Get Pokemon essential facts below. View Videos or join the Pokemon discussion. Add Pokemon to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

International Pokémon logo.svg
Logo of Pokémon for its international releases; Pokémon is short for the original Japanese title of Pocket Monsters
Created bySatoshi Tajiri
Ken Sugimori
Original workPocket Monsters Red and Green (1996)
Owned byNintendo
Game Freak
Print publications
Short storiesPokémon Junior
ComicsSee list of Pokémon manga
Films and television
Film(s)See list of Pokémon films
Short film(s)Various Pikachu shorts
Animated seriesPokémon (anime) (1997-present)
Pokémon Chronicles (2006)
Television special(s)Mewtwo Returns (2000)
The Legend of Thunder (2001)
The Mastermind of Mirage Pokémon (2006)
Television film(s)Pokémon Origins (2013)
Theatrical presentations
Musical(s)Pokémon Live! (2000)
TraditionalPokémon Trading Card Game
Pokémon Trading Figure Game
Video game(s)Pokémon video game series
Super Smash Bros.
Soundtrack(s)Pokémon 2.B.A. Master (1999)
See also list of Pokémon theme songs
Theme parkPoképark
Official website

Pokémon[a] ,[1][2][3] also known as Pocket Monsters[b] in Japan, is a Japanese media franchise managed by the Pokémon Company, a company founded and with shares divided between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.[4] The franchise copyright and Japanese trademark is shared by all three companies,[5] but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark in other countries.[6] The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995,[7] and is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which humans, known as Pokémon Trainers, catch and train to battle each other for sport. The English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch 'Em All".[8][9] Works within the franchise are set in the Pokémon universe.

The franchise began as Pokémon Red and Green (later released outside of Japan as Pokémon Red and Blue), a pair of video games for the original Game Boy handheld system that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo in February 1996. It soon became a media mix franchise adapted into various different media.[10]Pokémon has since become the highest-grossing media franchise of all time,[11][12][13] with $90 billion in total franchise revenue.[14][15] The original video game series is the second-best-selling video game franchise (behind Nintendo's Mario franchise)[16] with more than 346million copies sold[17] and onebillion mobile downloads,[18] and it spawned a hit anime television series that has become the most successful video game adaptation[19] with over 20 seasons and 1,000 episodes in 169 countries.[17] In addition, the Pokémon franchise includes the world's top-selling toy brand,[20] the top-selling trading card game[21] with over 28.8billion cards sold,[17] an anime film series, a live-action film, books, manga comics, music, merchandise, and a theme park. The franchise is also represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series.

In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement. The Pokémon Company International oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia.[22] In 2006, the franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary.[23] In 2016, the Pokémon Company celebrated Pokémons 20th anniversary by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50 in January and issuing re-releases of the 1996 Game Boy games Pokémon Red, Green (only in Japan), and Blue, and the 1998 Game Boy Color game Pokémon Yellow for the Nintendo 3DS on February 26, 2016.[24][25] The mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was released in July 2016.[26] The first live-action film in the franchise, Pokémon Detective Pikachu, based on the 2018 Nintendo 3DS spinoff game Detective Pikachu, was released in 2019.[11] The most recently released games, Pokémon Sword and Shield, were released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch on November 15, 2019.[27]


The name Pokémon is the portmanteau of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters.[28] The term "Pokémon", in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself, also collectively refers to the 890 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the eighth generation titles Pokémon Sword and Shield. "Pokémon" is identical in the singular and plural, as is each individual species name; it is grammatically correct to say "one Pokémon" and "many Pokémon", as well as "one Pikachu" and "many Pikachu".[29]


Pokémon executive director Satoshi Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and name, around 1989, when the Game Boy was released. The concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect collecting, a popular pastime which Tajiri enjoyed as a child.[30] Players are designated as Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals: to complete the regional Pokédex by collecting all of the available Pokémon species found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete the national Pokédex by transferring Pokémon from other regions, and to train a team of powerful Pokémon from those they have caught to compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may eventually win the Pokémon League and become the regional Champion. These themes of collecting, training, and battling are present in almost every version of the Pokémon franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, and the Pokémon Trading Card Game.

In most incarnations of the Pokémon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokémon is able to capture that Pokémon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a Poké Ball at it. If the Pokémon is unable to escape the confines of the Poké Ball, it is considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer. Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a lack of experience that the Pokémon would rather act on its own accord. Trainers can send out any of their Pokémon to wage non-lethal battles against other Pokémon; if the opposing Pokémon is wild, the Trainer can capture that Pokémon with a Poké Ball, increasing their collection of creatures. In Pokémon Go, and in Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, wild Pokémon encountered by players can be caught in Poké Balls, but generally cannot be battled. Pokémon already owned by other Trainers cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side games. If a Pokémon fully defeats an opponent in battle so that the opponent is knocked out ("faints"), the winning Pokémon gains experience points and may level up. Beginning with Pokémon X and Y, experience points are also gained from catching Pokémon in Poké Balls. When leveling up, the Pokémon's battling aptitude statistics ("stats", such as "Attack" and "Speed") increase. At certain levels, the Pokémon may also learn new moves, which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokémon can undergo a form of metamorphosis and transform into a similar but stronger species of Pokémon, a process called evolution; this process occurs spontaneously under differing circumstances, and is itself a central theme of the series. Some species of Pokémon may undergo a maximum of two evolutionary transformations, while others may undergo only one, and others may not evolve at all. For example, the Pokémon Pichu may evolve into Pikachu, which in turn may evolve into Raichu, following which no further evolutions may occur. Pokémon X and Y introduced the concept of "Mega Evolution," by which certain fully evolved Pokémon may temporarily undergo an additional evolution into a stronger form for the purpose of battling; this evolution is considered a special case, and unlike other evolutionary stages, is reversible.

In the main series, each game's single-player mode requires the Trainer to raise a team of Pokémon to defeat many non-player character (NPC) Trainers and their Pokémon. Each game lays out a somewhat linear path through a specific region of the Pokémon world for the Trainer to journey through, completing events and battling opponents along the way (including foiling the plans of an 'evil' team of Pokémon Trainers who serve as antagonists to the player). Excluding Pokémon Sun and Moon and Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon, the games feature eight powerful Trainers, referred to as Gym Leaders, that the Trainer must defeat in order to progress. As a reward, the Trainer receives a Gym Badge, and once all eight badges are collected, the Trainer is eligible to challenge the region's Pokémon League, where four talented trainers (referred to collectively as the "Elite Four") challenge the Trainer to four Pokémon battles in succession. If the trainer can overcome this gauntlet, they must challenge the Regional Champion, the master Trainer who had previously defeated the Elite Four. Any Trainer who wins this last battle becomes the new champion.

