Palatal Approximant
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Palatal Approximant
Voiced palatal approximant
IPA Number153
Entity (decimal)j
Unicode (hex)U+006A
Braille? (braille pattern dots-245)
Audio sample

The voiced palatal approximant, or yod, is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨y⟩. Because the English name of the letter J, jay, starts with [d] (voiced palato-alveolar affricate), the approximant is sometimes instead called yod (jod), as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence.

The palatal approximant can often be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close front unrounded vowel [i]. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages as ⟨j⟩ and ⟨i?⟩, with the non-syllabic diacritic used in different phonetic transcription systems to represent the same sound.

Some languages, however, have a palatal approximant that is unspecified for rounding and so cannot be considered the semivocalic equivalent of either [i] or its rounded counterpart, , which would normally correspond to . An example is Spanish, which distinguishes two palatal approximants: an approximant semivowel [j], which is always unrounded, and an unspecified for rounding approximant consonant []. Eugenio Martínez Celdrán describes the difference between them as follows (with audio examples added):[1]

[j] is shorter and is usually a merely transitory sound. It can only exist together with a full vowel and does not appear in syllable onset. [On the other hand,] [] has a lower amplitude, mainly in F2. It can only appear in syllable onset. It is not noisy either articulatorily or perceptually. [] can vary towards in emphatic pronunciations, having noise (turbulent airstream). (...) There is a further argument through which we can establish a clear difference between [j] and []: the first sound cannot be rounded, not even through co-articulation, whereas the second one is rounded before back vowels or the back semi-vowel. Thus, in words like viuda 'widow', Dios 'God', vio 's/he saw', etc., the semi-vowel [j] is unrounded; if it were rounded a sound that does not exist in Spanish, , would appear. On the other hand, [] is unspecified as far as rounding is concerned and it is assimilated to the labial vowel context: rounded with rounded vowels, e.g. ayuda 'help', coyote 'coyote', hoyuelo 'dimple', etc., and unrounded with unrounded vowels: payaso 'clown', ayer 'yesterday'.

He also considers that "the IPA shows a lack of precision in the treatment it gives to approximants, if we take into account our understanding of the phonetics of Spanish. [] and [j] are two different segments, but they have to be labelled as voiced palatal approximant consonants. I think that the former is a real consonant, whereas the latter is a semi-consonant, as it has traditionally been called in Spanish, or a semi-vowel, if preferred. The IPA, though, classifies it as a consonant."[2]

There is a parallel problem with transcribing the voiced velar approximant.

The symbol ⟨⟩ may not display properly in all browsers. In that case, ⟨⟩ should be substituted.

In the writing systems used for most languages in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe, the letter j denotes the palatal approximant, as in German Jahr 'year'. That is followed by IPA although it may be counterintuitive for English-speakers although words occur with that sound in a few loanwords in English like Hebrew "hallelujah" and German "Jägermeister".

In grammars of Ancient Greek, the palatal approximant, which was lost early in the history of Greek, is sometimes written as ⟨⟩, an iota with the inverted breve below, which is the nonsyllabic diacritic or marker of a semivowel.[3]

There is also the post-palatal approximant[4] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical palatal approximant but less far back than the prototypical velar approximant. It can be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close central unrounded vowel [?]The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨j?⟩, ⟨j?⟩ (both symbols denote a retractedj⟩), ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced?⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j_- and M\_+, respectively. Other possible transcriptions include a centralized ⟨j⟩ (⟨j?⟩ in the IPA, j_" in X-SAMPA), a centralized ⟨?⟩ (⟨⟩ in the IPA, M\_" in X-SAMPA) and a non-syllabic ⟨?⟩ (⟨⟩ in the IPA, 1_^ in X-SAMPA).

For the reasons mentioned above and in the article velar approximant, none of those symbols are appropriate for languages such as Spanish, whose post-palatal approximant consonant (not a semivowel) appears as an allophone of /?/ before front vowels and is best transcribed ⟨⟩, ⟨⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and retracted ⟨?⟩), ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and advanced ⟨?⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_o_- and G_o_+.

Especially in broad transcription, the post-palatal approximant may be transcribed as a palatalized velar approximant (⟨⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ in the IPA, M\', M\_j, G'_o or G_o_j in X-SAMPA).


