Polish Phonology
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Polish Phonology

The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels. The vowel system is relatively simple, with just six oral monophthongs and two nasals, while the consonant system is much more complex.


Polish oral vowels depicted on a vowel diagram, from Roc?awski (1976:75). Main allophones (in black) are in broad transcription, and positional allophones (in red and green) are in narrow transcription.

The Polish vowel system consists of six oral monophthongs and two nasal diphthongs. Vowel nasality in Polish is partially preserved from Proto-Slavic, having been lost in most other modern Slavic languages.

Monophthong phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ? u
Mid ? ?
Open a

Close vowels

  • /i/ is close front unrounded .[1][2]
  • /?/ is close-mid advanced central unrounded .[1][2]
    • Older sources describe this vowel differently:
      • According to Roc?awski (1976), it is near-close central unrounded , with a close-mid central unrounded allophone being optional before /r/ and in some unstressed positions.
      • According to Wierzchowska (1971) and Jassem (1971), it is near-close near-front unrounded . However, according to Roc?awski (1976), this realization is present only in northeastern dialects.
  • /u/ is close back rounded .[1][2] Between soft consonants, it is somewhat fronted [u?].

Mid vowels

  • /?/ is open-mid front unrounded .[1][2] According to the British phonetician John C. Wells, it is often noticeably centralized []: somewhat closer to a central vowel .[3]
    • There is no complete agreement about the realization of /?/ between soft consonants:
  • /?/ is open-mid back.[1][2][4]
    • There is no complete agreement about the rounding of /?/:
      • According to Gussmann (2007), it is simply "rounded" .[2]
      • According to Roc?awski (1976), it is usually somewhat rounded [], but sometimes, it is pronounced with neutral lips . In the latter case, the lack of rounding is compensated for by a stronger retraction of the tongue.[5]
      • According to Wierzchowska (1967), it is unrounded .
    • There is no complete agreement about the realization of /?/ between soft consonants:
      • According to Roc?awski (1976), it can be any of the following: open-mid advanced back rounded [], slightly raised open-mid back rounded [] or mid advanced back rounded [6]
      • According to Wi?niewski (2001), it is close-mid advanced back rounded .

Open vowels

  • Most sources[7] describe the main allophone of /a/ as open central unrounded . However, Gussmann (2007) describes it as open front unrounded .[2]
    • There is no complete agreement about the realization of /a/ between soft consonants:
Example words (click on a word to hear its pronunciation)
IPA Polish script Example
i About this soundmi? ('teddy bear')
e About this soundten ('this one')
y About this soundmysz ('mouse')
a About this soundptak ('bird')
u/ó About this soundbum ('boom')
o About this soundkot ('cat')
? About this soundw??e ('snakes')
? About this soundw?? ('snake')

Nasal vowels do not feature uniform nasality over their duration. Phonetically, they consist of an oral vowel followed by a nasal semivowel (s? is pronounced [s?w?], which sounds closer to Portuguese são [sw?] than French sont [s] - all three words mean "[they] are"). Therefore, they are phonetically diphthongs.[8] (For nasality following other vowel nuclei, see § Allophony below.) /? ? ? / are also less commonly transcribed /e ? o ? õ/ respectively, such as by the PWN-Oxford Polish-English Dictionary.[9]


The vowels /?/ and /i/ have largely complementary distribution. Either vowel may follow a labial consonant, as in mi ('to me') and my ('we'). Elsewhere, however, /i/ is usually restricted to word-initial position and positions after palatal consonants and the palatalized velars, while /?/ cannot appear in those positions (see § Hard and soft consonants below). In some phonological descriptions of Polish that make a phonemic distinction between palatized and unpalatized labials, [?] and [i] may thus be treated as allophones of a single phoneme. However, /i/ appears outside its usual positions in some foreign-derived words, as in chipsy ('potato chips') and tir ('large lorry', see TIR). In the past, /?/ was closer to , which is acoustically more similar to [i].

Nasal vowels do not occur except before a fricative and in word-final position. When the letters ? and ? appear before stops and affricates, they indicate an oral or followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following consonant. For example, k?t is [k?nt] ('angle'), g?ba ('mouth') is ['mba], and pi ('five') is [pjt],[10] as if they were spelled *kont, *gemba, and *pie. Before /l/ or /w/, nasality is lost altogether and the vowels are pronounced as oral or . It is also very common to denasalize // to in word-final position, as in b?d? /'b?n.d?/ "I will be".

