Paracetamol is generally safe at recommended doses. The recommended maximum daily dose for an adult is three to four grams. Higher doses may lead to toxicity, including liver failure. Serious skin rashes may rarely occur. It appears to be safe during pregnancy and when breastfeeding. In those with liver disease, it may still be used, but in lower doses. It is classified as a mild analgesic. It does not have significant anti-inflammatory activity. How it works is not entirely clear.
Paracetamol is used for reducing fever in people of all ages. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that paracetamol be used to treat fever in children only if their temperature is higher than 38.5 °C (101.3 °F). The efficacy of paracetamol by itself in children with fevers has been questioned and a meta-analysis showed that it is less effective than ibuprofen. Paracetamol does not have significant anti-inflammatory effects.[medical ]
Paracetamol is used for the relief of mild to moderate pain. The use of the intravenous form for short-term pain in people in the emergency department is supported by limited evidence.
The American College of Rheumatology recommends paracetamol as one of several treatment options for people with arthritis pain of the hip, hand, or knee that does not improve with exercise and weight loss. A 2015 review, however, found it provided only a small benefit in osteoarthritis.
Paracetamol has relatively little anti-inflammatory activity, unlike other common analgesics such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin, and ibuprofen, but ibuprofen and paracetamol have similar effects in the treatment of headache. Paracetamol can relieve pain in mild arthritis, but has no effect on the underlying inflammation, redness, and swelling of the joint. It has analgesic properties comparable to those of aspirin,[medical ] while its anti-inflammatory effects are weaker. It is better tolerated than aspirin due to concerns about bleeding with aspirin.[medical ]
A joint statement of the German, Austrian, and Swiss headache societies and the German Society of Neurology recommends the use of paracetamol in combination with caffeine as one of several first-line therapies for treatment of tension and migraine headaches. In the treatment of acute migraine, it is superior to placebo, with 39% of people experiencing pain relief at one hour compared with 20% in the control group.
Paracetamol combined with NSAIDs may be more effective for treating postoperative pain than either paracetamol or NSAIDs alone.
NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac are more effective than paracetamol for controlling dental pain or pain arising from dental procedures; combinations of NSAIDs and acetaminophen are more effective than either alone. Paracetamol is particularly useful when NSAIDs are contraindicated due to hypersensitivity or history of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. It can also be used in combination with NSAIDs when these are ineffective in controlling dental pain alone. The Cochrane review of preoperative analgesics for additional pain relief in children and adolescents shows no evidence of benefit in taking paracetamol before dental treatment to help reduce pain after treatment for procedures under local anaesthetic, but the quality of evidence is low.
The efficacy of paracetamol when used in combination with weak opioids (such as codeine) improved for about 50% of people, but with increases in the number experiencing side effects. Combination drugs of paracetamol and strong opioids such as morphine improve analgesic effect.
The combination of paracetamol with caffeine is superior to paracetamol alone for the treatment of common pain conditions, including dental pain, post partum pain, and headache.
Patent ductus arteriosus
Paracetamol is used to treat patent ductus arteriosus, a condition that affects newborns when a blood vessel used in developing the lungs fails to close as it normally does, but evidence for the safety and efficacy of paracetamol for this purpose is lacking. NSAIDs, particularly indomethacin and ibuprofen, have also been used, but the evidence for them is also not strong. The condition appears to be caused in part by overactive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), signalling primarily through its EP4 receptor, but possibly also through its EP2 receptor and EP3 receptors.
Healthy adults taking regular doses up to 4,000mg a day show little evidence of toxicity. They are more likely to have abnormal liver function tests, but the importance of this is uncertain.
Acute overdoses of paracetamol can cause potentially fatal liver damage. In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched a public-education program to help consumers avoid overdose, warning: "Acetaminophen can cause serious liver damage if more than directed is used." In a 2011 Safety Warning, the FDA immediately required manufacturers to update labels of all prescription combination acetaminophen products to warn of the potential risk for severe liver injury and required that such combinations contain no more than 325mg of acetaminophen. Overdoses are frequently related to high-dose recreational use of prescription opioids, as these opioids are most often combined with acetaminophen. The overdose risk may be heightened by frequent consumption of alcohol.
