Peter Goldreich (born July 14, 1939) is an American astrophysicist whose research focuses on celestial mechanics, planetary rings, helioseismology and neutron stars. He is currently the Lee DuBridge Professor of Astrophysics and Planetary Physics at  California Institute of Technology. Since 2005 he has also been a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.  Asteroid  3805 Goldreich is named after him. 
Goldreich received a bachelor of science in engineering physics from
Cornell University in 1960, and obtained a Ph.D. from Cornell in 1963 under the supervision of Thomas Gold.    In 1963 and 1964 Goldreich was a postdoctoral fellow at  Cambridge University. From 1964 to 1966 he was an  assistant professor of astronomy and geophysics at UCLA. Goldreich joined the faculty at Caltech in 1966 as an associate professor.  He later became a full  professor in 1969 while remaining at Caltech, and in 1981 he became the Lee A. DuBridge Professor of Astrophysics & Planetary Physics also at Caltech. He also sits on the Board of Adjudicators for the  Shaw Prize, and the selection committee for Astronomy Prizes.
In 1966 Goldreich published a classic paper on the evolution of
the moon's orbit and on the orbits of other moons in the solar system. He showed that for each planet there is a certain distance such that moons closer to the planet than that distance maintain an almost constant orbital inclination with respect to the planet's equator (with a  orbital precession mostly due to the tidal influence of the planet), whereas moons further away maintain an almost constant orbital inclination with respect to the ecliptic (with precession due mostly to the tidal influence of the sun). The moons in the first category, with the exception of Neptune's moon Triton, orbit near the equatorial plane. He concluded that these moons formed from equatorial accretion disks. But he found that our moon, although it was once inside the critical distance from the earth, never had an equatorial orbit as would be expected from various scenarios for its origin. This is called the lunar inclination problem, to which various solutions have since been proposed. 
Alar Toomre first described the process of polar wander in a 1969 paper, although evidence of paleomagnetism was not discovered until later. Goldreich collaborated with  George Abell to conclude that planetary nebulae evolved from red giant stars, a view that is now widely accepted.  In 1979 Goldreich, along with  Scott Tremaine predicted that Saturn's F ring was maintained by shepherd moons, a prediction that would be confirmed by observations in 1980.    They also predicted that  Uranus' rings were held in place by similar shepherd moons, a prediction that was confirmed in 1986. Goldreich, along with Tremaine predicted planetary migration in 1980, which would later be invoked to explain  hot jupiters.   
In 1969, Goldreich published a paper
together with William Julian that is now considered a classic work on pulsar magnetospheres. They provided a simple and compelling model for the structure of magnetic fields anchored in a neutron star and showed that these fields can extract the neutron star rotational energy to power electromagnetic emission. Similar considerations were later used to understand the magnetospheres of rotating black holes.  
Awards and honors
Woodrow Wilson Honorary Fellowship, 1960-1961  Andrew Dixon White Fellowship, 1960-1961
 National Foundation Fellowship, 1961-1963
 National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1963-1964
 Sloan Foundation Fellowship, 1968-1970
 Elected to
National Academy of Sciences, 1972   Elected to
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1973 
Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society, 1979  
California Scientist of the Year, 1981  
Chapman Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1985 
Brouwer Award of the Division on Dynamical Astronomy of the American Astronomical Society, 1986  Amos de Shalit Lecturer at the
Weizmann Institute, 1986 
Thomas Gold Lecturer at Cornell University, 1987  Regents Fellow,
Smithsonian Institution, 1988-1990  Miller Professorship,
University of California, Berkeley, 1990 
Gerard P. Kuiper Prize of the Division for Planetary Science, American Astronomical Society, 1992   Morris Loeb Lecturer,
Harvard University, 1992 
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1993   
Foreign Member of the Royal Society, 2004  Shaw Prize, 2007
In 1995, Goldreich received the
National Medal of Science for "his profound and lasting contributions to planetary sciences and astrophysics, providing fundamental theoretical insights for understanding the rotation of planets, the dynamics of planetary rings, pulsars, astrophysical masers, the spiral arms of galaxies, and the oscillations of the Sun".    
