Pavle Radinovi%C4%87
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Pavle Radinovi%C4%87
Pavle Radinovi?[a]
Vojvoda (English: Duke) Knez (English: Lord)
of the Kingdom of Bosnia
Seal of Pavle Radenovi?.jpg
Seal of Pavle Radinovi?, 1397
Coat of armsRadinovic-Pavlovic coat of arms.png
PredecessorRadin[a] Jablani?
Successor
  • Petar Pavlovi?-Radinovi?
  • Radislav Pavlovi?
Titles and styles
  • Vojvoda (English: Duke) Knez (English: Lord)
Died1415
BuriedVrhbosna, Kingdom of Bosnia
Noble familyPavlovi?
FatherRadin Jablani?
ReligionBosnian Church
OccupationNobleman

Pavle Radinovi?, sometimes Radenovi?,[a][1] (fl. 1381-d. 1415), of Radinovi?-Pavlovi? noble family, was one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of Bosnia, under Tvrtko I (r. 1377-1391), Dabi?a (r. 1391-1395), Jelena Gruba (r. 1395-98), Ostoja (r. 1398-1404), Tvrtko II (r. 1404-1409) and Ostoja again (r. 1409-1418). He initially held possessions in east Bosnia, around the Pra?a river, between Krivaja, Drina and Lim, and he had his seat in Bora? and Pavlovac between Pra?a and Rogatica.[1] He held mines in Olovo and Fojnica.

Early life

His father was Radin[a] Jablani? (fl. 1380-d. 1397), who had possessions in Krivaja and around the Pra?a river. It is possible his sister or cousin was Kujava Radinovi?, the second consort of Stephen Ostoja. He was brought up at the Bosnian court.

Service and vassalage

Tvrtko I's reign

His scribe was Radosav Milosali?, mentioned in Pavle's charter (March 25, 1387).[2]

Dabi?a's reign

After Tvrtko's death, Pavle greatly expanded his realm, and held besides the hereditary territory around the rivers of Krivaja and Pra?a, the town of Bora? near Vlasenica, the market of Pra?a, the mine of Olovo.

In 1392, Radi? Sankovi? and his brother Beljak tried to sell Konavle to the Republic of Ragusa.[3] The same year on May 15, Radi? issued a charter to Ragusan merchants enabling them to trade in his territories.[4] However, a council meeting was convoked by the king or nobility that objected the sale; Vlatko Vukovi? and Pavle Radenovi? were sent against Radi? in December 1391 after receiving the council's blessings.[5] The two captured Radi? and occupied Konavle, dividing it between themselves, despite protests from Ragusa.[5] The holding of Konavle meant that Pavle held several custom offices towards Ragusa, one of which was shared with Vlatko on Konavljanske Ledenice.[] Vukovi? died shortly after this, and was succeeded by his nephew Sandalj Hrani?, who continued to struggle against Radi?.[5]

When Stephen Dabi?a (r. 1391-1395) died in September 1395, he had designated King Sigismund of Hungary, the husband of his cousin, Queen Mary, as his successor. Mary, however, had predeceased Dabi?a, dying in May the same year. The Bosnian nobility refused to recognize Sigismund as king, as his right had rested in his status as Mary's husband. Instead, the nobility installed Jelena Gruba, his widow, and member of the Nikoli? family, as the successor to her husband.[6]

Jelena Gruba's reign

In 1397, his charter secured free trade and protection of Ragusans in his lands, for which he became honorary citizen of Ragusa. In foreign politics, he, as the other magnates of the Kingdom of Bosnia, supported Ladislaus of Naples in his struggle to wrestle the crown of Hungary from Sigismund of Luxemburg.

He and other magnates such as Hrvoje Vuk?i? (?-1416) and Sandalj Hrani? nominally served Queen Jelena Gruba, and were de facto rulers of the kingdom.

Ostoja's first reign

Pavle participated in the decision to crown Ostoja as king in 1398. By the turn of the 14th century, he also held Trebinje, the Vrm ?upa (county) with the city of Klobuk and half of Konavle with Cavtat.