Video games


A rival battle between a Bulbasaur and a Charmander in Pokémon Red and Blue.[31]

All of the licensed Pokémon properties overseen by the Pokémon Company International are divided roughly by generation. These generations are roughly chronological divisions by release; every several years, when a sequel to the 1996 role-playing video games Pokémon Red and Green is released that features new Pokémon, characters, and gameplay concepts, that sequel is considered the start of a new generation of the franchise. The main Pokémon video games and their spin-offs, the anime, manga, and trading card game are all updated with the new Pokémon properties each time a new generation begins.[32] Some Pokémon from the newer games appear in anime episodes or films months, or even years, before the game they were programmed for came out. The first generation began in Japan with Pokémon Red and Green on the Game Boy. As of 2020, there currently are eight generations of main series video games. The most recent games in the main series, Pokémon Sword and Shield, began the eighth and latest generation and were released worldwide for the Nintendo Switch on November 15, 2019.[33][34][35]

List of Pokémon main series video games

Generation Title System Release date
Generation I
Pocket Monsters: Red and Green Game Boy February 27, 1996JP
Pocket Monsters: Blue October 15, 1996JP
Pokémon Red and Blue September 28, 1998NA
October 23, 1998AUS
October 5, 1999EU
Pokémon Yellow September 12, 1998JP
October 19, 1999NA
September 3, 1999AUS
June 16, 2000EU
Generation II
Pokémon Gold and Silver Game Boy Color November 21, 1999JP
October 13, 2000AUS
October 14, 2000NA
April 6, 2001EU
April 23, 2002KO
Pokémon Crystal December 14, 2000JP
July 29, 2001NA
September 30, 2001AUS
November 2, 2001EU
Generation III
Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire Game Boy Advance November 21, 2002JP
March 18, 2003NA
April 3, 2003AUS
July 25, 2003EU
Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen January 29, 2004JP
September 7, 2004NA
September 23, 2004AUS
October 1, 2004EU
Pokémon Emerald September 16, 2004JP
April 30, 2005NA
June 9, 2005AUS
October 21, 2005EU
Generation IV
Pokémon Diamond and Pearl Nintendo DS September 28, 2006JP
April 22, 2007NA
June 21, 2007AUS
July 27, 2007EU
February 14, 2008KO
Pokémon Platinum September 13, 2008JP
March 22, 2009NA
May 14, 2009AUS
May 22, 2009EU
July 2, 2009KO
Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver September 12, 2009JP
February 4, 2010KO
March 14, 2010NA
March 25, 2010AUS
March 26, 2010EU
Generation V
Pokémon Black and White September 18, 2010JP
March 4, 2011EU
March 6, 2011NA
March 10, 2011AUS
April 21, 2011KO
Pokémon Black 2 and White 2 June 23, 2012JP
October 7, 2012NA
October 11, 2012AUS
October 12, 2012EU
Generation VI
Pokémon X and Y Nintendo 3DS October 12, 2013WW
Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire November 21, 2014JP, NA, AUS
November 28, 2014EU
Generation VII
Pokémon Sun and Moon November 18, 2016JP, NA, AUS
November 23, 2016EU
Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon November 17, 2017WW
Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! Nintendo Switch November 16, 2018WW
Generation VIII
Pokémon Sword and Shield November 15, 2019WW[36][37]

In other media

Anime series

SeasonTitleEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
1Indigo League82April 1, 1997 (1997-04-01)January 21, 1999 (1999-01-21)
2Adventures in the Orange Islands36January 28, 1999 (1999-01-28)October 7, 1999 (1999-10-07)
3The Johto Journeys41October 14, 1999 (1999-10-14)July 27, 2000 (2000-07-27)
4Johto League Champions52August 3, 2000 (2000-08-03)August 2, 2001 (2001-08-02)
5Master Quest65August 9, 2001 (2001-08-09)November 14, 2002 (2002-11-14)
6Advanced40November 21, 2002 (2002-11-21)August 28, 2003 (2003-08-28)
7Advanced Challenge52September 4, 2003 (2003-09-04)September 2, 2004 (2004-09-02)
8Advanced Battle54September 9, 2004 (2004-09-09)September 29, 2005 (2005-09-29)
9Battle Frontier47October 6, 2005 (2005-10-06)September 14, 2006 (2006-09-14)
10Diamond and Pearl52September 28, 2006 (2006-09-28)October 25, 2007 (2007-10-25)
11Diamond and Pearl: Battle Dimension52November 8, 2007 (2007-11-08)December 4, 2008 (2008-12-04)
12Diamond and Pearl: Galactic Battles53December 4, 2008 (2008-12-04)December 24, 2009 (2009-12-24)
13Diamond and Pearl: Sinnoh League Victors34January 7, 2010 (2010-01-07)September 9, 2010 (2010-09-09)
14Black & White50September 23, 2010 (2010-09-23)September 15, 2011 (2011-09-15)
15Black & White: Rival Destinies49September 22, 2011 (2011-09-22)October 4, 2012 (2012-10-04)
16Black & White: Adventures in Unova4525October 11, 2012 (2012-10-11)April 18, 2013 (2013-04-18)
Black & White: Adventures in Unova and Beyond20April 25, 2013 (2013-04-25)September 26, 2013 (2013-09-26)
17XY48October 17, 2013 (2013-10-17)October 30, 2014 (2014-10-30)
18XY: Kalos Quest45November 13, 2014 (2014-11-13)October 22, 2015 (2015-10-22)
19XYZ47October 29, 2015 (2015-10-29)October 27, 2016 (2016-10-27)
20Sun and Moon43November 17, 2016 (2016-11-17)September 21, 2017 (2017-09-21)
21Sun & Moon: Ultra Adventures49October 5, 2017 (2017-10-05)October 14, 2018 (2018-10-14)
22Sun & Moon: Ultra Legends54October 21, 2018 (2018-10-21)November 3, 2019 (2019-11-03)
23Journeys22November 17, 2019 (2019-11-17)TBA

