Park Slope
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Park Slope

Park Slope is a neighborhood in northwestern Brooklyn, New York City, within the area once known as South Brooklyn. Park Slope is roughly bounded by Prospect Park and Prospect Park West to the east, Fourth Avenue to the west, Flatbush Avenue to the north, and Prospect Expressway to the south. Generally, the section from Flatbush Avenue to Garfield Place (the "named streets") is considered the "North Slope", the section from 1st through 9th Streets is considered the "Center Slope", and south of 10th Street, the "South Slope".[4][5][6] The neighborhood takes its name from its location on the western slope of neighboring Prospect Park. Fifth Avenue and Seventh Avenue are its primary commercial streets, while its east-west side streets are lined with brownstones and apartment buildings.[7]

Park Slope was settled by the Lenape before Europeans arrived in the 17th century. The area was mostly farms and woods until the early 19th century, when the land was subdivided into rectangular parcels. The western section of the neighborhood was occupied in the mid-19th century, being located near the industrial Gowanus Canal and ferries. After the completion of Prospect Park, numerous mansions and rowhouses were developed in Park Slope's eastern section in the 1880s. Park Slope faced social and infrastructural decline in the mid-20th century, but the building stock was renovated after the area became gentrified starting in the 1960s. Much of the neighborhood is overlaid by the Park Slope Historic District, which is composed of a National Historic District and a New York City landmark district.

Park Slope features historic buildings, top-rated restaurants, bars, and shops, as well as proximity to Prospect Park, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Conservatory of Music, and the Central Library and Park Slope branches of the Brooklyn Public Library.[8] The neighborhood had a population of about 62,200 as of the 2000 census.[9] Park Slope is generally ranked as one of New York City's most desirable neighborhoods.

Park Slope is part of Brooklyn Community District 6, and its primary ZIP Codes are 11215 and 11217.[1] It is patrolled by the 78th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.[10] Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 33rd and 39th Districts.[11]

History

Seventh Avenue in Park Slope

Early settlement

Though modern-day Brooklyn is coextensive with Kings County, this was not always the case. South Brooklyn, an area in central Kings County extending to the former Brooklyn city line near Green-Wood Cemetery's southern border, was originally settled by the Canarsee Indians, one of several indigenous Lenape peoples who farmed and hunted on the land. The Lenape typically lived in wigwams, and had larger fishing and hunting communities near freshwater sites on higher land.[12][13] Several Lenape roads crossed the landscape[14] and were later widened into "ferry roads" by 17th-century Dutch settlers, since they were used to provide transport to the waterfront. One was the Flatbush Road, running roughly north-south to the east of the path of present-day Flatbush Avenue. Just north of modern-day Park Slope was the Jamaica Road, running east to Jamaica, Queens, on what is now the path of Fulton Street.[15][16]

The first European settlement occurred in 1637-1639 when Willem Kieft, the Dutch West India Company's director, purchased almost all land in what is now Brooklyn and Queens.[15][17]:43-44 The area was used as farmland over the next two centuries.[15]

During the American Revolutionary War, on August 27, 1776, the Park Slope area served as the backdrop for the beginning of the Battle of Long Island.[15] In this battle, over 10,000 British soldiers and Hessian mercenaries routed outnumbered American forces, which resulted in the British occupation of Long and Staten Islands.[18][19][20] The Battle Pass site is now preserved in Prospect Park,[21][22] while on Fifth Avenue, there is a reconstruction of the Old Stone House, a farmhouse where a countercharge covered the American retreat.[23]

19th century

Transit and agriculture

Transit from Park Slope improved in the early 19th century. The Brooklyn, Jamaica and Flatbush Turnpike Company was incorporated in 1809 to widen the Flatbush and Jamaica ferry roads,[16][24] prior to the establishment of the Fulton Ferry to Manhattan in 1814.[25] Afterward, stagecoaches started running on Flatbush Road in 1830, with omnibus service following four years later.[24] The land comprising what is now Park Slope was still mostly undeveloped c. 1810. There were a couple of houses on and around Prospect Hill, a tavern, and a resort; the section of Flatbush Road through present-day Prospect Park contained ponds of standing water, which caused fevers and other illnesses.[24][26]:135 Soon afterward, the land was split up into rectangular parcels, which were bought by numerous people and cultivated as farmland. As in the rest of Kings County, the farmland was likely dependent on slave labor.[24][27]:81

The farm parcels were further split in the 19th century, allowing for the development of smaller urban lots.[24] After Brooklyn was incorporated as a city in 1834,[28][29] the Commissioners Plan of 1839 was devised, a street plan that extended to South Brooklyn.[30][31][32] Park Slope was originally located in the eighth ward, which at the time was the city's least populous ward.[24][33]