Paracetamol toxicity is the foremost cause of acute liver failure in the Western world, and accounts for most drug overdoses in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. According to the FDA, in the United States, "56,000 emergency room visits, 26,000 hospitalizations, and 458 deaths per year [were] related to acetaminophen-associated overdoses during the 1990s. Within these estimates, unintentional acetaminophen overdose accounted for nearly 25% of the emergency department visits, 10% of the hospitalizations, and 25% of the deaths."
Paracetamol is metabolized by the liver and is hepatotoxic; side effects are multiplied when combined with alcoholic drinks, and are very likely in chronic alcoholics or people with liver damage. Some studies have suggested the possibility of a moderately increased risk of upper gastrointestinal complications such as stomach bleeding when high doses are taken chronically.Kidney damage is seen in rare cases, most commonly in overdose.
On 1 August 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a new warning about paracetamol. It stated that the drug could cause rare and possibly fatal skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Prescription-strength products would be required to carry a warning label about skin reactions, and the FDA urged manufacturers to do the same with over-the-counter products.
An association exists between paracetamol use and asthma, but whether this association is causal is still debated as of 2017[update]. Certain evidence suggests that this association likely reflects confounders rather than being truly causal. A 2014 review found that among children, the association disappeared when respiratory infections were taken into account.
In contrast to aspirin, paracetamol does not prevent blood from clotting (it is not an antiplatelet), thus it may be used in people who have concerns with blood coagulation. Additionally it does not cause gastric irritation. However, paracetamol does not help reduce inflammation, while aspirin does. Compared with ibuprofen--whose side effects may include diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain--paracetamol has fewer adverse gastrointestinal effects. Unlike aspirin, paracetamol is generally considered safe for children, as it is not associated with a risk of Reye's syndrome in children with viral illnesses. If taken recreationally with opioids, weak evidence suggests that it may cause hearing loss.
In general, the recommended maximum daily dose of paracetamol for healthy adults is three or four grams. Higher doses may lead to toxicity.[medical ]
Untreated paracetamol overdose results in a lengthy, painful illness. Signs and symptoms of paracetamol toxicity may initially be absent or non-specific symptoms. The first symptoms of overdose usually begin several hours after ingestion, with nausea, vomiting, sweating, and pain as acute liver failure starts. People who take overdoses of paracetamol do not fall asleep or lose consciousness, although most people who attempt suicide with paracetamol wrongly believe that they will be rendered unconscious by the drug. The process of dying from an overdose takes from 3-5 days to 4-6 weeks.[medical ]
Paracetamol hepatotoxicity is by far the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Paracetamol overdose results in more calls to poison control centers in the US than overdose of any other pharmacological substance. Toxicity of paracetamol is believed to be due to its quinone metaboliteNAPQI.
Untreated overdose can lead to liver failure and death within days.[medical ] Treatment is aimed at removing the paracetamol from the body and replenishing glutathione.Activated charcoal can be used to decrease absorption of paracetamol if the person comes to the hospital soon after the overdose. While the antidote, acetylcysteine (also called N-acetylcysteine or NAC), acts as a precursor for glutathione, helping the body regenerate enough to prevent or at least decrease the possible damage to the liver; a liver transplant is often required if damage to the liver becomes severe. NAC was usually given following a treatment nomogram (one for people with risk factors, and one for those without), but the use of the nomogram is no longer recommended as evidence to support the use of risk factors was poor and inconsistent, and many of the risk factors are imprecise and difficult to determine with sufficient certainty in clinical practice. NAC also helps in neutralizing the imidoquinone metabolite of paracetamol.Kidney failure is also a possible side effect.
Until 2004, tablets were available in the UK (brand-name Paradote) that combined paracetamol with an antidote (methionine) to protect the liver in case of an overdose.[medical ] One theoretical, but rarely if ever used, option in the United States is to request a compounding pharmacy to make a similar drug mix for people who are at risk.[medical ]
In June 2009, an FDA advisory committee recommended that new restrictions be placed on paracetamol use in the United States to help protect people from the potential toxic effects. The maximum dosage at any given time would be decreased from 1000mg to 650mg, while combinations of paracetamol and opioid analgesics would be prohibited. Committee members were particularly concerned by the fact that the then-present maximum dosages of paracetamol had been shown to produce alterations in liver function.