Pokémon, also known as Pokémon the Series to Western audiences since 2013, is an anime television series based on the Pokémon video game series. It was originally broadcast on TV Tokyo in 1997. To date, the anime has produced and aired over 1,000 episodes, divided into 7 series in Japan and 22 seasons internationally. It is one of the longest currently running anime series.[38]

The anime follows the quest of the main character, Ash Ketchum (known as Satoshi in Japan), a Pokémon Master in training, as he and a small group of friends travel around the world of Pokémon along with their Pokémon partners.[39]

Various children's books, collectively known as Pokémon Junior, are also based on the anime.[40]

A new seven part anime series called Pokémon: Twilight Wings began airing on YouTube in 2020.[41] The series was animated by Studio Colorido.[42]


To date, there have been 23 animated theatrical Pokémon films (one in the making for July 2020[43]), which have been directed by Kunihiko Yuyama and Tetsuo Yajima, and distributed in Japan by Toho since 1998. The pair of films, Pokémon the Movie: Black--Victini and Reshiram and White--Victini and Zekrom are considered together as one film. Collectibles, such as promotional trading cards, have been available with some of the films. Since the 20th film, the films have been set in an alternate continuity separate from the anime series.

List of Pokémon animated theatrical films

Pokémon: Original Series

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
1 Pokémon: The First Movie - Mewtwo Strikes Back Mewtwo Strikes Back[44] (, My?ts? no Gyakush?) July 18, 1998 November 10, 1999
2 Pokémon: The Movie 2000 - The Power of One Mirage Pokémon: Lugia's Explosive Birth ( , Maboroshi no Pokemon Rugia Bakutan) July 17, 1999 July 21, 2000
3 Pokémon 3: The Movie - Spell of the Unown Emperor of The Crystal Tower: ENTEI ( ENTEI, Kessh?t? no Tei? ENTEI) July 8, 2000 April 6, 2001
4 Pokémon 4Ever: Celebi - Voice of the Forest Celebi: The Meeting that Traversed Time (? ?(), Serebyi Toki o Koeta Deai) July 7, 2001 October 11, 2002
5 Pokémon Heroes: Latios and Latias Guardian Gods of the Capital of Water: Latias and Latios ( , Mizu no Miyako no Mamorigami Ratiasu to Ratiosu) July 13, 2002 May 16, 2003

Pokémon: Advanced Generation

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
6 Jirachi--Wish Maker Wishing Star of the Seven Nights: Jirachi ( ?, Nanayo no Negaiboshi Jir?chi) July 19, 2003 June 1, 2004
7 Destiny Deoxys Visitor from the Sky-Splitting: Deoxys ( , Rekk? no H?monsha Deokishisu) July 17, 2004 January 22, 2005
8 Lucario and the Mystery of Mew Mew and the Aura Hero: Lucario (() ?, My? to Had? no Y?sha Rukario) July 16, 2005 September 19, 2006
9 Pokémon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea The Pokémon Ranger and the Prince of the Sea: Manaphy (() ?, Pokemon Renj? to Umi no ?ji Manafi) July 15, 2006 March 23, 2007

Pokémon: Diamond & Pearl

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
10 The Rise of Darkrai Dialga VS Palkia VS Darkrai (VS?VS, Diaruga Tai Parukia Tai D?kurai) July 14, 2007 February 24, 2008
11 Giratina and the Sky Warrior Giratina and the Bouquet of the Frozen Sky: Shaymin (() ?, Giratina to Sora no Hanataba Sheimi) July 19, 2008 February 13, 2009
12 Arceus and the Jewel of Life Arceus: To Conquering Space-Time ( , Aruseusu Ch?koku no Jik? e) July 18, 2009 November 20, 2009
13 Zoroark--Master of Illusions Phantom Ruler: Zoroark ( , Gen'ei no Hasha Zoro?ku) July 10, 2010 February 5, 2011

Pokémon: Black & White

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
14A White--Victini and Zekrom Victini and the Black Hero: Zekrom (, Bikutini to Kuroki Eiy? Zekuromu) July 16, 2011 December 10, 2011
14B Black--Victini and Reshiram Victini and the White Hero: Reshiram (? ?, Bikutini to Shiroki Eiy? Reshiramu) July 16, 2011 December 10, 2011
15 Kyurem vs. the Sword of Justice Kyurem vs. the Sacred Swordsman: Keldeo (?VS , Kyuremu tai Seikenshi Kerudio) July 14, 2012 December 8, 2012
16 Genesect and the Legend Awakened ExtremeSpeed Genesect: Mewtwo Awakens ( ?, Shinsoku no Genosekuto My?ts? Kakusei) July 13, 2013 October 19, 2013

Pokémon: XY

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
17 Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction (, Hakai no Mayu to Diansh?) July 19, 2014 November 8, 2014
18 Hoopa and the Clash of Ages The Archdjinni of the Rings: Hoopa ( , Ring no ch?majin F?pa) July 18, 2015 December 19, 2015
19 Volcanion and the Mechanical Marvel Volcanion and the Exquisite Magearna (, Borukenion to karakuri no Magiana) July 16, 2016 December 5, 2016

Pokémon: Sun & Moon (Alternate continuity)

A reboot to the film franchise began with the release of the 20th movie, Pokémon the Movie: I Choose You!, in Japan on July 15, 2017. It was followed by a continuation, Pokémon the Movie: The Power of Us, which was released in Japan on July 13, 2018.

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
20 I Choose You! I Choose You! (!, Kimi ni kimeta!) July 15, 2017 November 5, 2017
21 The Power of Us[45] Everyone's Story (, Minna no Monogatari) July 13, 2018 November 24, 2018
22 Mewtwo Strikes Back: Evolution Mewtwo Strikes Back:Evolution[46] ( EVOLUTION, My?ts? no Gyakush? EVOLUTION) July 12, 2019 February 27, 2020

Pokémon: Journeys (Alternate continuity)

# English title Japanese title Japanese release date North American release date
23 TBA Pocket Monsters the Movie: Coco ( , Gekij?-ban Pokettomonsut? Koko) Postponed[47] TBA

Live-action film

A live-action Pokémon film directed by Rob Letterman, produced by Legendary Entertainment,[48] and distributed in Japan by Toho and internationally by Warner Bros.[49] began filming in January 2018.[50] On August 24, the film's official title was announced as Pokémon Detective Pikachu.[51] It was released on May 10, 2019.[11] The film is based on the 2018 Nintendo 3DS spin-off video game Detective Pikachu. Development of a sequel was announced in January 2019, before the release of the first film.[52]


Pokémon CDs have been released in North America, some of them in conjunction with the theatrical releases of the first three and the 20th Pokémon films. These releases were commonplace until late 2001. On March 27, 2007, a tenth anniversary CD was released containing 18 tracks from the English dub; this was the first English-language release in over five years. Soundtracks of the Pokémon feature films have been released in Japan each year in conjunction with the theatrical releases. In 2017, a soundtrack album featuring music from the North American versions of the 17th through 20th movies was released.