Prospect Park and urban development

The first plans to develop modern-day Park Slope arose in 1847 when Colonel Daniel Richards requested permission from the Brooklyn Common Council to develop the Eighth Ward's streets. Richards also proposed the renovation of the nearby Gowanus Creek into a canal, including draining the marshes in its watershed.[34] Between 1849 and 1860, under a decree by the New York Legislature, the Gowanus Creek was deepened.[35] Simultaneously, a local lawyer and railroad developer named Edwin Clarke Litchfield (1815-1885) purchased large tracts of what was then farmland, erecting his Litchfield Villa on the east side of the neighborhood in 1857.[36][37] Through the American Civil War era, he sold off much of his land to residential developers. During the 1860s, the City of Brooklyn purchased his estate and adjoining property to complete the West Drive and the southern portion of the Long Meadow in Prospect Park.[7][38] Park Slope was split into the city's 22nd ward in 1868.[33]

By the late 1870s, with horse-drawn rail cars running to the park and the ferry, bringing many rich New Yorkers in the process, urban sprawl dramatically changed the neighborhood into a streetcar suburb. Many of the large Victorian mansions on Prospect Park West, known as the Gold Coast, were built in the 1880s and 1890s to take advantage of the park views.[39] Early colloquial names for the neighborhood included "Prospect Heights" (later applied to the neighborhood north of Prospect Park), "Prospect Hill", and "Park Hill Side", before residents settled on Park Slope.[40] By 1883, with the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge, Park Slope continued to boom and subsequent brick and brownstone structures pushed the neighborhood's borders farther. The 1890 census showed Park Slope to be the richest community in the United States. Realtors and community members saw a clear connection between Park Slope's bucolic setting and the comfort of living there. As the New York Tribune wrote in 1899, "Nature set the park down where it is, and man has embellished her work in laying out great lawns and artificial lakes, in bringing together menageries and creating conservatories, in making roads and driveways, and in doing everything in his power to make the place a pleasant pleasure ground and a charming resort."[41]

Brooklyn Conservatory of Music

Baseball had also played a prominent role in the history of the Park Slope area. From 1879 to 1889, the Brooklyn Atlantics (later to become the Dodgers) played at Washington Park on 5th Avenue between 3rd and 4th Streets. When the park was destroyed by a fire, the team moved to their part-time home in Ridgewood, Queens and then to a park in East New York. In 1898, the "New" Washington Park was built between Third and Fourth Avenues and between First and Third Streets near the Gowanus Canal. The team, by this point known as the Dodgers, played to an ever-growing fan base at this location. By the end of the 1912 season, the team had outgrown the field, and the neighborhood. Team owner Charles Ebbets moved the team to his Ebbets Field stadium in Flatbush for the beginning of the 1913 season.[42]

Late 20th century to present

By the 1950s, many of the wealthy and middle-class families fled for the suburban life and Park Slope became a more working-class neighborhood. It became mostly Italian and Irish in the 1950s and 1960s, though this changed by 1970s as the black and Latino population of the Slope increased and many of the Italian and Irish population began to relocate.[43] Some of those that did not relocate reacted violently to the ethnic changes to the neighborhood; for example, white residents of Park Slope attempted to bar African-Americans from participating in after-school programs at William Alexander Middle School in 1966.[44] After this failed, white teenagers engaged in firebomb attacks on African-American homes on Fourth Street.[44] In 1968, a street fight between Italian and African-American gangs occurred at Fifth Avenue and President Street, using bricks and bottles as weapons;[45] in the aftermath of the fight, fourteen African-Americans and three Italian-Americans were arrested.[45]

The architectural details of one of Park Slope's buildings

On December 16, 1960, two airliners collided above Staten Island, killing 134 people in what was the worst U.S. aviation disaster at that time. One of the airplanes, a Douglas DC-8 operated by United Airlines, was able to stay airborne for a few miles before crashing near the corner of Sterling Place and Seventh Avenue.[46] Everyone on board was instantly killed, except for one 11-year-old boy, Stephen Baltz, who died the following night at New York Methodist Hospital.[47] Six people on the ground were also killed.[48]

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the renovation of a now-$4.8 million brownstone along Berkeley Place[49] sparked a trend where the rest of the brownstones were cleaned up, and the grittiness of the neighborhood was removed.[50] Young professionals began to buy and renovate brownstones (which only cost around $15,000-35,000 at the time), often converting them from rooming houses into single and two-family homes.[51] Preservationists helped secure landmark status for many of the neighborhood's blocks of historic row houses, brownstone, and Queen Anne, Renaissance Revival, and Romanesque mansions. After the 1973 creation of the landmark district, primarily above 7th Avenue, the rate of gentrification was sped up, and throughout the 1970s, the area saw an influx of young professional couples.[52]

