The federal districts (Russian: ?, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.
The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.
|Nominal GDP (2017)
|GDP per capita (2017)||Federal
|Central||18 May 2000||650,200||38,438,600||59||0.838||26,164 billion
|Northwestern||18 May 2000||1,687,000||13,583,800||8||0.827||8,195 billion
|Southern[a]||18 May 2000||427,800||16,141,100[b]||33||0.793||5,362 billion
|North Caucasian||19 January 2010||170,400||9,496,800||55||0.785||1,865 billion
|Volga||18 May 2000||1,037,000||29,900,400||29||0.797||11,027 billion
|Ural||18 May 2000||1,818,500||12,082,700||7||0.833||10,678 billion
|Siberian||18 May 2000||4,361,800||17,178,298||4||0.788||7,758 billion
|Far Eastern||18 May 2000||6,952,600||8,371,257||1||0.801||3,878 billion
On 19 January 2010 the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.
On March 2014, after the Russian military intervention in and annexation of Crimea, the Crimean Federal District was established. The legality of this annexation is disputed by an overwhelming majority of countries. On 28 July 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District in order to improve governance.
In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Putin. The Administrative Centre of the Far Eastern Federal District was moved from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.