Year Title
June 29, 1999[53] Pokémon 2.B.A. Master
November 9, 1999[54] Pokémon: The First Movie
February 8, 2000 Pokémon World
May 9, 2000 Pokémon: The First Movie Original Motion Picture Score
July 18, 2000 Pokémon: The Movie 2000
Unknown1 Pokémon: The Movie 2000 Original Motion Picture Score
January 23, 2001 Totally Pokémon
April 3, 2001 Pokémon 3: The Ultimate Soundtrack
October 9, 2001 Pokémon Christmas Bash
March 27, 2007 Pokémon X: Ten Years of Pokémon
November 12, 2013 Pokémon X & Pokémon Y: Super Music Collection
December 10, 2013 Pokémon FireRed & Pokémon LeafGreen: Super Music Collection
January 14, 2014 Pokémon HeartGold & Pokémon SoulSilver: Super Music Collection
February 11, 2014 Pokémon Ruby & Pokémon Sapphire: Super Music Collection
March 11, 2014 Pokémon Diamond & Pokémon Pearl: Super Music Collection
April 8, 2014 Pokémon Black & Pokémon White: Super Music Collection
May 13, 2014 Pokémon Black 2 & Pokémon White 2: Super Music Collection
December 21, 2014 Pokémon Omega Ruby & Pokémon Alpha Sapphire: Super Music Collection
April 27, 2016 Pokémon Red and Green Super Music Collection
November 30, 2016 Pokémon Sun & Pokémon Moon: Super Music Collection
December 23, 2017 Pokémon Movie Music Collection2

Pokémon Trading Card Game

Palkia, the Spacial Pokémon Trading Card Game card from Pokémon TCG Diamond and Pearl.

The Pokémon Trading Card Game (TCG) is a collectible card game with a goal similar to a Pokémon battle in the video game series. Players use Pokémon cards, with individual strengths and weaknesses, in an attempt to defeat their opponent by "knocking out" their Pokémon cards.[55] The game was published in North America by Wizards of the Coast in 1999.[56] With the release of the Game Boy Advance video games Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire, the Pokémon Company took back the card game from Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the cards themselves.[56] The Expedition expansion introduced the Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, where the cards (for the most part) were compatible with the Nintendo e-Reader. Nintendo discontinued its production of e-Reader compatible cards with the release of FireRed and LeafGreen. In 1998, Nintendo released a Game Boy Color version of the trading card game in Japan; Pokémon Trading Card Game was subsequently released to the US and Europe in 2000. The game included digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the first two expansions (Jungle and Fossil), as well as several cards exclusive to the game. A sequel was released in Japan in 2001.[57]


There are various Pokémon manga series, four of which were released in English by Viz Media, and seven of them released in English by Chuang Yi. The manga series vary from game-based series to being based on the anime and the Trading Card Game. Original stories have also been published. As there are several series created by different authors, most Pokémon manga series differ greatly from each other and other media, such as the anime.[]Pokémon Pocket Monsters and Pokémon Adventures are the two manga in production since the first generation.

Manga released in English
Manga not released in English
  • Pokémon Pocket Monsters by Kosaku Anakubo, the first Pokémon manga. Chiefly a gag manga, it stars a Pokémon Trainer named Red, his rude Clefairy, and Pikachu.
  • Pokémon Card ni Natta Wake (How I Became a Pokémon Card) by Kagemaru Himeno, an artist for the Trading Card Game. There are six volumes and each includes a special promotional card. The stories tell the tales of the art behind some of Himeno's cards.
  • Pokémon Get aa ze! by Miho Asada
  • Pocket Monsters Chamo-Chamo ? Pretty ? by Yumi Tsukirino, who also made Magical Pokémon Journey.
  • Pokémon Card Master
  • Pocket Monsters Emerald Ch?sen!! Battle Frontier by Ihara Shigekatsu
  • Pocket Monsters Zensho by Satomi Nakamura


A Pokémon-styled Monopoly board game was released in August 2014.[72]

Criticism and controversy

Morality and religious beliefs

Pokémon has been criticized by some fundamentalist Christians over perceived occult and violent themes and the concept of "Pokémon evolution", which they feel goes against the Biblical creation account in Genesis.[73]Sat2000, a satellite television station based in Vatican City, has countered that the Pokémon Trading Card Game and video games are "full of inventive imagination" and have no "harmful moral side effects".[74][75] In the United Kingdom, the "Christian Power Cards" game was introduced in 1999 by David Tate who stated, "Some people aren't happy with Pokémon and want an alternative, others just want Christian games." The game was similar to the Pokémon Trading Card Game but used Biblical figures.[76]

In 1999, Nintendo stopped manufacturing the Japanese version of the "Koga's Ninja Trick" trading card because it depicted a manji, a traditionally Buddhist symbol with no negative connotations. The Jewish civil rights group Anti-Defamation League complained because the symbol is the reverse of a swastika, a Nazi symbol. The cards were intended for sale in Japan only, but the popularity of Pokémon led to import into the United States with approval from Nintendo. The Anti-Defamation League understood that the portrayed symbol was not intended to offend and acknowledged the sensitivity that Nintendo showed by removing the product.[77][78]

In 1999, two nine-year-old boys from Merrick, New York sued Nintendo because they claimed the Pokémon Trading Card Game caused their problematic gambling.[79]

In 2001, Saudi Arabia banned Pokémon games and the trading cards, alleging that the franchise promoted Zionism by displaying the Star of David in the trading cards (a six-pointed star is featured in the card game) as well as other religious symbols such as crosses they associated with Christianity and triangles they associated with Freemasonry; the games also involved gambling, which is in violation of Muslim doctrine.[80][81]

Pokémon has also been accused of promoting materialism.[82]