By the early 1980s, however, even as the gentrification of the neighborhood was rapidly proceeding, crime was soaring, along with crime in the rest of New York City. In addition to a rumored crack house near Prospect Park, the neighborhood was affected by daily muggings and shootings.[53] Gentrification accelerated during the 1980s and 1990s as working-class families were generally replaced by upper-middle-class people being priced out of Manhattan or Brooklyn Heights. The influx of these new upper middle class residents has made Park Slope one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in Brooklyn.[54] Sociologist and urban theorist Sharon Zukin has written of the trend, "In Park Slope, the middle class found a sense of history and a picturesque quality that fit their sense of themselves."[55] Since the mid-1990s, gentrification has increased: a 2001 report by the New York City Rent Guidelines Board found that from 1990 to 1999, rents in Park Slope increased by 3.5-4.4% per year, depending on what kind of building the apartment was in.[56]

Land use

Park Slope contains a variety of zoning districts, including manufacturing, commercial, residential, and mixed-use. Much of the neighborhood is composed of rowhouses and six-to-eight-story apartment buildings, though Fourth, Fifth and Seventh Avenues contain residential structures with commercial space on the ground floors. The westernmost portion of Park Slope near the Gowanus Canal is a light industrial district. The section of Seventh Avenue south of Ninth Street is largely zoned for low-density commercial use.[57]

Official landmarks

14th Brooklyn Armory on 15th Street

Much of Park Slope is located within the Park Slope Historic District, which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.[58][59] The historic district was also designated by the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1973;[60] the city-designated district was extended to the south in 2012[61] and to the north in 2016.[62] Containing 2,575 buildings stretching over part or all of around 40 city blocks, the historic district is New York's largest landmark neighborhood.

Several other structures in Park Slope are both NRHP and city landmarks:

Additionally, the Brooklyn Public Library's Park Slope branch, a Carnegie library built in 1905-06, is a city landmark.[73] The Fourth Avenue station[74] and 15th Street-Prospect Park station are NRHP landmarks that are part of the New York City Subway System Multiple Property Submission (MPS).[75] The Old Stone House, a 1930 reconstruction of the Vechte-Cortelyou House destroyed in 1897, is another NRHP listing and is located on Third Street between Fourth and Fifth Avenues.[23]

Demographics

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of the Park Slope/Gowanus neighborhood tabulation area was 67,649, a change of 386 (0.6%) from the 67,263 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 961.17 acres (388.97 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 70.4 inhabitants per acre (45,100/sq mi; 17,400/km2).[3]

The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 67.3% (45,529) White, 6.4% (4,334) African American, 0.1% (77) Native American, 6% (4,056) Asian, 0% (19) Pacific Islander, 0.5% (318) from other races, and 3% (2,053) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.6% (11,263) of the population.[2]

The entirety of Community Board 6, which covers areas around Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, had 109,351 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years.[76]:2, 20 This is slightly higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[77]:53 (PDF p. 84)[78] Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 18% are between the ages of 0-17, 46% between 25-44, and 20% between 45-64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 5% and 10% respectively.[76]:2

As of 2016, the median household income in Community Board 6 was $134,804.[79] In 2018, an estimated 10% of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. Less than one in fifteen residents (6%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 37% in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Park Slope and Carroll Gardens is considered to be high-income and not gentrifying.[76]:7

Police and crime

Park Slope is patrolled by the 78th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 65 6th Avenue.[10] The 78th Precinct ranked 41st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010.[80] With a non-fatal assault rate of 30 per 100,000 people, Park Slope and Carroll Gardens' rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 294 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[76]:8

The 78th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 83.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 0 murders, 12 rapes, 93 robberies, 81 felony assaults, 106 burglaries, 504 grand larcenies, and 68 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[81]

Fire safety

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) operates three fire stations in Park Slope:[82]

  • Engine Co. 220/Ladder Co. 122 - 530 11th Street[83]
  • Engine Co. 239 - 395 4th Avenue[84]
  • Squad 1/Technical Response Vehicle - 788 Union Street

Health

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens than in other places citywide. In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, there were 27 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 7.9 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).[76]:11 Park Slope and Carroll Gardens has a relatively high population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid.[85] In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 22%, which is higher than the citywide rate of 12%.[76]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens is 0.0089 milligrams per cubic metre (8.9×10-9 oz/cu ft), higher than the citywide and boroughwide averages.[76]:9 Fifteen percent of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens residents are smokers, which is slightly higher than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[76]:13 In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, 15% of residents are obese, 6% are diabetic, and 22% have high blood pressure--compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[76]:16 In addition, 9% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[76]:12

Eighty-six percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly lower than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 88% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," greater than the city's average of 78%.[76]:13 For every supermarket in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, there are 12 bodegas.[76]:10

New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital is located in Park Slope.[85]

Post offices and ZIP codes

Park Slope is covered by two ZIP Codes: 11217 north of Union Street and 11215 south of Union Street.[86] The United States Post Office operates three locations nearby:

  • Prospect Park West Station - 225 Prospect Park West[87]
  • Park Slope Station - 198 7th Avenue[88]
  • Van Brunt Station - 279 9th Street[89]