In January 2011, the FDA asked manufacturers of prescription combination products containing paracetamol to limit its amount to no more than 325mg per tablet or capsule and began requiring manufacturers to update the labels of all prescription combination paracetamol products to warn of the potential risk of severe liver damage. Manufacturers had three years to limit the amount of paracetamol in their prescription drug products to 325mg per dosage unit.
In November 2011, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency revised UK dosing of liquid paracetamol for children.
Experimental studies in animals and cohort studies in humans indicate no detectable increase in congenital malformations associated with paracetamol use during pregnancy. Additionally, paracetamol does not affect the closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus as NSAIDs can.
Paracetamol use by the mother during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. It is also associated with an increase in ADHD but it is unclear whether the relationship is causal. A 2015 review states that paracetamol remains a first-line recommended medication for pain and fever during pregnancy, despite these concerns.
Despite its common use, the mechanism of action of paracetamol is not completely understood. Unlike NSAIDs such as aspirin, paracetamol does not appear to inhibit the function of any cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme outside the central nervous system, and this appears to be the reason why it is not useful as an anti-inflammatory. It does appear to selectively inhibit COX activities in the brain, which may contribute to its ability to treat fever and pain. This activity does not appear to be direct inhibition by blocking an active site, but rather by reducing COX, which must be oxidized in order to function.
Paracetamol apparently might modulate the endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain through its metabolite, AM404, which appears to inhibit the reuptake of the endogenous cannabinoid/vanilloid anandamide by neurons, making it more available to reduce pain. AM404 also appears to be able to directly activate the TRPV1 (older name: vanilloid receptor), which also inhibits pain signals in the brain.
Main pathways of paracetamol metabolism (click to enlarge): Pathways shown in blue and purple lead to nontoxic metabolites; the pathway in red leads to toxic NAPQI.
After being taken by mouth, paracetamol is rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (although absorption through the stomach is negligible); its volume of distribution is roughly 50L. The concentration in serum after a typical dose of paracetamol usually peaks below 30µg/ml (200µmol/L). After 4hours, the concentration is usually less than 10µg/ml (66µmol/L).
N-hydroxylation and dehydration, then glutathione conjugation, (less than 15%). The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system metabolises paracetamol (mainly CYP2E1), forming a minor yet significant alkylating metabolite known as NAPQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine) (also known as N-acetylimidoquinone). NAPQI is then irreversibly conjugated with the sulfhydryl groups of glutathione.
All three pathways yield final products that are inactive, nontoxic, and eventually excreted by the kidneys. In the third pathway, however, the intermediate product NAPQI is toxic. NAPQI is primarily responsible for the toxic effects of paracetamol; this constitutes an example of toxication. Production of NAPQI is due primarily to two isoenzymes of cytochrome P450: CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. At usual doses, NAPQI is quickly detoxified by conjugation with glutathione.
Paracetamol consists of a benzene ring core, substituted by one hydroxyl group and the nitrogen atom of an amide group in the para (1,4) pattern. The amide group is acetamide (ethanamide). It is an extensively conjugated system, as one lone pair on the hydroxyl oxygen, the benzene pi cloud, the nitrogen lone pair, the p orbital on the carbonyl carbon, and one lone pair on the carbonyl oxygen are all conjugated. The presence of two activating groups also make the benzene ring highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution. As the substituents are ortho, para-directing and para with respect to each other, all positions on the ring are more or less equally activated. The conjugation also greatly reduces the basicity of the oxygens and the nitrogen, while making the hydroxyl acidic through delocalisation of charge developed on the phenoxideanion.[medical ]
Paracetamol is part of the class of drugs known as "aniline analgesics"; it is the only such drug still in use today. It is not considered an NSAID because it does not exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity (it is a weak COX inhibitor). This is despite the evidence that paracetamol and NSAIDs have some similar pharmacological activity.
More recently (2014) a "one-pot" synthesis from hydroquinone has been described before the Royal Society of Chemistry. The process may be summarized as follows:
Hydroquinone, ammonium acetate, and acetic acid were mixed in an argon atmosphere and heated slowly to 230 °C. The mixture was stirred at this temperature for 15 hours. After cooling the acetic acid was evaporated and the precipitate was filtered, washed with water and dried to give paracetamol as a white solid.
The authors go on to claim an 88% yield and 99% purity.