Goldreich was awarded the
Grande Médaille of the French Academy of Science in 2006 for his numerous contributions in the field of Astrophysics.     
Goldreich received the 2007
Shaw Prize in Astronomy "in recognition of his lifetime achievements in theoretical astrophysics and planetary sciences". 
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"PETER GOLDREICH APPOINTED FACULTY MEMBER IN THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES". Archived from the original on 2008-03-05.
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"Origins Institute - Public Lectures - Peter Goldreich". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
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"Professor of astrophysics to give lecture series on planets".
"Caltech Astronomy : Peter Goldreich's Research Interests". Archived from the original on 2006-09-12.
"L'Académie des Sciences remet la Grande Médaille 2006 à l'astrophysicien américain Peter Goldreich". Archived from the original on 2007-10-27.
"Citation for (3805)". Minor Planet Center.
"Institute for Advanced Study: Faculty and Emeriti: Goldreich". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
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"Random Samples". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
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"PMA Division News Honors & Awards". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
"Prof. Peter Goldreich: Lee A. DuBridge Professor of Astrophysics & Planetary Physics, Caltech".
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"Archives for Honors and Awards".
Peter Goldreich (Nov 1966). "History of the Lunar Orbit". . Reviews of Geophysics 4 (4): 411. Bibcode: 1966RvGSP...4..411G. doi: 10.1029/RG004i004p00411. Termed "classic" by Jihad Touma & Jack Wisdom (Nov 1994). "Evolution of the Earth-Moon system". . The Astronomical Journal 108: 1943. Bibcode: 1994AJ....108.1943T. doi: 10.1086/117209.
Kaveh Pahlevan & Alessandro Morbidelli (Nov 26, 2015). "Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination". Nature. 527 (7579): 492-494. arXiv: . 1603.06515 Bibcode: 2015Natur.527..492P. doi: 10.1038/nature16137. PMID 26607544.
Kerr, R. A. (2000). "Did the Dinosaurs Live on a Topsy-Turvy Earth?". Science. 287 (5452): 406-407. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5452.406.
"University of California: In Memoriam, 1985".
"The Stars by Night and Day". Archived from the original on 2007-10-08.
"Historical Background of Saturn's Rings".
"Chaos Seen in Movement of Ring-Herding Moons of Saturn".
"New Clues Emerge in Mystery of Planetary Rings". The New York Times. December 8, 1999 . Retrieved 2010.
"Voyager was on target again; in the latest unmanned triumph, Voyager 2 surveyed Uranus and sent back a real bull's-eye".
"Cosmologist Scott Tremaine receives two honors". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.
"The three first giant exoplanets". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12 . Retrieved .
"PLUTO, KBOs AND A NEW THEORY OF PLANETARY FORMATION". Archived from the original on 2006-09-01.
Glanz, J. (1997). "Worlds Around Other Stars Shake Planet Birth Theory". Science. 276 (5317): 1336-1339. Bibcode: 1997Sci...276.1336G. doi: 10.1126/science.276.5317.1336.
Goldreich, Peter; Julian, William (1969). "Pulsar electrodynamics". The Astrophysical Journal. 157: 869. Bibcode: 1969ApJ...157..869G. doi: 10.1086/150119.
Blandford, Roger; Znajek, Roman (1977). "Electromagnetic extraction of energy from Kerr black holes". MNRAS. 179 (3): 433-456. arXiv: . astro-ph/0506302 Bibcode: 1977MNRAS.179..433B. doi: 10.1093/mnras/179.3.433.
"California Scientist of the Year Award Recipients". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
"YEAR 2003 DPS AWARD RECIPIENTS". Archived from the original on 2007-06-03.
"Fellowship of the Royal Society : Current Foreign Members". Royal Society . Retrieved 2013.
"The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
"JEWISH RECIPIENTS OF THE US NATIONAL MEDAL OF SCIENCE". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
"French Academy of Science awards Grand Medal to astrophysicist Peter Goldreich". Archived from the original on 2007-10-27.
"Archives for Honors and Awards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-31.
"Institute for Advanced Study: The Institute Letter". Archived from the original on 2007-10-30.
"The Shaw Prize - Peter Goldreich - Announcement and Citation" . Retrieved .