Top to bottom, left to right: Historical city centre on Sura, Penza Oblast Theater of Drama, Suspension bridge over Sura River, Monument of Military and Labour Glory, Memorial complex of Glory, Kind Angel of Peace and State Emblem of the USSR monuments on Pushkin st.
Penza was founded as a Russian frontier fortress-city, and to this day, remnants of the Lomovskaya sentry line built in 1640 have been preserved at the western edge of the city, and remains of earth ramparts dating from the mid-16th century are preserved in the city center. Until 1663, Penza was a wooden stockade with only a small settlement. In May 1663, the architect Yuri Kontransky arrived in Penza on the Tsar's orders to direct the construction of a fortress city, as part of a wider fortress building program to protect Russia from attacks by Crimean Tatars. The initial construction consisted of a wooden Kremlin, a village, and quarters for the nobility, small tradesmen, and merchants. The Muscovite government placed the UkrainianCossacks here, who constructed a fortress and called it "Cherkassy Ostroh", from which the regional city of Penza has developed, thanks to the arrival of new settlers, particularly Russians. The Ukrainian roots of the city and its first settlers are now remembered in the names of Cherkasskaya street, along with the "Cherkassy" historical district.
In 1774, the insurgent army led by Yemelyan Pugachev occupied Penza after the citizens of the city welcomed the rebellious Cossacks. The first stone houses started to appear after 1801, and by 1809 Penza's population had grown to more than 13,000 people.
Penza State Pedagogical University (unified with Penza State University in 2012)
Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
Penza Artillery Engineering Institute
Penza State Technological Academy
Penza State Agricultural Academy
Penza branch of the Moscow's Institute of Economics, Management and Law
Penza branch of the Russian State University of Innovative Technologies and Entrepreneurship
Penza has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classificationDfb) with long, cold winters and warm summers. A heat wave in the months of June, July, and August 2010, raised temperatures from previous norms often by 15 °C (27 °F) in Penza. Some of the higher fluctuations in temperatures were recorded with seven straight days of temperatures +40 °C (104 °F) and higher compared to the previous year where the higher temperatures for the same period were, on average, 20 °C (36 °F) lower.
^? ? . No107- 3 ? 2011 ?. « ? ?», ? . No271- 03 ? 2016 ?. «? ? " ? ?"». ? ? ? ? ? (6 ? 2011 ?.). : "? ", No120, 6 ? 2011 ?. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
^"? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
^ Ukrainians in USSR beyond the borders of Ukrainian SSR: p. 79 (1974) Winnipeg: Marunchak M. / ? ; ? ?. - ? ? ? , 1974. - 248 c. ?.
^Telegram to the Penza Gubernia Executive Committee of the Soviets in J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy's, p.77, Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State: A Brief History with Documents (2007). Bedford/St Martin's: Boston and New York: p.77
^Translation of 'hanging order' by Robert Service, p. 365, Lenin a Biography (2000). London: Macmillan
? ?. No774- 9 2005 ?. « - ? ? ?», ? . No2484- 28 2013 ?. «? ? 15 ? ? " - ? ? ?"». ? ? ? ? ?. : "? ? ", No6, . 49, 18 2005 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #774-ZPO of March 9, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2484-ZPO of November 28, 2013 On Amending Article 15 of the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the day of the official publication.).
? ?. No690- 2 2004 ?. «? ? ? ?», ? . No2681- 4 2015 ?. «? ? ? ? "? ? ? ?"». ? ? ? 10 ? ?. : "? ? ", No17 ( ?), 16 2004 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #690-ZPO of November 2, 2004 On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2681-ZPO of March 4, 2015 On Amending the Law of Penza Oblast "On the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Penza Oblast". Effective as of after 10 days from the official publication.).