Community

Park Slope is considered one of New York City's most desirable neighborhoods. In 2010, it was ranked number 1 in New York by New York Magazine, citing its quality public schools, dining, nightlife, shopping, access to public transit, green space, safety, and creative capital, among other aspects.[90] It was named one of the "Greatest Neighborhoods in America" by the American Planning Association in 2007, "for its architectural and historical features and its diverse mix of residents and businesses, all of which are supported and preserved by its active and involved citizenry."[91] In December 2006, Natural Home magazine named Park Slope one of America's ten best neighborhoods based on criteria including parks, green spaces and neighborhood gathering spaces; farmers' markets and community gardens; public transportation and locally owned businesses; and environmental and social policy.[92]

Institutions

  • The Park Slope Food Coop, one of the oldest and largest active food co-ops in the United States,[93] is located on Union Street has approximately 17,000 members from Park Slope and other neighborhoods. Only members may shop there, and membership requires a work commitment of 2​ hours every four weeks.[94]
  • The Park Slope Volunteer Ambulance Corps provides free emergency medical services to community members.[95]
  • The Brooklyn Conservatory of Music, part of the Brooklyn Queens Conservatory of Music, is a community music school, offering music classes, ensembles and choral opportunities, and individual instrumental and vocal lessons to students from 18 months old to adults. It was founded in 1897.
  • Christian Help, Inc. Park Slope (CHiPS) is a soup kitchen that serves 200-250 men and women daily. Its Frances Residency Program provides shelter and support for young homeless mothers and their infants and toddlers; it was founded in 1971.[96]

Religion

Beth Elohim
Melkite Catholic Church of Saint Mary

Park Slope is home to a wide variety of religious institutions, or houses of worship, including many churches and synagogues; most are historic buildings, and date back many decades.[97]

Churches

  • All Nations Baptist Church (Baptist)
  • All Saints' Church (Episcopal)
  • Church of Gethsemane (Presbyterian)
  • Grace United Methodist Church of Brooklyn (Methodist)
  • Greenwood Baptist Church (Baptist)
  • Holy Name of Jesus (Roman Catholic)
  • Memorial Baptist Church (Baptist)
  • Old First Reformed Church (Reformed)
  • Park Slope United Methodist Church (Methodist)
  • Resurrection Coptic Catholic Chapel (Coptic)
  • St Augustine (Roman Catholic)
  • St Francis Xavier (Roman Catholic)
  • St John's (Episcopal)
  • St John-St Matthew-Emanuel (Lutheran [ELCA])
  • St Mary's (Melkite Eastern Rite Catholic)
  • St Saviour's (Roman Catholic)
  • St Thomas Aquinas (Roman Catholic)
  • Trinity Grace Church (Non-Denominational)
  • Emmanuel Pentecostal Church (Christian)

Judaism and synagogues

There is a significant Jewish population in Park Slope, allowing for a number of synagogues along the religious spectrum. In addition to a number of synagogues, there is an eruv, sponsored by members of the various communities, that surrounds Park Slope.

Synagogues include:[98]

Education

Park Slope and Carroll Gardens generally have a much higher ratio of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. The majority (74%) of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, while 9% have less than a high school education and 17% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher.[76]:6 The percentage of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens students excelling in reading and math has been increasing, with reading achievement rising from 41 percent in 2000 to 53 percent in 2011, and math achievement rising from 35 percent to 64 percent within the same time period.[103]

Park Slope and Carroll Gardens's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, 11% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, compared to the citywide average of 20% of students.[76]:6[77]:24 (PDF p. 55) Additionally, 77% of high school students in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens graduate on time, higher than the citywide average of 75% of students.[76]:6

Schools

PS 107

Public schools

Public schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education. Park Slope is in two different community school districts - district 13 to the north and district 15 to the south. Students are zoned to their nearest elementary school. Both district 13 and district 15 place students in middle school based on the student's ranking of acceptable middle schools; the district 13 portion of Park Slope receives district 15 (not district 13) middle school choice, consistent with the rest of the neighborhood. The former John Jay High School is now the John Jay Educational Campus, housing three high schools and one combination middle/high school.