Animal cruelty

In 2012, PETA criticized the concept of Pokémon as supporting cruelty to animals. PETA compared the game's concept, of capturing animals and forcing them to fight, to cockfights, dog fighting rings and circuses, events frequently criticized for cruelty to animals. PETA released a game spoofing Pokémon where the Pokémon battle their trainers to win their freedom.[83] PETA reaffirmed their objections in 2016 with the release of Pokémon Go, promoting the hashtag #GottaFreeThemAll.[84]


On December 16, 1997, more than 635 Japanese children were admitted to hospitals with epileptic seizures.[85] It was determined the seizures were caused by watching an episode of Pokémon "Denn? Senshi Porygon", (most commonly translated "Electric Soldier Porygon", season 1, episode 38); as a result, this episode has not been aired since. In this particular episode, there were bright explosions with rapidly alternating blue and red color patterns.[86] It was determined in subsequent research that these strobing light effects cause some individuals to have epileptic seizures, even if the person had no previous history of epilepsy.[87] This incident is a common focus of Pokémon-related parodies in other media, and was lampooned by The Simpsons episode "Thirty Minutes over Tokyo"[88] and the South Park episode "Chinpokomon",[89] among others.

Monster in My Pocket

In March 2000, Morrison Entertainment Group, a toy developer based at Manhattan Beach, California, sued Nintendo over claims that Pokémon infringed on its own Monster in My Pocket characters. A judge ruled there was no infringement and Morrison appealed the ruling. On February 4, 2003, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the decision by the District Court to dismiss the suit.[90]

Pokémon Go

Within its first two days of release, Pokémon Go raised safety concerns among players. Multiple people also suffered minor injuries from falling while playing the game due to being distracted.[91]

Multiple police departments in various countries have issued warnings, some tongue-in-cheek, regarding inattentive driving, trespassing, and being targeted by criminals due to being unaware of one's surroundings.[92][93] People have suffered various injuries from accidents related to the game,[94][95][96][97] and Bosnian players have been warned to stay out of minefields left over from the 1990s Bosnian War.[98] On July 20, 2016, it was reported that an 18-year-old boy in Chiquimula, Guatemala was shot and killed while playing the game in the late evening hours. This was the first reported death in connection with the app. The boy's 17-year-old cousin, who was accompanying the victim, was shot in the foot. Police speculated that the shooters used the game's GPS capability to find the two.[99]

Cultural influence

All Nippon Airways Boeing 747-400 in Pokémon livery, dubbed a Pokémon Jet.

Pokémon, being a globally popular franchise, has left a significant mark on today's popular culture. The Pokémon characters have become pop culture icons; examples include two different Pikachu balloons in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Pokémon-themed airplanes operated by All Nippon Airways, merchandise items, and a traveling theme park that was in Nagoya, Japan in 2005 and in Taipei in 2006. Pokémon also appeared on the cover of the U.S. magazine Time in 1999.[100] The Comedy Central show Drawn Together has a character named Ling-Ling who is a parody of Pikachu.[101] Several other shows such as The Simpsons,[102]South Park[103] and Robot Chicken[104] have made references and spoofs of Pokémon, among other series. Pokémon was featured on VH1's I Love the '90s: Part Deux. A live action show based on the anime called Pokémon Live! toured the United States in late 2000.[105]Jim Butcher cites Pokémon as one of the inspirations for the Codex Alera series of novels.[106]

Pokémon has even made its mark in the realm of science. This includes animals named after Pokémon, such as Stentorceps weedlei (named after the Pokémon Weedle for its resemblance) and Chilicola Charizard Monckton (named after the Pokémon Charizard).[107] There is also a protein named after Pikachu, called Pikachurin.

In November 2001, Nintendo opened a store called the Pokémon Center in New York, in Rockefeller Center,[108] modeled after the two other Pokémon Center stores in Tokyo and Osaka and named after a staple of the video game series. Pokémon Centers are fictional buildings where Trainers take their injured Pokémon to be healed after combat.[109] The store sold Pokémon merchandise on a total of two floors, with items ranging from collectible shirts to stuffed Pokémon plushies.[110] The store also featured a Pokémon Distributing Machine in which players would place their game to receive an egg of a Pokémon that was being given out at that time. The store also had tables that were open for players of the Pokémon Trading Card Game to duel each other or an employee. The store was closed and replaced by the Nintendo World Store on May 14, 2005.[111] Four Pokémon Center kiosks were put in malls in the Seattle area.[112] The Pokémon Center online store was relaunched on August 6, 2014.[113]

Meitetsu 2200 series train Giratina & Shaymin.

Professor of Education Joseph Tobin theorizes that the success of the franchise was due to the long list of names that could be learned by children and repeated in their peer groups. Its rich fictional universe provides opportunities for discussion and demonstration of knowledge in front of their peers. The names of the creatures were linked to its characteristics, which converged with the children's belief that names have symbolic power. Children can pick their favourite Pokémon and affirm their individuality while at the same time affirming their conformance to the values of the group, and they can distinguish themselves from others by asserting what they liked and what they did not like from every chapter. Pokémon gained popularity because it provides a sense of identity to a wide variety of children, and lost it quickly when many of those children found that the identity groups were too big and searched for identities that would distinguish them into smaller groups.[114]

Shinkansen E3 Series train in Pokémon livery.

Pokémons history has been marked at times by rivalry with the Digimon media franchise that debuted at a similar time. Described as "the other 'mon'" by IGN's Juan Castro, Digimon has not enjoyed Pokémons level of international popularity or success, but has maintained a dedicated fanbase.[115] IGN's Lucas M. Thomas stated that Pokémon is Digimons "constant competition and comparison", attributing the former's relative success to the simplicity of its evolution mechanic as opposed to Digivolution.[116] The two have been noted for conceptual and stylistic similarities by sources such as GameZone.[117] A debate among fans exists over which of the two franchises came first.[118] In actuality, the first Pokémon media, Pokémon Red and Green, were released initially on February 27, 1996;[119] whereas the Digimon virtual pet was released on June 26, 1997.