Historical development

Distinctive vowel length was inherited from late Proto-Slavic, with some changes (for example, stressed acute and circumflex vowels, and some long vowels occurring after the stress, were shortened). Additional vowel lengths were introduced in Proto-Polish (as in other West Slavic languages) as a result of compensatory lengthening when a yer in the next syllable disappeared. If a yer (or other vowel) disappeared, the preceding vowel became long (unless it was also a yer, in which case it became a short e).

This system of vowel lengths is well preserved in Czech and to a lesser degree in Slovak. In the emerging modern Polish, however, the long vowels were shortened again but sometimes (depending on dialect) with a change in quality (the vowels tended to become higher). The latter changes came to be incorporated into the standard language only in the case of long o and the long nasal vowel, mostly for vowels located before voiced obstruents. The vowel shift may thus be presented as follows:

  • long oral /a:/ > short oral /a/ (certain dialects: /?/, /?/)
  • long oral /e:/ > short oral /?/ (certain dialects: /e/, /?/ or /i/)
  • long oral /?:/ or /i:/ > short oral /?/ or /i/
  • long oral /o:/ > short oral /u/ (certain dialects: /o/), written ó
  • long oral /u:/ > short oral /u/, written u
  • long nasal /ã:/ > short nasal //, written ?

Note that the /u/ that was once a long /o:/ is still distinguished in script as ó. Former long /e:/ was written é until the 19th century (á for former long /a:/ was already in disuse).

In most circumstances, consonants were palatalized when followed by an original front vowel, including the soft yer (?) that was often later lost. For example: *d?n? became dzie? ('day'), while *d?n?m? became dniem ('day' instr.).

Nasal vowels *? and *? of late Proto-Slavic merged (*? leaving a trace by palatalizing the preceding consonant) to become the medieval Polish vowel /ã/, written ø. Like other Polish vowels, it developed long and short variants. The short variant developed into present-day // ?, while the long form became //, written ?, as described above. Overall:

  • Proto-Slavic *? > i? when short, i? when long (where the i represents palatalization of the preceding consonant)
  • Proto-Slavic *? > ? when short, ? when long

The historical shifts are the reason for the alternations o:ó and ?:? commonly encountered in Polish morphology: *rog? ('horn') became róg due to the loss of the following yer (originally pronounced with a long o, now with /u/), and the instrumental case of the same word went from *rog?m? to rogiem (with no lengthening of the o). Similarly, *d?b? ('oak') became d?b (originally with the long form of the nasal vowel), and in the instrumental case, *d?b?m? the vowel remained short, causing the modern d?bem.

Dialectal variation

Polish dialects differ particularly in their realization of nasal vowels, both in terms of whether and when they are decomposed to an oral vowel followed by a nasal consonant and in terms of the quality of the vowels used.

Also, some dialects preserve nonstandard developments of historical long vowels (see previous section); for example, a may be pronounced with [?] in words in which it was historically long.


The Polish consonant system is more complicated; its characteristic features include the series of affricates and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian.

The consonant phonemes of Polish are as follows:[11]

Alveolar [n t d] are allophones of otherwise-dentialveolar /n t d/ before /t d/.[12] Denti-alveolar is an allophone of /l/ before dental consonants. /r/ has been traditionally classified as a trill, with a tap supposedly only occurring as an allophone or in fast speech.[13] However, more recent studies show that /r/ is predominantly realized as a tap, sometimes as an approximant or a fricative, but almost never as a trill.[14][15] One study found that in an intervocalic context a trilled [r] occurs in less than 3% of cases, while a tapped [?] occurred in approximately 95% of cases. Another study by the same researcher showed that in a postconsonantal position, /r/ is realized as a tapped [?] in 80-90% of cases, while trilled [r] occurs in just 1.5% of articulations.[16]

The fricatives and affricates shown as retroflex are articulated with a flat, retracted tongue body. They vary between apical and laminal articulations.[17] Strictly speaking, this is at odds with the narrower definition of retroflex consonants as subapical, in which the tongue curls back and its underside becomes the active articulator.

The phonemes /k?/ and // are less commonly transcribed as /c/ and /?/ (as if they were palatal stops).