  • PS 10, Magnet School of Math, Science, and Design Technology (grades K-5, dist. 15)[104]
  • PS 39, Henry Bristow School (grades PK-5, dist. 15)[105]
  • PS 107, John W. Kimball Learning Center (grades K-5, dist. 15)[106]
  • PS 118, the Maurice Sendak Community School (grades PK-5, dist. 15)[107]
  • PS 124, Silas B. Dutcher Elementary School (grades PK-5, dist. 15)[108]
  • PS 133, William A. Butler School (grades PK-5, dist. 13, with admissions open to both dist. 13 and 15)[109]
  • PS/MS 282, Park Slope School (grades PK-8, dist. 13)[110]
  • PS 321, the William Penn School (grades K-5, dist. 15)[111]
  • MS 51, William Alexander Middle School (grades 6-8, dist. 15)[112]
  • JHS 88 Peter Rouget (grades 6-8, dist. 15)[113]
  • MS 266, Park Place School (grades 6-8, dist. 13)[114]
  • John Jay Educational Campus (formerly John Jay HS, dist. 15). The building houses four schools:
    • Park Slope Collegiate (grades 6-12)[115]
    • Millennium Brooklyn High School (grades 9-12)[116]
    • Cyberarts Studio Academy (grades 9-12)[117]
    • Secondary School for Law (grades 9-12)[118]

Private schools

  • Beth Elohim Day School (preK-K) on Eighth Avenue and Garfield Place.
  • Berkeley Carroll School (preK-12) on Lincoln Place, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues; Carroll Street, between Sixth and Seventh Avenues; and President Street, between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.
  • Brooklyn Free School (ages 5-15) on Sixteenth Street, between Fourth and Fifth Avenues. See democratic education.
  • Bishop Ford Central Catholic High School (9-12) 500 19th St.
  • Chai Tots Preschool Corner of Prospect Park West and 3rd St.
  • Montessori School of New York (ages 2-13) on Eighth Avenue between Carroll and President Streets. See Montessori.
  • Poly Prep's Lower School (part of Poly Prep Country Day School) (PreK-4) on Prospect Park West between First and Second Streets.
  • St. Francis Xavier (Catholic School) (K-8). 763 President St. between 6th & 7th Avenue.
  • St. Saviour Elementary School (Catholic School) (preK-8) 8th Ave between 7th and 8th Street
  • St. Saviour High School (all-girls Catholic School) (9-12) 6th Street between 8th Avenue and Prospect Park West
  • St. Joseph the Worker Catholic Academy 241 Prospect Park West (preK (age 3)-8)[119]

Libraries

The Brooklyn Public Library's Park Slope branch is located at 431 Sixth Avenue. Built in 1906, it was a Carnegie library branch, and was named the "Prospect branch" before 1975.[120] The Brooklyn Central Library is located across Grand Army Plaza from the northeast corner of Park Slope.[121]

Transportation

The neighborhood is well-served by the New York City Subway. The IND Culver Line (, , and ​ trains) runs along Ninth Street, a main shopping street, stopping at Fourth Avenue, Seventh Avenue and 15th Street - Prospect Park/Prospect Park West. The IRT Eastern Parkway Line (, ​, ​, and ​ trains) runs under Flatbush Avenue with an express stop at Atlantic Avenue - Barclays Center, and local stops (served by the , ​, and ​ trains) at Bergen Street and Grand Army Plaza. The BMT Fourth Avenue Line's local trains (, ​, ​, and ​ trains) serve Prospect Avenue, Ninth Street, and Union Street stations, with the , ​, ​, and ​ trains all serving Atlantic Avenue-Barclays Center, an express station. The BMT Brighton Line ( and ​ trains) also passes through the neighborhood under Flatbush Avenue making stops at Atlantic Avenue-Barclays Center and Seventh Avenue. All three stations at Atlantic Avenue are connected to each other.[122]

Additionally, several MTA New York City Transit bus routes serve the area, including the B61, B63, B67, and B69.[123]