On April 22, 1404, Ostoja released a charter to the Republic of Venice regarding trade, and at this time Ostoja's court was composed of knez Pavle, vojvoda Vukmir Jurjevi?, vojvoda Pavle Kle?i?, vojvoda Radi? Sankovi? and knez Radoje Radosali?. Of the "magnate triumvirate" that dominated Bosnia, only Pavle remained supporting Ostoja.[7] Hrani? captured and blinded Radi?, and held him in prison until his death in 1404.[5] The area of Nevesinje to the coast was taken by Hrani?.[5] Ostoja was deposed in 1404, and Tvrtko II was crowned the new King of Bosnia.

Tvrtko II's reign

After the demise of Ladislaus of Naples and his sale of the right to Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice in 1409, many nobles allied themselves with Sigismund and worked to depose Tvrtko II, who had supported Ladislaus, and they managed to return Sigismund's pretender Ostoja to the throne. Hrani? also allied himself with Emperor Sigismund in mid-1411 and decided to establish closer connections with Sigismund's important ally Stefan Lazarevi? by marrying his widowed sister Jelena (who was the mother of Bal?a III, the ruler of Zeta), divorcing Hrvoje's niece Katarina (December 1411).[8][9][10]

Pavle appointed knez Brailo Tezalovi? his protovestijar sometime in 1411. He was ready to sell his part of Konavle to the Ragusans in 1414, but this was never done.

Ostoja's second reign

Political map, ca. 1412.

A conspiracy against Pavle was hatched at the stanak held in Sutjeska in August 1415 and attended by all major noblemen except for Hrvoje. At the end of the month, during a walk at the royal court, a dispute erupted between Sandalj and Pavle. Sandalj and his men, joined by Vukmir Zlatonosovi?, drew out their swords and captured Pavle's son Petar. Pavle ran, but was caught and decapitated. A retainer of Pavle survived by seeking shelter in a Franciscan home; he later took Pavle's corpse to his estate in Vrhbosna. Petar was supposed to be blinded, but for some reason this did not take place. Pavle's lands were promptly divided between the conspirators. Sandalj justified the murder by accusing Pavle of bringing much misfortune to the Bosnian kingdom.[11]

Family

Annotations

  1. ^
    Name: His surname is sometimes spelled Radenovi? (Serbian Cyrillic: ) and sometimes Radinovi?, being a patronymic from his father's name Raden or Radin (Jablani?). Same goes for his son Radoslav or Radislav (Pavlovi?). Different authors use different spelling, in most of the cases authors from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia use Radin-Radinovi?-Radislav variant of these names, like, for example, one of the most important Bosnian medievalists Marko Vego 1957, same in Esad Kurtovi? 2009's book on pg.23 under reference 60. cited medieval charter with surname spelled Radinovi? ("Primjera radi, knez Pavle Radinovi? naveden je ispravno: "knezj Pavalj Radinovi? jzj bratiomj"; "Comes Paulus Radinovi? cum fratribus", ?urmin, Hrvatski spomenici, 97; Klai?, Povelja, 61."); meanwhile authors from Serbia, like Jovan Radoni?, use Raden-Radenovi?-Radoslav, sometimes even Radosav, variant. Authors from outside Serbo-Croatian speaking sphere use any of these variants indiscriminately, hence Fine 1994 uses Paul (Pavle) Radenovi?, while, for example, Heinrich Renner 1897, in his "Durch Bosnien und die Herzegovina kreuz und quer" on pg.129, writes Paul Radinovi?.

References

  1. ^ a b Marko Vego (1957). Naselja bosanske srednjevjekovne dr?ave (in Bosnian). Sarajevo: Svjetlost. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ Glas. U Kralj.-srpskoj dr?avnoj ?tampariji. 1941. ? , ? 1397 . ?.? 25 1397 . ?.4)
  3. ^ Fine 1994, p. 471
  4. ^ Klai? 1882, p. 210
  5. ^ a b c d e Fine 1994, p. 456
  6. ^ Fine 1994, p. 458-
  7. ^ Milorad Medini (1953). Dubrovnik a l'epoque des Gu?eti? au XIV siecle. Nau?na knjiga. p. 26.
  8. ^ Be?i? 1970, p. 189

    ? ? . ? 1411. . ?. ? ? ? - .

  9. ^ Fine 1975, p. 233

    ...Sandalj divorced Hrvoje's niece and shortly thereafter married Jelena...

  10. ^ Veselinovi? 2001, p. 96

    ? 1411 ? ? . ? ? ? ?.

  11. ^ ?ivkovi? 1981, p. 73.

Sources

Further reading


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