Fan community

While Pokémons target demographic is children, early purchasers of Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire were in their 20s.[120] Many fans are adults who originally played the games as children and had later returned to the series.[121]

Numerous fan sites exist for the Pokémon franchise, including Bulbapedia, a wiki-based encyclopedia,[122][123][124] and Serebii,[125] a news and reference website.[126] Other large fan communities exist on other platforms, such as the r/pokemon subreddit with over 2.2 million subscribers.[127]

A significant community around the Pokémon video games' metagame has existed for a long time, analyzing the best ways to use each Pokémon to their full potential in competitive battles. The most prolific competitive community is Smogon University, which has created a widely accepted tier-based battle system.[128] Smogon is affiliated with an online Pokémon game called Pokémon Showdown, in which players create a team and battle against other players around the world using the competitive tiers created by Smogon.[129]

In early 2014, an anonymous video streamer on Twitch launched Twitch Plays Pokémon, an experiment trying to crowdsource playing subsequent Pokémon games, starting with Pokémon Red.[130][131]

A challenge called the Nuzlocke Challenge allows players to only capture the first Pokémon encountered in each area. If they do not succeed in capturing that Pokémon, there are no second chances. When a Pokémon faints, it is considered "dead" and must be released or stored in the PC permanently.[132] If the player faints, the game is considered over, and the player must restart.[133] The original idea consisted of 2 to 3 rules that the community has built upon. There are many fan made Pokémon games that contain a game mode similar to the Nuzlocke Challenge, such as Pokémon Uranium.[134]

A study at Stanford Neurosciences published in Nature performed magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 Pokémon experts and 11 controls, finding that seeing Pokémon stimulated activity in the visual cortex, in a different place than is triggered by recognizing faces, places or words, demonstrating the brain's ability to create such specialized areas.[135]


  1. ^ Japanese: ? Hepburn: Pokemon
  2. ^ Japanese: Hepburn: Poketto Monsut?


