Peanut Oil
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Peanut Oil

Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil has a strong peanut flavor and aroma.[1][2] It is often used in American, Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor.

History

Due to war shortages of other oils, use of readily-available peanut oil increased in the United States during World War II.[3]

Uses

Unrefined peanut oil has a smoke point of 320 °F/160 °C and is used as a flavorant for dishes akin to sesame oil. The refined peanut oil has a smoke point of 450 °F/232 °C is commonly used for frying volume batches foods like french fries.[4]

Other uses

Peanut oil, as with other vegetable oils, can be used to make soap by the process of saponification.[5] Peanut oil is safe for use as a massage oil.

Biodiesel

At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, at the request of the French Government, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.[6]

Composition

Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin).[7] The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids.[8]

Nutritional content

According to the USDA data upon which the following table is based, 100 g of peanut oil contains 17.7 g of saturated fat, 48.3 g of monounsaturated fat, and 33.4 g of polyunsaturated fat.[7]

Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100 g )
Type of fat Total fat (g) Saturated fat (g) Mono­unsaturated fat (g) Poly­unsaturated fat (g) Smoke point
Sunflower oil 100 11 20 69 225 °C (437 °F)[9]
Sunflower oil (high oleic) 100 12 84[10] 4[10]
Soybean oil 100 16 23 58 257 °C (495 °F)[9]
Canola oil 100 7 63 28 205 °C (401 °F)[10][11]
Olive oil 100 14 73 11 190 °C (374 °F)[9]
Corn oil 100 15 30 55 230 °C (446 °F)[9]
Peanut oil 100 17 46 32 225 °C (437 °F)[9]
Rice bran oil 100 25 38 37 250 °C (482 °F)[12]
Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated) 71 23 8 37 165 °C (329 °F)[9]
Lard 100 39 45 11 190 °C (374 °F)[9]
Suet 94 52 32 3 200 °C (392 °F)
Butter 81 51 21 3 150 °C (302 °F)[9]
Coconut oil 100 86 6 2 177 °C (351 °F)

Health issues

Toxins

Highly refined peanut oil can contain traces of hexane, a petroleum byproduct used to maximize separation of oil from the solids of peanuts. The EPA identifies hexane as a neurotoxin in rat studies.[13][14] There are no specific regulations on the limits of hexane use in cooking oils. If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them.[15]

Allergens

Those allergic to peanuts can consume highly refined peanut oil, but should avoid first-press, organic oil.[16] Most highly refined peanut oils remove the peanut allergens and have been shown to be safe for "the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals".[17] However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy.[18]

Since the degree of processing for any particular product is often unclear, "avoidance is prudent."[19][20]

References

  1. ^ Liu, Xiaojun; Jin, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuanfa; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo; Mao, Wenyue; Wang, Shanshan (2011). "Changes in Volatile Compounds of Peanut Oil during the Roasting Process for Production of Aromatic Roasted Peanut Oil". Journal of Food Science. 76 (3): C404-12. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02073.x. PMID 21535807.
  2. ^ "USA-Grown Peanut Sources - Peanut Oil". National Peanut Board. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  3. ^ "The Peanut Situation" (Dec 12, 1942) The Billboard
  4. ^ The Smoke Point of Fats & Oils - TheSpruce.com
  5. ^ "Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Soap", Soap Making Resource
  6. ^ "Peanut Biodiesel". Boiled Peanut World. 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ a b "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011. Choose peanut oil and then "Oil, peanut, salad or cooking".
  8. ^ Anyasor, G.N.; Ogunwenmo, K.O.; Oyelana, O.A.; Ajayi, D.; Dangana, J. (2009). "Chemical Analyses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8 (3): 269-272. doi:10.3923/pjn.2009.269.272.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
  10. ^ a b c "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
  11. ^ Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  12. ^ "Rice Bran Oil FAQ's". AlfaOne.ca. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Peanut Oil Extraction - Agico Group Official Website
  14. ^ Hexane = EPA Report 09.2016
  15. ^ "Aflatoxin suspected in cooking oil". United Press International. 29 December 2011.
  16. ^ Common Allergens - Peanut FARE (FoodAllergy.org)
  17. ^ Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 38 (4): 385-93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
  18. ^ Hourihane, J. O'B; Bedwani, S. J; Dean, T. P; Warner, J. O (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ. 314 (7087): 1084-8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891.
  19. ^ "Peanut Allergy". Food Allergy Initiative. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  20. ^ Carlson, Margaret (13 January 2012). "Deaths Show Schools Need Power of the EpiPen: Margaret Carlson". Bloomberg.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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