4-Aminophenol may be obtained by the amide hydrolysis of paracetamol. 4-Aminophenol prepared this way, and related to the commercially available Metol, has been used as a developer in photography by hobbyists. This reaction is also used to determine paracetamol in urine samples: After hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid, 4-aminophenol reacts in ammonia solution with a phenol derivate, e.g. salicylic acid, to form an indophenol dye under oxidization by air.
Julius Axelrod(pictured) and Bernard Brodie demonstrated that acetanilide and phenacetin are both metabolized to paracetamol, which is a better tolerated analgesic.
Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by Cahn & Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects - the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia - prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesized paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of p-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate.
Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses.
Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947, David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolized to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings.
Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988, Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994.
In some formulations, paracetamol is combined with the opioidcodeine, sometimes referred to as co-codamol (BAN) and Panadeine in Australia. In the U.S., this combination is available only by prescription, while the lowest-strength preparation is over the counter in Canada, and in other countries other strengths may be available over the counter. Paracetamol is also combined with other opioids such as dihydrocodeine, referred to as co-dydramol (BAN), oxycodone or hydrocodone. Another very commonly used analgesic combination includes paracetamol in combination with propoxyphene napsylate. A combination of paracetamol, codeine, and the calmative doxylamine succinate is also available. The efficacy of paracetamol/codeine combinations has been questioned by research from 2010.
Paracetamol is commonly used in multi-ingredient preparations for migraine headache, typically including butalbital and paracetamol with or without caffeine, and sometimes containing codeine.[medical ]
When marketed in combination with diphenhydramine hydrochloride, it is frequently given the label "PM" and is meant as a sleep aid. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is known to have hypnotic effects and is non-habit forming. Unfortunately it has been implicated in the occasional development of restless leg syndrome.
In September 2013, an episode of This American Life titled "Use Only as Directed" highlighted deaths from paracetamol overdose. This report was followed by two reports by ProPublica alleging that the "FDA has long been aware of studies showing the risks of acetaminophen. So has the maker of Tylenol, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, a division of Johnson & Johnson" and "McNeil, the maker of Tylenol, ... has repeatedly opposed safety warnings, dosage restrictions and other measures meant to safeguard users of the drug."
A report prepared by an internal FDA working group describes a history of FDA initiatives designed to educate consumers about the risk of paracetamol overdose and notes that one challenge to the Agency has been "identifying the appropriate message about the relative safety of acetaminophen, especially compared to other OTC pain relievers (e.g., aspirin and other NSAIDs)". The report notes that "Chronic use of NSAIDs is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. NSAID gastrointestinal risk is substantial, with deaths and hospitalization estimated in one publication as 3200 and 32,000 per year respectively. Possible cardiovascular toxicity with chronic NSAID use has been a major discussion recently", finally noting that "The goal of the educational efforts is not to decrease appropriate acetaminophen use or encourage substitution of NSAID use, but rather to educate consumers so that they can avoid unnecessary health risks."
Paracetamol is extremely toxic to cats, which lack the necessary UGT1A6 enzyme to break it down safely. Initial symptoms include vomiting, salivation, and discoloration of the tongue and gums.
Although paracetamol is believed to have no significant anti-inflammatory activity, it has been reported to be as effective as aspirin in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain in dogs.
A paracetamol-codeine product (trade name Pardale-V) licensed for use in dogs is available for purchase under supervision of a vet, pharmacist or other qualified person. It should be administered to dogs only on veterinary advice and with extreme caution.
The main effect of toxicity in dogs is liver damage, and GI ulceration has been reported. N-acetylcysteine treatment is efficacious in dogs when administered within two hours of paracetamol ingestion.
Paracetamol is lethal to snakes, and has been suggested as a chemical control program for the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) in Guam. Doses of 80mg are inserted into dead mice scattered by helicopter.
^Working Group of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Medicine (2015). Schug SA, Palmer GM, Scott DA, Halliwell R, Trinca J (eds.). Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence(PDF) (4th ed.). Melbourne: Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA), Faculty of Pain Medicine (FPM). ISBN978-0-9873236-7-5.
^Karthikeyan M, Glen RC, Bender A (2005). "General Melting Point Prediction Based on a Diverse Compound Data Set and Artificial Neural Networks". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 45 (3): 581-590. doi:10.1021/ci0500132. PMID15921448.
^Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2008). "6.1 and 7.1.1"(PDF). Guideline 106: Control of pain in adults with cancer. Scotland: National Health Service (NHS). ISBN9781905813384. Archived(PDF) from the original on 20 December 2010.
^Perrott DA, Piira T, Goodenough B, Champion GD (2004). "Efficacy and safety of acetaminophen vs ibuprofen for treating children's pain or fever: a meta-analysis". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158 (6): 521-6. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.6.521. PMID15184213.
^Sin B, Wai M, Tatunchak T, Motov SM (29 January 2016). "The use of intravenous acetaminophen for acute pain in the emergency department". Academic Emergency Medicine. 23 (5): 543-53. doi:10.1111/acem.12921. PMID26824905.
^Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, et al. (2 October 2007). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society". Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (7): 478-91. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00006. ISSN0003-4819. PMID17909209.
^Chou R, Huffman LH, American Pain Society, American College of Physicians (2 October 2007). "Medications for Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Review of the Evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline". Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (7): 505-14. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00008. ISSN0003-4819. PMID17909211.
^Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, McLean RM, Forciea MA (April 2017). "Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Ann. Intern. Med. 166 (7): 514-530. doi:10.7326/M16-2367. PMID28192789.
^Bailey E, Worthington H, Coulthard P (April 2014). "Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth, a Cochrane systematic review". British Dental Journal. 216 (8): 451-5. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.330. PMID24762895.
^ abcSivanandan S, Agarwal R (2016). "Pharmacological Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Selecting the Agent and Route of Administration". Paediatric Drugs. 18 (2): 123-38. doi:10.1007/s40272-016-0165-5. PMID26951240.
^Sallmon H, Koehne P, Hansmann G (2016). "Recent Advances in the Treatment of Preterm Newborn Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus". Clinics in Perinatology. 43 (1): 113-29. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2015.11.008. PMID26876125.
^Hawkins LC, Edwards JN, Dargan PI (2007). "Impact of restricting paracetamol pack sizes on paracetamol poisoning in the United Kingdom: a review of the literature". Drug Saf. 30 (6): 465-79. doi:10.2165/00002018-200730060-00002. PMID17536874.
^ abLarson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, Davern TJ, Lalani E, Hynan LS, et al. (2005). "Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study". Hepatology. 42 (6): 1364-72. doi:10.1002/hep.20948. PMID16317692.
^Lourido-Cebreiro T, Salgado FJ, Valdes L, Gonzalez-Barcala FJ (January 2017). "The association between paracetamol and asthma is still under debate". The Journal of Asthma (Review). 54 (1): 32-8. doi:10.1080/02770903.2016.1194431. PMID27575940.
^Cheelo M, Lodge CJ, Dharmage SC, Simpson JA, Matheson M, Heinrich J, Lowe AJ (26 November 2014). "Paracetamol exposure in pregnancy and early childhood and development of childhood asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 100 (1): 81-9. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-303043. PMID25429049.
^Section on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Committee on Drugs, Sullivan JE, Farrar HC (March 2011). "Fever and antipyretic use in children". Pediatrics. 127 (3): 580-7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3852. PMID21357332.
^Yorgason JG, Luxford W, Kalinec F (December 2011). "In vitro and in vivo models of drug ototoxicity: studying the mechanisms of a clinical problem". Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. 7 (12): 1521-34. doi:10.1517/17425255.2011.614231. PMID21999330.
^Rumack B, Matthew H (1975). "Acetaminophen poisoning and toxicity". Pediatrics. 55 (6): 871-76. PMID1134886.
^"Paracetamol". University of Oxford Centre for Suicide Research. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 2013.
^Eyers S, Weatherall M, Jefferies S, Beasley R (April 2011). "Paracetamol in pregnancy and the risk of wheezing in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 41 (4): 482-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03691.x. PMID21338428.
^de Fays L, Van Malderen K, De Smet K, Sawchik J, Verlinden V, Hamdani J, Dogné JM, Dan B (August 2015). "Use of paracetamol during pregnancy and child neurological development". Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 57 (8): 718-24. doi:10.1111/dmcn.12745. PMID25851072.
^ abcdFortuny J, Kogevinas M, Garcia-Closas M, Real FX, Tardón A, Garcia-Closas R, Serra C, Carrato A, Lloreta J, Rothman N, Villanueva C, Dosemeci M, Malats N, Silverman D (2006). "Use of Analgesics and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Genetic Predisposition, and Bladder Cancer Risk in Spain". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 15 (9): 1696-1702. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0038. PMID16985032.
^ abGraham GG, Davies MJ, Day RO, Mohamudally A, Scott KF (June 2013). "The modern pharmacology of paracetamol: Therapeutic actions, mechanism of action, metabolism, toxicity, and recent pharmacological findings". Inflammopharmacology. 21 (3): 201-232. doi:10.1007/s10787-013-0172-x. PMID23719833.
^ abMarx J, Walls R, Hockberger R (2013). Rosen's Emergency Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN9781455749874.
^ abcRonald F B (1995). "Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs". In Foye, William O., Lemke, Thomas L., Williams, David A (eds.). Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (Fourth ed.). Williams & Wilkins. pp. 544-545.
^ abBrayfield, A., ed. (15 January 2014). "Paracetamol". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 2014.
^Altinoz MA, Korkmaz R (2004). "NF-kappaB, macrophage migration inhibitory factor and cyclooxygenase-inhibitions as likely mechanisms behind the acetaminophen- and NSAID-prevention of the ovarian cancer". Neoplasma. 51 (4): 239-247. PMID15254653.
^Bronwen B, Katleen K, Evelyn S (2007). Pharmacology for health professionals. Elsevier. p. 270. ISBN9780729537872.
^Ellis F (2002). Paracetamol: a curriculum resource. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN978-0-85404-375-0.
^Travis AS (2007). "Manufacture and uses of the anilines: A vast array of processes and products". In Zvi Rappoport (ed.). The chemistry of Anilines Part 1. Wiley. p. 764. ISBN978-0-470-87171-3.
^US patent 4524217, Davenport, Kenneth G. & Hilton, Charles B., "Process for producing N-acyl-hydroxy aromatic amines", published 1985-06-18, assigned to Celanese Corporation
^Joncour R, Duguet N, Métay E, Ferreirab A, Lemaire M (2014). "Amidation of phenol derivatives: a direct synthesis of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from Hydroquinone". Green Chem. 16 (6): 2997-3002. doi:10.1039/C4GC00166D.
^Brodie BB, Axelrod J (1948). "The estimation of acetanilide and its metabolic products, aniline, N-acetyl p-aminophenol and p-aminophenol (free and total conjugated) in biological fluids and tissues". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 94 (1): 22-28. PMID18885610.
^Flinn FB, Brodie BB (1948). "The effect on the pain threshold of N-acetyl p-aminophenol, a product derived in the body from acetanilide". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 94 (1): 76-77. PMID18885618.
^Brodie BB, Axelrod J (1949). "The fate of acetophenetidin (phenacetin) in man and methods for the estimation of acetophenitidin and its metabolites in biological material". J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 94 (1): 58-67.
^ abAtkinson HC, Stanescu I, Anderson BJ (2014). "Increased Phenylephrine Plasma Levels with Administration of Acetaminophen". New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (12): 1171-1172. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1313942. PMID24645960.
^Senyuva H, Ozden T (2002). "Simultaneous High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Paracetamol, Phenylephrine HCl, and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms". Journal of Chromatographic Science. 40 (2): 97-100. doi:10.1093/chromsci/40.2.97. PMID11881712.
^Janin A, Monnet J (2014). "Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product". Journal of International Medical Research. 42 (2): 347-359. doi:10.1177/0300060513503762. PMID24553480.
^ abMaddison JE, Stephen W. Page, Church D (2002). Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 260-1. ISBN978-0702025730.
^ abc"Pardale-V Oral Tablets". NOAH Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. The National Office of Animal Health (NOAH). 11 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 2011.
^Villar D, Buck WB, Gonzalez JM (1998). "Ibuprofen, aspirin and acetaminophen toxicosis and treatment in dogs and cats". Vet Hum Toxicol. 40 (3): 156-62. PMID9610496.
^Johnston J, Savarie P, Primus T, Eisemann J, Hurley J, Kohler D (2002). "Risk assessment of an acetaminophen baiting program for chemical control of brown tree snakes on Guam: evaluation of baits, snake residues, and potential primary and secondary hazards". Environ Sci Technol. 36 (17): 3827-33. Bibcode:2002EnST...36.3827J. doi:10.1021/es015873n. PMID12322757.