  1. ^ "The ABC Book, A Pronunciation Guide". NLS Other Writings. NLS/BPH. January 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ Sora Ltd. (March 9, 2008). Super Smash Bros. Brawl. Wii. Nintendo. (Announcer's dialog after the character Pokémon Trainer is selected (voice acted))
  3. ^ "Pokemon". Dictionary.com. IAC. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ "Company History". . The Pokémon Company. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  5. ^ "?". The Pokémon Company. Retrieved 2019. Pokémon
  6. ^ "Pokémon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ Grubb, Jeff (September 16, 2013). "Nintendo releases 'Gotta Catch 'Em All' remix music video for Pokémon". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ Cannon, William (September 16, 2013). "'Pokemon X Y' News: Nintendo Brings Back 'Gotta Catch 'Em All' Catchphrase In New Remix Music Video; Watch Here [VIDEO]". Latin Times. Archived from the original on October 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ Jenkins, Henry (August 2006). Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, p. 110. ISBN 9780814743072. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c "The 53 Most Anticipated Movies of 2019". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. June 29, 2018. Archived from the original on July 5, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ Hutchins, Robert (June 26, 2018). "'Anime will only get stronger,' as Pokémon beats Marvel as highest grossing franchise". Licensing.biz. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ Burwick, Kevin (June 24, 2018). "Pokemon Rules Them All as Highest-Grossing Franchise Ever". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ "6 Major Studio Blockbusters That Could Rule the Box Office This Year". The New York Observer. January 31, 2019. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ "VIDEO: A Pokemon Fan Theory Suggests Ash is Actually... in a Coma?". Comic Book Resources. January 26, 2019. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Boyes, Emma (January 10, 2007). "UK paper names top game franchises". GameSpot. GameSpot UK. Archived from the original on January 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  16. ^ a b c "Business Summary". The Pokémon Company. September 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ Webster, Andrew (February 28, 2019). "Pokémon Go spurred an amazing era that continues with Sword and Shield". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ Bailey, Kat (November 17, 2016). "Why the Pokemon Anime is the Most Successful Adaptation of a Videogame Ever". USgamer. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ "Hot Properties: Pokémon". Toy World Magazine: 68. January 2018. Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ "The Top 150 Global Licensors". License Global. April 1, 2017. Archived from the original on April 14, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ Carless, Simon (December 23, 2005). "Pokemon USA Moves Licensing In-House". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  22. ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (September 27, 2006). "Pokemon 10-Year Retrospective". IGN. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved 2009.
  23. ^ Snyder, Benjamin (January 14, 2016). "Pokémon Announced a Super Bowl Ad to Celebrate its 20th Anniversary". Fortune. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  24. ^ Makuch, Eddie (February 26, 2016). "Original Pokemon Virtual Console Re-Releases Support Pokemon Bank". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on February 29, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  25. ^ Wilson, Jason (July 6, 2016). "Pokémon Go launches in US on iOS and Android". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ "Pokémon Sword and Pokémon Shield". swordshield.pokemon.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ Swider, Matt (March 22, 2007). "The Pokemon Series Pokedex". Gaming Target. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved 2007.
  28. ^ John Kaufeld; Jeremy Smith (June 13, 2006). Trading Card Games For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-470-04407-0. Retrieved 2013.
  29. ^ "The Ultimate Game Freak". Time. November 22, 1999. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  30. ^ MacDonald, Mark; Brokaw, Brian; Arnold; J. Douglas; Elies, Mark (1999). Pokémon Trainer's Guide. Sandwich Islands Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 0-439-15404-9.
  31. ^ "HIDDEN POWER of masuda". www.gamefreak.co.jp. Retrieved 2019.
  32. ^ Vincent, Brittany; Vincent, Brittany (February 27, 2019). "'Pokemon Sword and Shield' Announced For Nintendo Switch". Variety. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  33. ^ Farokhmanesh, Megan (May 29, 2018). "Another Pokémon game is still coming in 2019". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ DeFreitas, Casey (May 29, 2018). "Core Pokemon RPG Coming to Nintendo Switch 2019". IGN. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ Farokhmanesh, Megan (May 29, 2018). "Another Pokémon game is still coming in 2019". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ DeFreitas, Casey (May 29, 2018). "Core Pokemon RPG Coming to Nintendo Switch 2019". IGN. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ Riikka (November 1, 2017). "'Pokémon' anime reaches the landmark of 1000 episodes". ARAMA! JAPAN. Retrieved 2019.
  38. ^ "Pokemon Anime". Psypokes. Archived from the original on April 19, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  39. ^ "Pokemon Junior Chapter Book Series". WebData Technology Corporation. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  40. ^ Peters, Megan (January 15, 2020). "Watch: Explore New Galar Region Story in Pokemon: Twilight Wings". ComicBook.com. Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ Romano, Sal (January 15, 2020). "Pokemon: Twilight Wings limited anime series - Episode 1: Letter". Gematsu. Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ Pring, Joe (October 21, 2019). "New Teaser Confirms Next Pokémon Movie For Summer 2020". We Got This Covered. Retrieved 2019.
  43. ^ http://dogasu.bulbagarden.net/movies/pm_mewtwo/logo_jpn.gif
  44. ^ Brian (December 10, 2017). "Pokémon the Movie 2018 to debut July 13 in Japan, first teaser". Nintendo Everything. Retrieved 2017.
  45. ^ http://dogasu.bulbagarden.net/movies/2019_pm_msb_evolution/teasers/teaser01/teaser01_06_small.png
  46. ^ , (May 13, 2020). "? 2020?7?10?(?) SNS ?https://www.pokemon-movie.jp/news/?p=3873". @pokemon_movie (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020. External link in |title= (help)
  47. ^ Fleming, Jr, Mike (November 30, 2016). "Rob Letterman To Direct Pokemon Film 'Detective Pikachu' For Legendary". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  48. ^ McNary, Dave (July 25, 2018). "Ryan Reynolds' 'Detective Pikachu' Moves From Universal to Warner Bros". Variety. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ Williams, Caleb (October 13, 2017). "Live-Action 'Pokemon' Movie 'Detective Pikachu' Starts Filming This January in the UK". Omega Underground. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  50. ^ Hood, Cooper (August 24, 2018). "Detective Pikachu Movie Title & Logo Officially Revealed". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  51. ^ "'Detective Pikachu' Sequel in the Works With '22 Jump Street' Writer (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2020.
  52. ^ "Pokémon 2.B.A. Master Soundtrack CD Album". CD Universe. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  53. ^ "Pokémon: The First Movie Soundtrack CD Album". Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved 2008.
  54. ^ "Pokémon Trading Card Game [Strategy]". Archived from the original on May 22, 2007.Pokemon-tcg.com. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  55. ^ a b Huebner, Chuck (March 12, 2003). "RE: Pokémon Ruby & Sapphire TCG Releases". Wizards.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  56. ^ "Pokemon Card GB2 Release Information for Game Boy Color". GameFAQs. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved 2008.
  57. ^ Pokemon: Ranger and the Temple of the Sea. Viz Media. 2008. ISBN 978-1421522883.
  58. ^ Pokémon Adventures: Diamond and Pearl / Platinum, Vol. 2. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421538174.
  59. ^ Pokémon: The Rise of Darkrai. Viz Media. 2008. ISBN 978-1421522890.
  60. ^ Pokemon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior!. Viz Media. 2009. ISBN 978-1421527017.
  61. ^ Pokémon: Arceus and the Jewel of Life. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421538020.
  62. ^ Pokémon: Zoroark: Master of Illusions. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421542218.
  63. ^ Pokémon the Movie: White: Victini and Zekrom. Viz Media. 2012. ISBN 978-1421549545.
  64. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 1 (9781421540900): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421540900.
  65. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 2 (9781421540917): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421540917.
  66. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 3 (9781421540924): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421540924.
  67. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 4 (9781421541143): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2011. ISBN 978-1421541143.
  68. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 5 (9781421542805): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2012. ISBN 978-1421542805.
  69. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 6 (9781421542812): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2012. ISBN 978-1421542812.
  70. ^ Pokémon Black and White, Vol. 7 (9781421542829): Hidenori Kusaka, Satoshi Yamamoto. Viz Media. 2012. ISBN 978-1421542829.
  71. ^ USAopoly. "MONOPOLY®: Pokémon Kanto Edition(TM)". USAopoly. Archived from the original on May 25, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  72. ^ "Pokémon: The Movie (1999)". ChildCare Action Project. 1999. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  73. ^ Silverman, Stephen M. (December 9, 1997). "Pokemon Gets Religion". People. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  74. ^ Barrett, Devlin. "POKEMON EARNS PAPAL BLESSING". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2000. Retrieved 2013.