Example words (click on a word to hear its pronunciation)
IPA Polish script Example IPA Polish script Example
/m/ m About this soundmasa ('mass') /d/ d?/dz(i) About this soundd?wi?k ('sound')
/b/ b About this soundbas ('bass') /t/ ?/c(i) About this sound?ma ('moth')
/p/ p About this soundpas ('belt') /?/ ?/rz About this sound?ona ('wife')
About this soundrzeka ('river')
/v/ w About this soundwór ('bag') /?/ sz About this soundszum ('rustle')
/f/ f About this soundfutro ('fur') /d/ d? About this soundd?em ('jam')
/n/ n About this soundnoga ('leg') /t/ cz About this soundczas ('time')
/d/ d About this sounddom ('home') /?/ ?/n(i) About this soundko? ('horse')
/t/ t About this soundtom ('volume') // g(i) About this soundgips ('plaster cast')
/z/ z About this soundzero ('zero') /k?/ k(i) About this soundkiedy ('when')
/s/ s About this soundsum ('catfish') /?/ g About this soundgmin ('populace')
/d?z/ dz About this sounddzwon ('bell') /k/ k About this soundkmin ('cumin'), About this soundbuk ('beech tree')
/t?s/ c About this soundco ('what') /x/ h/ch About this soundhak ('hook'), About this soundchór ('choir')
/r/ r About this soundkrok ('step') /j/ j About this soundjutro ('tomorrow')
/l/ l About this soundpole ('field'), About this soundli ('leaf') /w/ ? About this soundma?y ('small'), About this sound?aska ('grace')
/?/ ?/z(i) About this sound?rebi? ('foal') /x?/ h(i)/ch(i) About this soundhistoria ('history'), About this soundchichot ('giggle')
/?/ ?/s(i) About this sound?ruba ('screw')

The laminal retroflex sounds (sz, ?, cz, d?) and the corresponding alveolo-palatals (?, ?, ?, d?) both sound similar to the English palato-alveolar consonants (the sh and ch sounds and their voiced equivalents). The alveolo-palatals are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised to the palate. The series are known as "rustling" (szeleszcz?ce) and "humming" (szumi?ce) respectively; the equivalent alveolar series (s, z, c, dz) is called "hissing" (sycz?ce).

Polish contrasts affricates and stop-fricative clusters[18] by the fricatives being longer in clusters than in affricates:[19]

  • About this soundczysta ['tsta] ('clean' fem.) vs. About this soundtrzysta ['tsta] ('three hundred').
  • About this soundd?em ['dm] ('jam') with vs. About this sounddrzem ['dm] ('take a nap' imper.).

The distinction is lost in some Lesser Polish dialects.

For the possibility of an additional glottal fricative phoneme /?/ for h, see § Dialectal variation below.


has a voiced allophone , which occurs whenever /x/ is followed by a voiced obstruent (even across a word boundary), in accordance with the rules given under § Voicing and devoicing below. For example, dach ('roof') is ['dax], but dach domu ('roof of the house') is [da? 'd?mu].

/x/ has the strongest friction before consonants [x?], weaker friction before vowels and weakest friction intervocalically, where it may be realized as glottal (this variant "may appear to be voiced").[20]

Depending on analysis, can be seen as occurring as a positional variant of /n/ and /?/ before velar consonants (as in tango 'tango'); an alternative analysis[21] counts the occurrences of [?] from the breaking up of former nasal vowels into VN sequences as creating a phonemic /?/. Thus, the nasal in bank would be the main variant and the back nasal glide (as in w?s 'moustache) would be a positional variant.

and have a labiodental allophone , which occurs before labiodental consonants (as in symfonia 'symphony' or konfiguracja 'configuration').[22]

The approximants and may be regarded as non-syllabic vowels when they are not followed by a vowel. For example, raj ('paradise') [rai?], da? ('he gave') [dau?], autor ('author') ['au?t?r].

Before fricatives, nasal consonants may be realized as nasalized semivowels, analogous to // and // (see § Vowels above). This occurs in loanwords, and in free variation with the typical consonantal pronunciation (e.g. instynkt ['iw?stkt?'instkt] 'instinct').[23]

The palatal nasal [?] before fricatives is usually realized as a nasalized palatal approximant [],[10] for example, pa?stwo [paj?stfo], Gda?sk [?daj?sk].


Polish, like other Slavic languages, permits complex consonant clusters, which often arose from the disappearance of yers (see § Historical development above). Polish can have word-initial and word-medial clusters of up to four consonants, whereas word-final clusters can have up to five consonants.[24] Examples of such clusters can be found in words such as bezwzgl?dny [b?z'vz?l?ndn?] ('absolute' or 'heartless', 'ruthless'), ?d?b?o ['?dbw?] ('blade of grass'), About this soundwstrz?s ['fstw?s] ('shock'), and krn?brno ['krn?mbrnt] ('disobedience'). A popular Polish tongue-twister (from a verse by Jan Brzechwa) is About this soundW Szczebrzeszynie chrz?szcz brzmi w trzcinie [f?tb'? 'xwd 'b?mi f't?ti] ('In Szczebrzeszyn a beetle buzzes in the reed').

For the restrictions on combinations of voiced and voiceless consonants in clusters, see § Voicing and devoicing below. Unlike languages such as Czech, Polish does not have syllabic consonants: the nucleus of a syllable is always a vowel.

The consonant /j/ is restricted to positions adjacent to a vowel. It also cannot precede i or y. (For other restrictions on consonants appearing before i or y, see § Distribution above.)

Voicing and devoicing

Polish obstruents (stops, affricates and fricatives) are subject to voicing and devoicing in certain positions. This leads to neutralization of voiced/voiceless pairs in those positions (or equivalently, restrictions on the distribution of voiced and voiceless consonants). The phenomenon applies in word-final position and in consonant clusters.

In Polish consonant clusters, including across a word boundary, the obstruents are all voiced or all voiceless. To determine (based on the spelling of the words) whether a given cluster has voiced or voiceless obstruents, the last obstruent in the cluster, excluding w or rz (but including ?), should be examined to see if appears to be voiced or voiceless. The consonants n, m, ?, r, j, l, ? do not represent obstruents and so do not affect the voicing of other consonants; they are also usually not subject to devoicing except when surrounded by unvoiced consonants.[25] Some examples follow (click the words to hear them spoken):

  • About this sound?ódka ['wutka] ('boat'), /d/ -> [t] before the voiceless k
  • About this soundkawka ['kafka] ('jackdaw'), /v/ -> [f] before the voiceless k
  • About this soundtak?e ['ta] ('also'), /k/ -> [?] before the voiced ?
  • About this soundjakby ['ja?b?] ('as if'), /k/ -> [?] before the voiced b
  • About this soundkrzak [k?ak] ('bush'), /?/ -> [?]; rz does not determine the voicing of the cluster
  • About this soundodtworzy? [?t'tft] ('to replay'), /d/ -> [t] & /v/ -> [f]; w does not determine the voicing of the cluster
  • dach domu [da? d?mu] ('roof of the house'), /x/ -> [?]; the rule still applies across a word boundary

In some dialects of Wielkopolska and the eastern borderlands, /v/ remains voiced after voiceless consonants.

The above rule does not apply to sonorants: a consonant cluster may contain voiced sonorants and voiceless obstruents, as in About this soundkról [krul], About this soundwart [vart], s?o? ['sw], tn?c ['tn?nt?s].

At the end of a word, obstruents are pronounced voiceless (unless followed by a word beginning with a voiced obstruent, when the above cluster rules apply). For example, the /?/ in bóg ('god') is pronounced [k], and the /zd/ in zajazd ('inn') represents a pronunciation like [st]. In western and southern Poland, final obstruents are voiced if the following word starts with a sonorant (here, for example, the /t/ in brat ojca 'father's brother' would be pronounced as [d]).

Hard and soft consonants

Multiple palatalizations and some depalatalizations that took place in the history of Proto-Slavic and Polish have created quite a complex system of what are often called 'soft' and 'hard' consonants. These terms are useful in describing some inflection patterns and other morphological processes, but exact definitions of 'soft' and 'hard' may differ somewhat.

'Soft' generally refers to the palatal nature of a consonant. The alveolo-palatal sounds ?, ?, ?, ?, d? are considered soft, as normally is the palatal j. The l sound is also normally classed as a soft consonant: like the preceding sounds, it cannot be followed by y but takes i instead. The palatalized velars /k?/, // and /x?/ might also be regarded as soft on this basis.

Consonants not classified as soft are dubbed 'hard'. However, a subset of hard consonants, c, dz, sz, ?/rz, cz, d?, often derive from historical palatalizations (for example, rz usually represents a historical palatalized r) and behaves like the soft consonants in some respects (for example, they normally take e in the nominative plural). These sounds may be called 'hardened' or 'historically soft' consonants.