Notable people

Actors

Athletes

Musicians

Artists

Writers

Politicians

Scientists

Chess players

Criminals


See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  4. ^ New York Visitors Guide, Park Slope & Prospect Heights, New York, Accessed June 23, 2009. "Boundaries, Park Slope: From 19th St. north to Flatbush Ave., From Prospect Park W. west to Fourth Ave"
  5. ^ Park Slope neighborhood profile, New York, extracted from a March 10, 2003 article. Accessed September 25, 2007. "Boundaries: Stretching from Prospect Park West to Fourth Avenue, Park Place to Prospect Expressway."
  6. ^ Oser, Alan N. "Rezoning, and Redefining, Park Slope", The New York Times, December 28, 2003. Accessed September 25, 2007. "As broadly defined by brokers marketing real estate there, Park Slope is bordered by Flatbush Avenue to the north, the Prospect Expressway to the south, Prospect Park and Prospect Park West to the east, and Fourth Avenue to the west. The April rezoning actually extends west as far as Third Avenue on some blocks, and only as far as 15th Street to the south."
  7. ^ a b Morrone, Francis (2001). An Architectural Guidebook to Brooklyn. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith. pp. 347-370. ISBN 1586850474.
  8. ^ Brooklyn Public Library, accessed August 17, 2006
  9. ^ Oser, Alan (December 28, 2003). "Rezoning, and Redefining, Park Slope". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007.
  10. ^ a b "NYPD - 78th Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ Current City Council Districts for Kings County, New York City. Accessed May 5, 2017.
  12. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 978. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2.
  13. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 2012, p. 5; Landmarks Preservation Commission 2016, p. 7.
  14. ^ Bolton, Reginald P. (1922). Indian Paths in the Great Metropolis. pp. 129-146. ISBN 978-0-343-11305-6.
  15. ^ a b c d Landmarks Preservation Commission 2012, p. 6; Landmarks Preservation Commission 2016, p. 8.
  16. ^ a b Armbruster, Eugene L. (1919). The Ferry Road on Long Island. G. Quattlander. p. 13. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Stiles, H.R. (1870). A History of the City of Brooklyn. A History of the City of Brooklyn. subscription. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1973, p. iii.
  19. ^ Fischer, David Hackett (2006). Washington's Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-19-518159-3.
  20. ^ McCullough, David (2006). 1776. New York: Simon and Schuster Paperback. p. 178. ISBN 0-7432-2672-0.
  21. ^ "Prospect Park Monuments - Battle Pass Historic Marker : NYC Parks". nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ "Prospect Park Monuments - Line of Defense : NYC Parks". nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ a b "Historic Structures Report: Old Stone House of Brooklyn" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service. September 19, 2012. Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Landmarks Preservation Commission 2012, p. 7; Landmarks Preservation Commission 2016, p. 9.
  25. ^ Roberts, Sam (December 29, 2014). "How a Ferry Ride Helped Make Brooklyn the Original Suburb". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
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  27. ^ Linder, M.; Zacharias, L.S. (1999). Of Cabbages and Kings County: Agriculture and the Formation of Modern Brooklyn. University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-0-87745-714-5. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ Historical sketch of the city of Brooklyn. Brooklyn: J. T. Bailey. 1840. OCLC 3325513. OL 6906515M.
  29. ^ Bishop, W.G.; McCloskey, H. (1888). Manual of the Common Council of the City of Brooklyn for ... The Council. p. 143. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 2012, p. 8; Landmarks Preservation Commission 2016, p. 10.
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  139. ^ Koblin, John. "In The Night Of, John Turturro Picks Up Where James Gandolfini Left Off", The New York Times, July 1, 2016. Accessed August 15, 2016. "Over a recent lunch at Bar Pitti in the West Village, Mr. Turturro's trademark Queens accent was on display as he chatted breezily with the wait staff and took a reporter through the menu item by item, translating from Italian. Dressed in a fitted gray T-shirt, he had taken the subway there from his home in Park Slope."
  140. ^ Martinez, Erika. "'Artie's' Goose is 'Coked' - Sopranos Chef in Drug & DWI Bust", New York Post, May 2, 2006. Accessed August 15, 2016. "Sources said Ventimiglia later maintained he had a couple of glasses of wine at a Long Island City art gallery opening. The actor claimed he had found a parking spot near his Park Slope apartment and had turned off his lights as he tried to pull in."
  141. ^ Karni, Annie. "I'm just Inga - the real diva is Foxy Brown", New York Post, July 17, 2011. Accessed August 15, 2016. "Brown was raised by her mother, a teacher, in Park Slope."
  142. ^ Milkowski, Bill. "Before & After with Drummer Jim Black; Between Motian and J Mood", JazzTimes, November 23, 2012. Accessed August 15, 2016. "Currently a resident of Park Slope, Brooklyn, Black had just returned from a tour of Italy with guitarist Walter Beltrami's Postural Vertigo Quintet when we sat down for his first Before & After session in August."
  143. ^ Chinen, Nate. "Ravi Coltrane", JazzTimes, March 1, 2005. Accessed January 25, 2017. "'I'm sorry about the mess,' Ravi Coltrane says at the front door of his brownstone, on a picturesque residential street in Brooklyn's Park Slope."
  144. ^ Amorim, Kevin. "Jonathan Coulton singing the blues over Glee", Newsday, February 6, 2013. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Musician Jonathan Coulton at his home studio in Park Slope, Brooklyn."
  145. ^ Robbins, Liz. "Music Upstairs and Downstairs", The New York Times, March 15, 2013. Accessed January 25, 2017. "The classical pianist Simone Dinnerstein, 40, has a hectic international performance schedule, but in Park Slope her husband, Jeremy Greensmith, 46, and their son, Adrian Greensmith, 11, keep her grounded.... I'm very happy not to leave Park Slope. I grew up in Park Slope on First Street."
  146. ^ Porter, Christopher. "Dave Douglas", JazzTimes, September 1, 2002. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Brooklyn's Park Slope region is as laid-back as its name, befitting the serene demeanor of one of its residents, trumpeter Dave Douglas.... Douglas has lived in Park Slope for 10 years, seeing it transform from an artists' community to one of the hottest real estate areas in New York City."
  147. ^ Wise, Brian. "Jangled by a Jingle, He Writes His Own ...", The New York Times, May 20, 2007. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Mr. Hearst produced the album in a tiny bedroom converted into a recording studio in his third-floor walk-up in Park Slope, where several Mister Softee trucks can be seen lumbering by his window on any given day."
  148. ^ Hendrickson, Tad. "African Star Shines in Park SlopeAngelique Kidjo Recounts Career, Childhood and Exile in New Autobiography", The Wall Street Journal, January 7, 2014. Accessed January 25, 2017. "'Exile is not fun, let's get that straight,' Ms. Kidjo recently said via phone from her longtime home in Park Slope."
  149. ^ Connor, Tracy. "Brooklyn rapper Talib Kweli knew it was hip to hop fence and join Occupy Wall Street activists", New York Daily News, October 10, 2011. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Kweli grew up in Park Slope until he was 11 and then Flatbush. He went to Brooklyn Technical High School before his parents, both college professors, sent him to boarding school in Connecticut.... Kweli, who lives in Park Slope, said he hopes he can use his fame to bring more attention to the protesters."
  150. ^ Kompanek, Christopher. "Giant-sized pad", New York Post, July 21, 2011. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Linnell, 52, is half of veteran alt-pop duo They Might Be Giants. He's also a longtime Brooklyn resident. He and his family lived a neighborhood away in Park Slope for 10 years prior to buying the two-story, 1,500-square-foot house."
  151. ^ Kaufman, Joanne. "Kristen Anderson-Lopez, Frozen Songwriter, at Home", The New York Times, November 4, 2016. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Before finding happiness in a century-old townhouse in Park Slope, the songwriter Kristen Anderson-Lopez had what her husband and frequent collaborator, Robert Lopez, described as a 'real estate porn' habit."
  152. ^ Albrecht, Leslie. "Fans Want to Rename Park Slope Street for Rapper Pumpkinhead" Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com, August 13, 2015. Accessed January 25, 2017. "People sometimes laughed when the rapper Pumpkinhead boasted about his Park Slope roots, but now he could get his old block named after him.... Friends and fans of Robert Diaz -- the underground rapper known as Pumpkinhead who died suddenly in June at the age of 39 -- hope to convince city officials to rename Degraw Street and Fifth Avenue in his honor."
  153. ^ Shinefield, Mordechai. "Interview: Thursday Frontman Geoff Rickly", The Village Voice, February 19, 2009. Accessed January 25, 2017. "Once very much from New Brunswick, Jersey--they've cited fellow locals Lifetime as an important influence--frontman Geoff Rickly now lives in Park Slope."
  154. ^ Punjabi, Rajul. "French Jazz Violinist Scott Tixier on His 'Sleep No More' Debut", The Village Voice, September 21, 2016. Accessed February 3, 2017. "Tixier composed ten of the twelve tracks in a swift whirlwind of inspiration, and even the cover image came together in a day, his wife and neighbors (designers and photographers) adorning his Park Slope apartment with lush fabrics and odd tchotchkes -- improvisation at its best."
  155. ^ a b Walsh, Brienne. "'Crossing Brooklyn' Showcases Artistic, Demographic Diversity", Art in America, October 3, 2014. Accessed February 3, 2017. "Yours truly (2nd correspondence), 2010-14, by Bahamian-born, Park Slope-based Janine Antoni, is a series of love letters written from the perspective of an artwork and slipped into visitors' belongings at the coat check-art that continues to speak to the viewer after the museum visit."
  156. ^ Bosworth, Patricia. "Hyped to Death; The short life of Jean-Michel Basquiat, graffiti artist turned gallery commodity.", The New York Times, August 9, 1998. Accessed February 3, 2017. "Basquiat was born in Park Slope, Brooklyn, on Dec. 22, 1960."
  157. ^ Leland, John. "AT HOME WITH: ALEX AND ALLYSON GREY; Tuition and Other Head Trips", The New York Times, January 3, 2002. Accessed February 3, 2017. "For the last 17 years, they have painted in the front room of their loft in Park Slope, creating elaborate, brightly colored canvases: his massive, anatomically detailed portraits of translucent bodies; her smaller kaleidoscopic grids, dotted with invented alphabets."
  158. ^ Pearson, Erica. "Park Slope artist Paul Ramírez Jonas gives ordinary people 'key to the city'", New York Daily News, June 4, 2010. Accessed February 3, 2017. "Park Slope artist Paul Ramírez Jonas began giving out more than 25,000 of his custom-made keys - which open special locks around the city - at a Times Square kiosk Thursday."
  159. ^ Glueck, Grace. "Art in Review; Byron Kim", The New York Times, December 9, 2005. Accessed February 3, 2017. "The most interesting works are photographic assemblages under the rubric What I See. These specific impressions of important places in his life, like the one of his backyard in Park Slope, Brooklyn, have a sweet, nostalgic poignancy."
  160. ^ Scheck, Olivia. "Sand Painter Uses Manhattan Sidewalks as His Canvas" Archived February 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, DNAinfo.com, November 1, 2010. Accessed February 3, 2017. "A graduate of the Art Institute of Chicago, Mangrum has showed his art around the globe and received numerous awards for his work, but the Park Slope resident says the donations are his primary source of income."
  161. ^ "David Rees, Cartoonist" Archived April 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Gothamist, March 1, 2004. Accessed February 3, 2017. "I am a 31-year-old cartoonist. I live in Sunset Park, Brooklyn with my wife. Before Sunset Park we lived in Park Slope for two years."
  162. ^ Rosenblum, Constance. "A Brooklyn House With Country Roots", The New York Times, May 14, 2010. Accessed February 3, 2017. "If ever a place fulfilled such a fantasy, it is the century-old robin's-egg blue house on 11th Street in Park Slope, Brooklyn, where Ms. Snyder and Ms. Cammer have lived for the past decade."
  163. ^ Staff. "Artnet News: Starbucks Gets Artistic", Artnet, January 12, 2006. Accessed February 3, 2017. "Twitchell, who lives in Park Slope with his wife and young son and shows his elaborately patterned, stencil-cut artworks at Greenberg Van Doren Gallery on Fifth Avenue, has designed the packaging for four different varieties of premium coffee, which Starbucks plans to introduce every three months (the next coffee is due Mar. 14, 2006)."
  164. ^ Louie, Elaine. "AT HOME WITH: Paul Auster; Chance of a Lifetime", The New York Times, October 5, 1995. Accessed March 13, 2017. "A year ago, Mr. Auster and his young daughter, Sophie, were walking through their neighborhood, Park Slope in Brooklyn."
  165. ^ Hamill, Denis. "He Wrote the Book on City Paranoia", New York Daily News, June 23, 1996. Accessed March 13, 2017. "Blauner, now a Park Slope resident, is a former New York magazine writer and winner of the Edgar Allan Poe Award for his first novel, Slow Motion Riot, set in the world of probation officers."
  166. ^ Kleinman, Jacob. "The Park Slope man who saved Purple Rain!", The Brooklyn Paper, July 28, 2009. Accessed March 13, 2017. "One of the most exciting events of the summer is a participatory screening of Prince's classic film Purple Rain in Prospect Park -- but it never could have happened without one Park Slope man. Howard Bloom saved Prince's self-produced, 1984 film from the dustbin of history with an unprecedented one-man crusade that comes into full fruition with the sing-along presentation at Celebrate Brooklyn on Aug. 6."
  167. ^ "Q&A with Charles Blow", C-SPAN, March 15, 2011. Accessed March 13, 2017. "Brian Lamb: What part of this area do you live in? Charles M. Blow: In Brooklyn - Park Slope, Brooklyn."
  168. ^ a b Gold, Rozanne. "http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rozanne-gold/thanksgiving-recipes_b_2169266.html", The Huffington Post, January 21, 2013. Accessed March 13, 2017. "Jane Brody, the personal health columnist for The New York Times since 1975, is my neighbor in Park Slope, Brooklyn."
  169. ^ Levy, Ariel. "The Prisoner of Sex; A victim of abuse as a child, briefly a prostitute as a young woman, Andrea Dworkin married a gay man and spent three decades fighting hypersexualized America. She lost.", New York (magazine). Accessed March 13, 2017. "Friends say Dworkin had loved their previous home, a Park Slope brownstone, but it had become difficult for her to manage its stairs because of severe osteoarthritis in her knees, exacerbated by years of obesity."
  170. ^ Eggers, Dave "My wish: Once Upon a School", TED (conference), March 2008. Accessed September 10, 2016. "In the Brooklyn neighborhood that I lived in, Park Slope, there are a lot of writers -- it's like a very high per capita ratio of writers to normal people."
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  172. ^ Morris, Bob. "No Sleep Till Brooklyn", The New York Times, April 24, 2005. Accessed March 13, 2017. "A few weeks ago the news broke that Jonathan Safran Foer, the young novelist, was trading up in Park Slope, selling one home for more than $3 million and buying another for $6.75 million."
  173. ^ Strauss, Darin. "Ben Greenman with Darin Strauss ", The Brooklyn Rail, March 1, 2004. Accessed March 13, 2017. "In the middle of February, Strauss sat down with Greenman at the latter's home in Park Slope."
  174. ^ Hamill, Pete. "Brooklyn Revisited; The author returns home to find that everything, and nothing, has changed.", New York (magazine), September 28, 2008. Accessed March 13, 2017. "At the time, I was living alone in a rented garden apartment on Berkeley Place in Park Slope, getting over a sad divorce, drinking too much, trying everything in my power to calm the confusions of my two young daughters."
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  182. ^ Lee, Jennifer 8. "Park Slope Is Abuzz About a Missing Maple", The New York Times, September 10, 2008. Accessed May 9, 2017. "Robert Reuland, a retired prosecutor who lives across the street from the maple, said his wife was upset when she saw the chopping crew."
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