  75. ^ "Pokémon trumped by pocket saints". BBC. June 27, 2000. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ Fitzgerald, Jim (December 3, 1999). "'Swastika' Pokemon card dropped". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 24, 2011 – via HighBeam Research.
  77. ^ "Pokemon Symbol A Swastika?". cbsnews.com. December 3, 1999. Archived from the original on April 20, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  78. ^ Crowley, Kieran (October 1999). "Lawsuit Slams Pokemon As Bad Bet for Addicted Kids". New York Post. Archived from the original on October 22, 2000.
  79. ^ "Saudi bans Pokemon". CNN. March 26, 2001. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008.
  80. ^ "Saudi Arabia bans Pokemon". BBC News. March 26, 2001. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved 2009.
  81. ^ Ramlow, Todd R. (2000). "Pokemon, or rather, Pocket Money". Popmatters. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  82. ^ "PETA wages war on Pokemon for virtual animal cruelty". CNET. October 8, 2012. Archived from the original on September 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  83. ^ "#GottaFreeEmAll: Pokémon Go criticised by PETA for 'animal cruelty' parallels". ITV. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  84. ^ Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Zifkin, Benjamin G.; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick (2005). "REVIEW ARTICLE: Cortical triggers in generalized reflex seizures and epilepsies" (PDF). Oxford University Press.
  85. ^ "Pokemon on the Brain". University of Washington. March 11, 2000. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved 2013.
  86. ^ "Color Changes in TV Cartoons Cause Seizures". ScienceDaily. June 1, 1999. Archived from the original on November 8, 2004.
  87. ^ "Thirty Minutes Over Tokyo". The Simpsons Archive. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  88. ^ "South Park Goes Global: Reading Japan in Pokemon". University of Auckland. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  89. ^ "4Licensing Corporation Legal Proceedings". EDGAR Online. March 31, 2003. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  90. ^ Nakashinma, Ryan (July 8, 2016). "Players in hunt for Pokemon Go monsters feel real-world pain". Miami Herald. Los Angeles. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  91. ^ Irby, Kate (July 11, 2016). "Police: Pokemon Go leading to increase in local crime". The Idaho Statesman. Retrieved 2016.
  92. ^ Mehta, Diana; Cameron, Peter (July 14, 2016). "OPP warn Pokémon Go players of 'potential risk and harm' while searching for monsters". CBC.ca. Archived from the original on July 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  93. ^ "Mom says teenage daughter hit by car in Tarentum after playing 'Pokemon Go'". WPXI. July 13, 2016. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  94. ^ Mason, Greg (July 14, 2016). "Auburn police: Driver crashes into tree while playing 'Pokemon Go'". Auburnpub.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  95. ^ Hernandez, David (July 13, 2016). "'Pokemon Go' players fall off 90-foot ocean bluff". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  96. ^ Stortstrom, Mary (July 14, 2016). "Police: Don't fall 'catching them all'". The Journal. Martinsburg, West Virginia. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016. A 12-year-old Jefferson County boy suffered a broken femur bone Tuesday night while playing the Pokemon game just off Shipley School Road. A Harpers Ferry first-responder said Wednesday morning the boy was running in the dark and fell off a five-foot-high storm sewer and suffered the leg injury.
  97. ^ "Pokemon Go: Bosnia players warned of minefields". BBC. July 19, 2016. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  98. ^ Griffin, Andrew (July 20, 2016). "Teenager shot and killed while searching for creatures in Pokemon Go". The Independent. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  99. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: Pokeman - Nov. 22, 1999". TIME.com. Archived from the original on August 17, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  100. ^ "Pokemon Sightings and Rip-offs". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2017.
  101. ^ Jennifer Sherman (May 3, 2017). "Lisa, Homer Catch 'Peekemon' in The Simpsons' Pokémon Go Parody". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  102. ^ Andy Patrizio (December 17, 2003). "South Park: The Complete Third Season". IGN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  103. ^ Steve Greene (July 21, 2017). "'Robot Chicken' Trailer: Season 9 is Here to Make Fun of Everything That Comic-Con Loves". IndieWire. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  104. ^ "Pokémon Live!". Pokémon World. Nintendo. Archived from the original on August 15, 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  105. ^ Butcher, Jim (April 6, 2010). "Jim Butcher chats about Pokemon, responsibility, and Changes". fantasyliterature.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  106. ^ "Doug's Personal Page". faculty.ucr.edu. Retrieved 2019.
  107. ^ Steiner, Ina (November 18, 2001). "Pokemon Center Opens in NYC". EcommerceBytes.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  108. ^ Raichu 526. "PokeZam.com - Pokemon Center NY - PokeZam". PokeZam. Archived from the original on August 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  109. ^ "Fun for Kids". Big Apple Visitors Center. 2010. Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  110. ^ "Pokemon Center NY". ManhattanLivingMag.com. 2009. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  111. ^ "Pokémon Center vending machine locations in Seattle". Pokémon Center Support. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  112. ^ Sarkar, Samit (July 2, 2014). "Pokémon Center online store opening Aug. 6 in US, soft launch today". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  113. ^ Joseph Jay Tobin (2004). Pikachu's global adventure: the rise and fall of Pokémon. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3287-6.
  114. ^ Castro, Juan (May 20, 2005). "E3 2005: Digimon World 4". IGN. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  115. ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (August 21, 2009). "Cheers & Tears: DS Fighting Games". IGN. Archived from the original on April 16, 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  116. ^ Bedigian, Louis (July 12, 2002). "Digimon World 3 Review". GameZone. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  117. ^ DeVries, Jack (November 22, 2006). "Digimon World DS Review". IGN. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  118. ^ "Related Games". GameSpot. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  119. ^ "Pokémon's Audience Is Growing Older". Siliconera. December 1, 2014. Archived from the original on April 4, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  120. ^ "Pokémon's Audience Is Growing Older". Siliconera. December 1, 2014. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  121. ^ Neiburger, Eli (July 1, 2007). "Games... in the Library?". School Library Journal. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved 2015. Players can refer (or contribute) to Bulbapedia, a wiki-style encyclopedia of the Pokémon universe, to learn about the attributes, strengths, and weaknesses of over 500 different characters; the literacy required for success extends beyond the game itself.
  122. ^ O'Neil, Mathieu (2009). Cyberchiefs: autonomy and authority in online tribes (1. publ. ed.). London: Pluto Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0745327976. Bulbapedia is a MediaWiki installation run by Pokémon fansite Bulbagarden.net for the purpose of creating a Pokémon-focused encyclopedia. This project is overseen by the Bulbapedia editorial board, and Bulbagarden's executive staff. Bulbapedia also incorporates the Bulbanews wiki, a news organization run by Bulbagarden as a means of publishing Pokémon news quickly and effectively. Bulbapedia is a founding member of Encyclopaediae Pokémonis, a multilingual, open-content Pokémon encyclopedia project.
  123. ^ Khaw, Cassandra (October 19, 2013). "More Starter Pokemon, Less Starting Pokemon: We Can Make Pokémon X & Y's Wonder Trade Better!". USgamer. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on March 11, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  124. ^ Oxford, Nadia (September 27, 2018). "How Serebii Has Remained the Most Important Pokemon News Site for Nearly 20 Years". usgamer. www.usgamer.net. Retrieved 2019.
  125. ^ Merrick, Joe. "Joe Merrick AMA on Reddit". Reddit. Retrieved 2019.
  126. ^ "/r/pokemon metrics (Pokémon: Gotta Catch 'Em All!)". redditmetrics.com.
  127. ^ Magdaleno, Alex (February 20, 2014). "Inside the Secret World of Competitive Pokémon". Mashable. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  128. ^ Hernandez, Patricia (May 2, 2015). "The Most Popular Pokémon Used By Top Players, In One Image". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  129. ^ Cunningham, Andrew (February 18, 2014). "The bizarre, mind-numbing, mesmerizing beauty of "Twitch Plays Pokémon"". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  130. ^ Farokhmanesh, Megan (March 25, 2014). "Twitch Plays Pokemon will continue as long as it has an active following". Polygon. Vox Media, Inc. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  131. ^ "What is the Nuzlocke Challenge?". Nuzlocke.com. 2010. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  132. ^ Martinez, Phillip (May 14, 2015). "Pokémon Nuzlocke Challenge: 20 Years Of Playing Pokémon And This Is The Most Stressful Experience Ever". iDigitalTimes. Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  133. ^ Buzzi, Matthew (December 26, 2014). "Check Out Pokemon Uranium, A Downloadable Fan Project About Angry Nuclear-Type Pokemon in an Original World". Gamenguide. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  134. ^ Sonja Hansen (May 9, 2019). "Pokemon triggers visual cortex". 255 (53). The Stanford Daily. p. 1.
  • Tobin, Joseph, ed. (February 2004). Pikachu's Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3287-6.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes