?-Pinene and ?-pinene are both produced from geranyl pyrophosphate, via cyclisation of linaloyl pyrophosphate followed by loss of a proton from the carbocation equivalent. Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Joint BioEnergy Institute have been able to synthetically produce pinene with a bacterium.
Alpha-pinene is the most widely encountered terpenoid in nature and is highly repellant to insects.
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