In some phonological descriptions of Polish, however, a greater number of consonants, including especially the labials m, p, b, f, w, are regarded as occurring in 'hard' and 'soft' pairs. In this approach, for example, the word pies ('dog') is analysed not as /pj?s/ but as /ps/, with a soft /p?/. These consonants are then also analysed as soft when they precede the vowel /i/ (as in pi? /p?it/ 'to drink'). Unlike their equivalents in Russian, these consonants cannot retain their softness in the syllable coda (when not followed by a vowel). For example, the word for 'carp' has the inflected forms karpia, karpie etc., with soft /p?/ (or /pj/, depending on the analysis), but the nominative singular is karp, with a hard /p/.

The consonants t, d, r (and some others) can also be regarded as having hard and soft forms according to the above approach, although the soft forms occur only in loanwords such as tir /t?ir/ ('large lorry'; see TIR).[] If the distinction is made for all relevant consonants, then y and i can be regarded as allophones of a single phoneme, with y following hard consonants and i following soft ones (and in initial position).

The historical palatalized forms of some consonants have developed in Polish into noticeably different sounds: historical palatalized t, d, r have become the sounds now represented by ?, d?, rz respectively. Similarly palatalized s, z, n became the sounds ?, ?, ?. The palatalization of labials has resulted (according to the main phonological analysis given in the sections above) in the addition of , as in the example pies just given. These developments are reflected in some regular morphological changes in Polish grammar, such as in noun declension.

Glottal stop

In more contemporary Polish, a phonetic glottal stop may appear as the onset of a vowel-initial word (e.g. Ala [?ala]).[26] It may also appear following word-final vowels to connote particular affects; for example, nie ('no') is normally pronounced [], but may instead be pronounced [] or in a prolonged interrupted [?]. This intervocalic glottal stop may also break up a vowel hiatus, even when one appears morpheme-internally, as in poeta ('poet') [pta] or Ukraina ('Ukraine') [?ukra?ina]. A relatively new phenomenon in Polish is the expansion of the usage of glottal stops. In the past, initial vowels were pronounced with an initial voiceless glottal fricative (so that Ala was pronounced [hala]), pre-iotation (so that ig?a 'needle' was pronounced [ji?u?a]), or pre-labialization (so that oko 'eye' was pronounced [uk?]).[27]

Dialectal variation

In some Polish dialects (found in the eastern borderlands and in Upper Silesia) there is an additional voiced glottal fricative /?/, represented by the letter ⟨h⟩. In most varieties of Polish, both ⟨h⟩ and ⟨ch⟩ represent /x/.

Some eastern dialects also preserve the velarized dental lateral approximant, [], which corresponds with [w] in most varieties of Polish. Those dialects also can palatalize /l/ ([l?]) in every position, but standard Polish does so only allophonically before /i/ and /j/.[28] [] and [l?] are also common realizations in native speakers of Polish from Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.

Roc?awski (1976) notes that students of Polish philology were hostile towards the lateral variant of ⟨?⟩, saying that it sounded "unnatural" and "awful". Some of the students also said that they perceived the lateral ⟨?⟩ as a variant of ⟨l⟩, which, he further notes, along with the necessity of deciding from context whether the sound meant was /w/ or /l/, made people hostile towards the sound.[29] On the other hand, some Poles view the lateral variant with nostalgia, associating it with the elegant culture of interwar Poland.[30]

In the Masurian dialect and some neighboring dialects, mazurzenie occurs: retroflex /?, ?, t, d/ merge with the corresponding dentals /s, z, t?s, d?z/ unless /?/ is spelled ⟨rz⟩ (a few centuries ago, it represented a palatalized trill /r?/, distinct from /?/; only the latter sound occurs in modern Polish).


The predominant stress pattern in Polish is penultimate: the second-last syllable is stressed. Alternating preceding syllables carry secondary stress: in a four-syllable word, if the primary stress is on the third syllable, there will be secondary stress on the first.[31]

Each vowel represents one syllable although the letter i normally does not represent a vowel when it precedes another vowel (it represents /j/, palatalization of the preceding consonant, or both depending on analysis; see Polish orthography and the above). Also, the letters u and i sometimes represent only semivowels after another vowel, as in autor /'awt?r/ ('author'), mostly in loanwords (so not in native nauka /na'u.ka/ 'science, the act of learning', for example, nor in nativized Mateusz /ma'te.u?/ 'Matthew').

