Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów
Map of the project of the Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth 1658-1659
|Capital||Warsaw, Vilnius, Kyiv|
|Common languages||Latin, Polish, Ruthenian|
|Religion||Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church|
|King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Grand Duke of Ruthenia|
|John II Casimir Vasa|
|ISO 3166 code||PL|
The Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów, Republic of Three Nations) was a proposed (but never actually formed) European state in the 17th century that would have replaced the existing Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The establishment of the Grand Duchy of Ruthenia was considered[by whom?] at various times, particularly during the 1648 insurrection against Polish rule by the Cossacks who primarily lived in those territories (see Khmelnytsky Uprising). Such a Ruthenian duchy, as proposed in the 1658 Treaty of Hadiach, would have been a full-fledged member of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which would thereby have become a tripartite Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth. In May 1659, the Polish Diet (Sejm) ratified the treaty with an emended text.
The idea of a Ruthenian Duchy within the Commonwealth was completely abandoned. Canadian historian Paul Robert Magosci believes that this happened due to divisions among the Cossacks and to the Russian invasion; however, both these events occurred much earlier than the signing of the Treaty of Hadiach. The Russian historian Tairova-Yakovleva regards the resistance of Polish society and papal pressure as the reasons for the incomplete ratification.
The idea of a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth revived during the January Uprising when a patriotic demonstration took place at Horod?o in 1861. The so-called Second Union of Horod?o was announced there, by the szlachta of Congress Poland, of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, of Volhynia and of Podolia. New Poland, based on the Second Union of Horod?o, was to be based on the three nations, and its proposed coat of arms included the Polish eagle, the Lithuanian Pahonia, and the patron saint of Ruthenia, the Archangel Michael.