Palatal Lateral Approximant
Get Palatal Lateral Approximant essential facts below. View Videos or join the Palatal Lateral Approximant discussion. Add Palatal Lateral Approximant to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Palatal Lateral Approximant
Voiced palatal lateral approximant
?
IPA Number157
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʎ
Unicode (hex)U+028E
X-SAMPAL
Braille? (braille pattern dots-236)? (braille pattern dots-13456)
Audio sample
Voiced alveolo-palatal lateral approximant
l
?

The voiced palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨y⟩ (not to be confused with lowercase lambda, ⟨?⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.

Many languages that were previously thought to have a palatal lateral approximant actually have a lateral approximant that is, broadly, alveolo-palatal; that is to say, it is articulated at a place in-between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (excluded), and it may be variously described as alveolo-palatal, lamino-postalveolar,[1] or postalveolo-prepalatal.[2] None of the 13 languages investigated by Recasens (2013), many of them Romance, has a 'true' palatal.[3] That is likely the case for several other languages listed here. Some languages, like Portuguese and Catalan, have a lateral approximant that varies between alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[4]

There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolo-palatal lateral approximant. If precision is desired, it may be transcribed ⟨l⟩ or ⟨⟩; they are essentially equivalent because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨?⟩ ("l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨?, ?⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.

The palatal lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart // in the Xumi language spoken in China.[5][6]

Features

Features of the voiced palatal lateral approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese agulla [a?'?u?a?] 'needle'
Aromanian ljepuri ['?epuri] 'rabbit'
Astur-Leonese Asturian llingua ['?wa?] 'language'

In some dialects, it is replaced by an allophone spelled . Where /?/ is absent due to a yeísmo-like merger, it is replaced by different sounds (depending on dialect). Yeísmo is mainly prevalent in west-central Asturian and in the Asturleonese-related Extremaduran dialects (spoken in northwestern Extremadura).

Leonese
Mirandese lhéngua ['?w?]
Aymara llaki [?aki] 'sad'
Basque bonbilla [bo?mbi?a?] 'bulb'
Breton familh [fa?mi?] 'family'
Bulgarian ?? [lubof] 'love' Alveolo-palatal.[]
Catalan Standard ull ['u] 'eye' Alveolo-palatal.[2] See Catalan phonology
Eastern Aragon clau ['ka?w] 'key' Allophone of /l/ in consonant clusters.
English County Donegal[7] million ['mn] 'million' Allophone of the sequence /lj/.[7]
General American[8] A frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/; sometimes realized as [jj].[8] See English phonology
Enindhilyagwa angalya [a?ala] 'place' Laminal post-alveolar
Faroese[9] telgja ['tta] 'to carve' Allophone of /l/ before palatal consonants.[9] Sometimes voiceless .[9] See Faroese phonology
Franco-Provençal balyi [ba?i] 'give'
French Some dialects[10] papillon [papi] 'butterfly' Corresponds to /j/ in modern standard French. See French phonology
Galician Standard illado [i'?a?ðo?] 'insulated' Many Galician speakers are nowadays yeístas because of influence from Spanish
Greek ? 'sun' Postalveolar.[11] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian Northern dialects[12] lyuk [?uk] 'hole' Alveolo-palatal.[13] Modern Standard Hungarian has undergone a phenomenon akin to Spanish yeísmo, merging /?/ into /j/. See Hungarian ly and Hungarian phonology
Irish duille ['dl] 'leaf' Alveolo-palatal. Some dialects contrast it with palatalized alveolar /l?/. See Irish phonology
Italian[2] figlio 'son' Alveolo-palatal.[2] Realized as fricative in a large number of accents.[14] See Italian phonology
Ivilyuat Ivil?u?at [?iv?at] 'the speaking [Ivilyuat]' ('Ivilyuat language')
Norwegian Northern and central dialects[15] alle [:e] 'all' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Standard miralhar [mi?a?'?a?] 'to reflect' See Occitan phonology
Paiwan Standard veljevelj [vv] 'banana' See Paiwan language
Portuguese Standard ralho ['?a?u] 'I scold' Alveolo-palatal in European Portuguese.[16] May instead be [l?], (Northeast) or (Caipira), especially before unrounded vowels.[17][18] See Portuguese phonology
Many dialects[19] sandália [s'da?l] 'sandal' Possible realization of post-stressed /li/ plus vowel.
Quechua[20] qallu [qa] 'tongue'
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[21] lingur? ['?un?ur?] 'spoon' Corresponds to [in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[22] till [ti:?] 'return' Alveolo-palatal.[] See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23] ???a / ljulja?ka [ä:?kä] 'swing (seat)' Palato-alveolar.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sissano piyl [pi?] 'fish'
Slovak ?úbi? 'to love' Merges with /l/ in western dialects. See Slovak phonology
Spanish[24] Andean caballo [ka?'?aö] 'horse' Found in traditional speakers in Peninsular Spanish. Also found in Andean countries and Paraguay. For most speakers, this sound has merged with , a phenomenon called yeísmo. See Spanish phonology
Castilian[25]
Chavacano
Central areas in Extremadura
Eastern and southwestern Manchego
Murcian
Paraguayan[26]
Philippine Spanish
Very few areas in Andalusia
Xumi Lower[5] [Ro][clarification needed] 'musk deer' Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiceless //.[5][6]
Upper[6] [H][clarification needed] 'correct, right'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Recasens (2013:2), citing Ladefoged (1997:602)
  2. ^ a b c d Recasens et al. (1993:222)
  3. ^ Recasens (2013:11)
  4. ^ Recasens (2013:10-13)
  5. ^ a b c Chirkova & Chen (2013:365, 367-368)
  6. ^ a b c Chirkova, Chen & Kocjan?i? Antolík (2013:382-383)
  7. ^ a b Stenson (1991), cited in Hickey (2004:71)
  8. ^ a b Wells (1982:490)
  9. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  10. ^ Grevisse & Goosse (2011, §33, b), Fagyal, Kibbee & Jenkins (2006:47)
  11. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  12. ^ Benk? (1972:?)
  13. ^ Recasens (2013:10)
  14. ^ Ashby (2011:64): "(...) in a large number of Italian accents, there is considerable friction involved in the pronunciation of [?], creating a voiced palatal lateral fricative (for which there is no established IPA symbol)."
  15. ^ Skjekkeland (1997:105-107)
  16. ^ Teixeira et al. (2012:321)
  17. ^ Stein (2011:223)
  18. ^ Aragão (2009:168)
  19. ^ "Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Ladefoged (2005:149)
  21. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  22. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  23. ^ a b Jazi? (1977:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:188)
  24. ^ [1] Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine ALPI
  25. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  26. ^ Lipski (1996) and Alvar (1996). [dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/5120313.pdf Yeísmo en el español de América]

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Palatal_lateral_approximant
 



 



 
Music Scenes