Some loanwords, particularly from classical languages, have the stress on the antepenultimate (third-last) syllable. For example, fizyka (/'fiz?ka/) ('physics') is stressed on the first syllable. That may lead to a rare phenomenon of minimal pairs differing only in stress placement: muzyka /'muz?ka/ 'music' vs. muzyka /mu'z?ka/ - genitive singular of muzyk 'musician'. When additional syllables are added to such words through inflection or suffixation, the stress normally becomes regular: uniwersytet (/u?i'v?rs?t?t/, 'university') has irregular stress on the third (or antepenultimate) syllable, but the genitive uniwersytetu (/u?iv?rs?'t?tu/) and derived adjective uniwersytecki (/u?iv?rs?'t?t?sk?i/) have regular stress on the penultimate syllables. Over time, loanwords become nativized to have a penultimate stress.[32]

Another class of exceptions is verbs with the conditional endings -by, -bym, -by?my etc. Those endings are not counted in determining the position of the stress: zrobi?bym ('I would do') is stressed on the first syllable and zrobiliby?my ('we would do') on the second. According to prescriptive grammars, the same applies to the first and second person plural past tense endings -?my, -?cie although this rule is often ignored in colloquial speech (so zrobili?my 'we did' is said to be correctly stressed on the second syllable, although in practice it is commonly stressed on the third as zrobili?my).[33] The irregular stress patterns are explained by the fact that these endings are detachable clitics rather than true verbal inflections: for example, instead of kogo zobaczyli?cie? ('whom did you see?') it is possible to say kogo?cie zobaczyli? - here kogo retains its usual stress (first syllable) in spite of the attachment of the clitic. Reanalysis of the endings as inflections when attached to verbs causes the different colloquial stress patterns.

Some common word combinations are stressed as if they were a single word. That applies in particular to many combinations of preposition plus a personal pronoun, such as do niej ('to her'), na nas ('on us'), przeze mnie ('because of me'), all stressed on the bolded syllable.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Gussmann (2007), p. 2.
  3. ^ Wells, John C. (19 December 2011). "the Polish way out". John Wells's phonetic blog. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  4. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 75, 112-113.
  5. ^ Roc?awski (1976), p. 113.
  6. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 75, 113.
  7. ^ For example, Jassem (2003), Roc?awski (1976) and Wi?niewski (2001)
  8. ^ Gussmann (2007:2), citing Biedrzycki (1963), Biedrzycki (1978), Wierzchowska (1971:135).
  9. ^ Linde-Usiekniewicz et al. (2011), p. 1430.
  10. ^ a b Gussmann (2007), pp. 2-3.
  11. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 130-181.
  12. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 136, 179.
  13. ^ Roc?awski (1976), p. 132.
  14. ^ Szpyra-Koz?owska, Jolanta (2018). "The rhotic in fake and authentic Polish-accented English". Lublin Studies in Modern Languages and Literature. 42 (1): 81. doi:10.17951/lsmll.2018.42.1.81. ISSN 2450-4580.
  15. ^ "On the phonetic instability of the Polish rhotic /r/ | Request PDF". ResearchGate. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Further analysis of the articulation of /r/ in Polish - The postconsonantal position". ResearchGate. Retrieved .
  17. ^ Hamann (2004), p. 59.
  18. ^ Gussmann (2007), p. 7.
  19. ^ Zagórska Brooks (1964).
  20. ^ Roc?awski (1976), p. 158.
  21. ^ e.g. Dukiewicz & Sawicka (1995:131), cited in & Buczek-Zawi?a (2014:9)
  22. ^ Buczek-Zawi?a (2014), p. 9.
  23. ^ Gussmann (2007:3), citing Dukiewicz (1995:32-33)
  24. ^ "Polish". UCLA Phonetics Lab data. UCLA Phonetics Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  25. ^ Urba?czyk (1992), p. 369.
  26. ^ Magdalena Osowicka-Kondratowicz, "Zwarcie krtaniowe - rodzaj fonacji czy artykulacji?", Rocznik Slawistyczny, t. LXVII, 2018 doi:10.24425/rslaw.2018.124590, p. 41
  27. ^ Osowicka-Kondratowicz, 2018 p. 40
  28. ^ Roc?awski (1976), p. 130.
  29. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 130-131.
  30. ^ "S?ynne g?adkie ?". Radio Bia?ystok. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  31. ^ Gussmann (2007:8), deferring to Rubach & Booij (1985) for further discussion.
  32. ^ Gussmann (2007), p. 9.
  33. ^ Phonetics and Phonology of lexical stress in Polish verbs[permanent dead link], Dominika Oliver, Martine Grice, Institute of Phonetics, Saarland University, Germany


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Further reading

External links

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