Penza Oblast
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Penza Oblast
Penza Oblast
? ?
Flag of Penza Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Penza Oblast
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Penza Oblast[3]
Map of Russia - Penza Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 53°15?N 44°34?E / 53.250°N 44.567°E / 53.250; 44.567Coordinates: 53°15?N 44°34?E / 53.250°N 44.567°E / 53.250; 44.567
CountryRussia
Federal districtVolga[1]
Economic regionVolga[2]
EstablishedFebruary 4, 1939[4]
Administrative centerPenza[5]
Government
 o BodyLegislative Assembly[6]
 o Governor[6]Ivan Belozertsev[7]
Area
 o Total43,200 km2 (16,700 sq mi)
Area rank59th
Population
(2010 Census)[9]
 o Total1,386,186
 o Estimate 
(2018)[10]
1,331,655 (-3.9%)
 o Rank32nd
 o Density32/km2 (83/sq mi)
 o Urban
67.1%
 o Rural
32.9%
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[11])
ISO 3166 codeRU-PNZ
License plates58
OKTMO ID56000000
Official languagesRussian[12]
Websitehttp://pnzreg.ru

Penza Oblast (Russian: , Penzenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Penza. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,386,186.[9]

Geography

Main rivers

Penza Oblast has over 3000 rivers; the overall length is 15,458 km. The biggest rivers are:

Fauna

There are 316 species of vertebrates within the region, including:

  • about 10 species of amphibians;
  • about 200 species of birds;
  • about 8 species of reptiles;
  • about 68 species of mammals (fox, rabbit, ferret, badger, squirrel).

Seven existing species of mammals were already acclimatized on land: the American mink, muskrat, raccoon dog, wild boar, Siberian roe deer, red deer and Sika deer. In parallel, work has been carried out to reintroduce the Forest-steppe marmot, the Eurasian beaver and the Russian desman (a species of mole that resembles a muskrat).

In the waters of Penza Oblast, there are about 50 species of fish. The largest body of water - the Sursko reservoir - is home to around 30 species. Commercial species include bream, silver bream, pikeperch, ide, and catfish. In the rivers and smalls pond dwell roach, perch, carp, and pike. The most valuable fish to be found in the natural waters is the sterlet.

Climate

Climate data for Penza (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
5.0
(41.0)
17.0
(62.6)
30.0
(86.0)
35.4
(95.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.8
(100.0)
37.2
(99.0)
32.5
(90.5)
25.0
(77.0)
13.4
(56.1)
8.0
(46.4)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) -6.9
(19.6)
-5.8
(21.6)
0.3
(32.5)
11.7
(53.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
25.7
(78.3)
23.7
(74.7)
17.6
(63.7)
8.9
(48.0)
0.4
(32.7)
-4.3
(24.3)
9.7
(49.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) -9.8
(14.4)
-10.0
(14.0)
-4.2
(24.4)
6.4
(43.5)
13.9
(57.0)
18.0
(64.4)
19.2
(66.6)
17.1
(62.8)
11.6
(52.9)
4.5
(40.1)
-2.9
(26.8)
-7.7
(18.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Average low °C (°F) -13.9
(7.0)
-13.5
(7.7)
-7.1
(19.2)
1.7
(35.1)
8.1
(46.6)
12.5
(54.5)
14.2
(57.6)
11.9
(53.4)
7.1
(44.8)
1.3
(34.3)
-4.4
(24.1)
-10.4
(13.3)
0.6
(33.1)
Record low °C (°F) -39.0
(-38.2)
-40.0
(-40.0)
-31.1
(-24.0)
-20.0
(-4.0)
-6.0
(21.2)
-2.2
(28.0)
2.0
(35.6)
0.6
(33.1)
-6.1
(21.0)
-17.2
(1.0)
-31.1
(-24.0)
-40.0
(-40.0)
-40.0
(-40.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.6)
29
(1.1)
32
(1.3)
36
(1.4)
41
(1.6)
62
(2.4)
67
(2.6)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
49
(1.9)
52
(2.0)
45
(1.8)
563
(22.2)
Source: ?, ?

History

The regional center of Penza was built in 1663 as a Russian fortress on the border of the Wild Fields, although evidence of the presence of more ancient settlements has been found in the modern city.

Penza Province was established within Kazan Governorate in 1718. It became a separate Penza Governorate on September 15, 1780, which existed until March 5, 1797, when it was dissolved and merged into Saratov Governorate. Penza Governorate was re-established on September 9, 1801 and existed until 1928. Between 1928 and 1937, the territory of the former governorate underwent a number of administrative transformations, ending up as a part of Tambov Oblast in 1937. On February 4, 1939, modern Penza Oblast was established[4] by splitting it out of Tambov Oblast. In March 1939, the Penza Oblast Committee of the CPSU was formed, the first secretary of the committee being Alexander Kabanov.

Administrative divisions

Economy

Penza Oblast is part of the Volga economic region. The oblast is one of Russia's leading producers of wheat, rye, oats, millet, buckwheat, cereal and forage crops, vegetables, potatoes, mustard, and meat.[13]

Politics

Seat of the Oblast government

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared among three persons: The first secretary of the Penza CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Penza Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Demographics

Population: ;[9];[14].[15]

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 14 777 (10.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 20 419 (14.9 per 1000) [16]
  • Total fertility rate:[17]

2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.37 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.48 | 2013 - 1.49 | 2014 - 1.53 | 2015 - 1.55 | 2016 - 1.50(e)

Ethnic composition (2010):[9]

  • Russians: 86.8%
  • Tatars: 6.4%
  • Mordvins: 4.1%
  • Ukrainians: 0.7%
  • Chuvash: 0.4%
  • Armenians: 0.3%
  • Others ethnicities: 1.3%
  • Additionally, 43,283 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]
  • Births: 7,962 (Jan-July 2008)
  • Deaths: 13,608 (Jan-July 2008)[19]

Religion

Religion in Penza Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[20][21]
Russian Orthodoxy
62.9%
Other Orthodox
0.7%
Other Christians
2.2%
Islam
5.7%
Spiritual but not religious
14.6%
Atheism and irreligion
9.1%
Other and undeclared
4.8%

According to a 2012 survey,[20] 62.9% of the population of Penza Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to churches or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, and 7% are Muslims. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 3.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[20]

Troitse-Scanov Convent
Tourists near Oldman Khopyor at river source

Culture and recreation

Tourism

Notable people

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No. 20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #828-ZPO
  4. ^ a b USSR. Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Union Republics, p. 202
  5. ^ Charter of Penza Oblast, Article 8
  6. ^ a b Charter of Penza Oblast, Article 7
  7. ^ Official website of Penza Oblast. Ivan Alexandrovich Belozertsev, Governor of Penza Oblast (in Russian)
  8. ^ ? (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "?, ?, ? ? ? ? ? (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". ? 2002 ? (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ " ? ? ? ". Gks.ru. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ "? ?:: ?". Gks.ru. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ "-2010 ? ". Perepis-2010.ru. December 19, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  19. ^ ? ? ? - ? ? - [Official portal of the Government of Penza oblast - About the region - Population]. penza.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on May 26, 2008.
  20. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  21. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", No 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  22. ^ "Professor Victor A. Skumin, D.M.Sci" (in Russian). 2009. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ Bendet, Ia. A.; Morozov, S. M.; Skumin, V. A. (1980). "Psychological aspects of the rehabilitation of patients after the surgical treatment of heart defects" ? ? ? ? [Psychological aspects of the rehabilitation of patients after the surgical treatment of heart defects]. Kardiologiia (in Russian). 20 (6): 45-51. PMID 7392405. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ "Skumin syndrome". Genex (in Russian). Archived from the original on March 19, 2017. Retrieved 2012.
  25. ^ Ruzza, Andrea (16 October 2013). "Nonpsychotic mental disorder after open heart surgery". Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals. 22 (3): 374. doi:10.1177/0218492313493427. PMID 24585929.
  26. ^ Skumin, V. A. (1982). Nepsikhoticheskie narusheniia psikhiki u bol'nykh s priobretennymi porokami serdtsa do i posle operatsii (obzor) [Nonpsychotic mental disorders in patients with acquired heart defects before and after surgery (review)]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova. 82. OCLC 112979417. Retrieved 2019.

Sources

  • ? ?.  No828-  28 ? 2005 ?. «? ? ?», ? . No1507-  2 2008 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? " ? ? ? "». ? ? ?  ? ? (26 ? 2005 ?.). : "? ? ", No16, ?. 108, 15 ? 2005 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #828-ZPO of June 28, 2005 On the Anthem of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #1507-ZPO of April 2, 2008 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Penza Oblast Due to the Adoption of the Law of Penza Oblast "Administrative Infractions Code of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication (July 26, 2005).).
  • ? ?. 10 1996 ?. « ? ?», ? . No2824-  1 ? 2015 ?. «? ?  39 ? ?». ? ? ?  ? (13 1996 ?.). : "? ", No133-134, 13 1996 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. September 10, 1996 Charter of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2824-ZPO of December 1, 2015 On Amending Article 39 of the Charter of Penza Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication (September 13, 1996).).
  • ?, ?. ?.; ?, ?. ?. (1987). ?. (ed.). ?. - ? ? (in Russian). Moscow.

External links


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