 Ken, 3 Ch? 3 Ken, 4 Ch?

Ch? (1901-1920)

The former system was abolished 11 November 1901, and twenty local administrative offices (ch?) were established.[1] Usage of Ken divisions was discontinued.

Structural hierarchy

Administrative divisions of Taiwan in 1901.[2] The red line marks the approximate boundary separating savage district and territories under actual Japanese administration.
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Prefecture
? ch?
Subprefecture
shich?
District
? ku
Town
? gai
Village
? j?

Prefectures

Nov. 1901 - Oct. 1909 Oct. 1909 - Aug. 1920
Taihoku Ch? ? Taihoku Ch? ?
K?run Ch? ?
Shink? Ch? ?
Giran Ch?
Giran Ch?
T?shien Ch? ? T?en Ch? ?
Shinchiku Ch? ? Shinchiku Ch? ?
By?ritsu Ch?
Taich? Ch?
Taich? Ch?
Sh?ka Ch? ?
Nant? Ch? ? Nant? Ch? ?
Toroku Ch?
Kagi Ch?
Kagi Ch?
Ensuik? Ch? ?
Tainan Ch? ?
Tainan Ch? ?
H?zan Ch? ?
Banshory? Ch? ? ? Ak? Ch?
Ak? Ch?
K?shun Ch?
Tait? Ch? ? Tait? Ch? ?
Karenk? Ch? ?
H?ko Ch? H?ko Ch?
20 Ch? 12 Ch?
  • Shink?, By?ritsu, Toroku, Ensuik? were split and merge with the two Ch? in the right.

Population

Population of Formosa according to census taken 31 December 1904, arranged by district.[3]

Sh? and Ch? (1920-1945)

Political division of Taiwan
Second level political division of Taiwan
  Cities / ? (shi, chh?)
  Districts / ? (gun, k?n)
  Subprefectures / (shich?, chi-thia?)

Under a "D?ka policy" () in which the Japanese considered the Taiwanese to be separate but equal, the political divisions in Taiwan became similar to the system used in mainland Japan in 1920.

Structural hierarchy

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
Prefecture
? sh? (5)
? ch? (3)
City
? shi (11)
?aza koaza
District
? gun (51)
or
Subprefecture
shich? (2)
Town
? gai (67)
Village
? j? (264)
Aboriginal Area
banchi

Prefectures

Name Kanji Kana No. of Subdivisions Wade-Giles
City District Subp.
Taihoku Prefecture ? 3 9 Taipei
Shinchiku Prefecture ? 1 8 Hsinchu
Taich? Prefecture 2 11 Taichung
Tainan Prefecture ? 2 10 Tainan
Takao Prefecture 2 7 Kaohsiung
Karenk? Prefecture ? 1 3 Hualien Port
Tait? Prefecture ? 3 Taitung
H?ko Prefecture 2 Penghu
  • H?ko Prefecture was divided from Takao Prefecture in 1926

Cities

There were 11 cities in Taiwan in 1945. Most of them are still the most populous municipalities in the country today. The ?aza () in the city center may be named ch? (?).

Prefecture Name Kanji Kana Wade-Giles Prefecture Name Kanji Kana Wade-Giles
Taihoku Taihoku City Taipei Tainan Tainan City Tainan
K?run City Keelung Kagi City Chiayi
Giran City ? Yilan Takao Takao City ? Kaohsiung
Shinchiku Shinchiku City Hsinchu Heit? City Pingtung
Taich? Taich? City Taichung Karenk? Karenk? City ? Hualien
Sh?ka City Changhua

Population

The 1941 (Sh?wa 16) census of Taiwan was 6,249,468. 93.33% of the population were Taiwanese which consisted of both Han Chinese and "civilized" Taiwanese aborigines. Tainan had the largest population followed by Taich? and Taihoku. The largest concentration of ethnic Japanese were in Taihoku followed by Takao and Tainan.

Area Japanese Taiwanese Korean Other Total
Taihoku Prefecture 153,928 1,053,372 1,051 25,531 1,233,882
Shinchiku Prefecture 20,693 815,274 150 1,894 838,011
Taich? Prefecture 46,371 1,329,620 333 3,863 1,380,187
Tainan Prefecture 53,446 1,489,621 253 7,375 1,550,695
Takao Prefecture 59,633 863,313 598 6,839 930,383
Karenk? Prefecture 20,914 130,720 119 2,032 153,785
Tait? Prefecture 7,078 85,068 35 957 93,138
H?ko Prefecture 3,619 65,694   74 69,387
Total 365,682 5,832,682 2,539 48,565 6,249,468
Percentage 5.85% 93.33% 0.04% 0.78% 100%

Changes in 1945

When the Republic of China began to rule Taiwan in 1945, the government simply changed the names of the divisions, and named the Aboriginal areas.

Before After
Level Name Character Japanese
Hepburn
Taiwanese
Pe?h-?e-j?
Name Character Mandarin
Pinyin
Taiwanese
Pe?h-?e-j?
Level
1 Prefecture ? sh? chiu County ? xiàn ko?n 1
? ch? thia?
2 City ? shi chh? Provincial city ? shì chh?
County-administered city xiànxiáshì ko?n-hat-chh? 2
District ? gun k?n County-controlled district [zh] xiànxiáq? ko?n-hat-khu
Subprefecture shich? chi-thia?
3 Town ? gai ke Urban township ? zhèn tìn 3
Village ? j? tsng Rural township ? xi?ng hiong
Aboriginal areas banchi huan-t? Mountain indigenous township [zh] sh?ndì xi?ng sua?-t? hiong

See also

References

  1. ^ Davidson (1903), pp. 597-8: "In place of the former system, which divided the island into 3 prefectures and 3 prefectures of second class, and which was abolished November 11th, 1901, local administrative offices known as "Cho" have been established at the following points: Taihoku, Kelung, Giran (Gilan), Shinko (Chim-hua), Toshien (Tao-hong), Shinchiku (Teck-cham), Bioritsu (Maoli), Taichu, Shoka (Chang-wha), Nanto (Nam-tau), Toroku (Tau-lak), Kagi, Yensuiko (Kiam-tsui kang), Tainan, Banshorio (Han-chu-liao), Hozan (Fang-shan), Ako (A-kau), Koshun (Heng-chun), Taito (Tai-tong), and Boko (Pang-hoo). The Administrative or District Offices (Cho) are in charge of chiefs of Sonin rank, who are assisted by clerks, police inspectors, assistant experts, interpreters, and assistant police, all of Hannin rank. These officers of Hannin rank number 1230 for the whole island. The administration of Formosa, under the direction and superintendence of the Governor General, is entrusted to these district offices."
  2. ^ Davidson (1903), map.
  3. ^ Takekoshi (1907), p. 199.

Bibliography

  • Davidson, James W. (1903). "Chapter XXXI: Formosa of To-day". The Island of Formosa, Past and Present : history, people, resources, and commercial prospects : tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. OCLC 1887893. OL 6931635M.
  • Takekoshi, Yosabur? (1907). "Chapter XIII: Population and future development of the island resources". Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.

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