Features of the voiced palatal approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream. The most common type of this approximant is glide or semivowel. The term glide emphasizes the characteristic of movement (or 'glide') of [j] from the vowel position to a following vowel position. The term semivowel emphasizes that, although the sound is vocalic in nature, it is not 'syllabic' (it does not form the nucleus of a syllable). For a description of the approximant consonant variant used e.g. in Spanish, see above.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar .
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ?/j 'dirt'
Afrikaans ja [j?:] 'yes' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard ‎/yawm [jawm] 'day' See Arabic phonology
Aragonese[5] caye ['kae?] 'falls' Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel (which may replace // before /e/).[5]
Armenian Eastern[6] ?/yol? [ju?] 'fat'
Assamese /manowiyota [man?wij?ta] 'humanity'
Assyrian yama [ja:ma] 'sea'
Azerbaijani yuxu [ju?u] 'dream'
Basque bai [baj] 'yes'
Bengali ??/noyon [n?jon] 'eye' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian ? / majka ['majk?] 'mother' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[7] seient [s?'jen] 'seat' See Catalan phonology
Chechen ? / yalx [jalx] 'six'
Chinese Cantonese ? / jat9 [j?t] 'day' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin ? / y? [ja?] 'duck' See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash ?ç/y?v [y] 'tree'
Czech je [j?] 'is' See Czech phonology
Danish jeg [j?] 'I' See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[8] ja [ja:] 'yes' Frequently realized as a fricative , especially in emphatic speech.[8] See Dutch phonology
English you [ju:] 'you' See English phonology
Esperanto jaro [jaro] 'year' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian jalg ['j?l?] 'leg' See Estonian phonology
Finnish jalka ['j?lk?] 'leg' See Finnish phonology
French yeux [jø] 'eyes' See French phonology
German Standard[9][10] Jacke ['jäk?] 'jacket' Also described as a fricative [11][12] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[13] See Standard German phonology
Greek Ancient Greek ???/éjj? [?j:?:] 's/he shall come' See Ancient Greek phonology
Hebrew ?‎/yeled ['jeled] 'boy' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani ? / /yaan [jä:n] 'vehicle' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian játék [ja:te:k] 'game' See Hungarian phonology
Irish[14] ghearrfadh ['j?:h?x] 'would cut' See Irish phonology
Italian[15] ione ['jo:ne] 'ion' See Italian phonology
Jalapa Mazatec[16] [example needed] Contrasts voiceless , plain voiced /j/ and glottalized voiced // approximants.[16]
Japanese / yaku [jaku?] 'to bake' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian ??/yi [ji] 'game'
Korean / yeoseot [j?s?t?] 'six' See Korean phonology
Latin iacere ['jak?r?] 'to throw' See Latin spelling and pronunciation
Lithuanian[17] ji [j?] 'she' Also described as a fricative .[18][19] See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian ?/kraj [kraj] 'end' See Macedonian phonology
Malay sayang [saja?] 'love'
Maltese jiekol [jkol] 'he eats'
Mapudungun[20] kayu [k?'j?] 'six' May be a fricative instead.[20]
Marathi ??/ya? [j] 'success'
Nepali ?/j?m [jäm] 'season' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian Urban East[21][22] gi [ji:] 'to give' May be a fricative instead.[22][23] See Norwegian phonology
Odia ?/samaya [s?m?j?] 'time'
Persian /jazd [jæzd] 'Yazd' See Persian phonology
Polish[24] jutro 'tomorrow' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[25] boia ['b?j.j?] 'buoy', 'float' Allophone of both and ,[26] as well as a very common epenthetic sound before coda sibilants in some dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi /y?r [jä:?] 'friend'
Romanian iar [jar] 'again' See Romanian phonology
Russian[27] ?/jama ['jäm?] 'pit' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[28] ? / jug [j] 'South' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[29] jes? [jsc?] 'to eat' See Slovak phonology
Spanish[30] ayer 'yesterday' Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel.[30] See Spanish phonology
Swedish jag ['j?:?] 'I' May be realized as a palatal fricative instead. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[31] yol [jo] 'way' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen ýüpek [jypek] 'silk'
Ubykh ?a/ay?w?q'a [aj?w?q'a] 'you did it' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian ? / ji?ak [ji'k] 'hedgehog' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese Southern dialects de [j?] 'cinnamon' Corresponds to northern /z/. See Vietnamese phonology
Washo dayá? [da'ja?] 'leaf' Contrasts voiceless and voiced /j/ approximants.
Welsh iaith [jai] 'language' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian jas [j?s] 'coat' See West Frisian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[32] yan [ja?] 'neck'


Voiced post-palatal approximant
Audio sample
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Spanish[33] seguir 'to follow' Lenited allophone of /?/ before front vowels;[33] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Spanish phonology
Turkish Standard prescriptive[34] ?ün ['d?y?jy?n?] 'marriage' Either post-palatal or palatal; phonetic realization of /?/ (also transcribed as /?/) before front vowels.[34] See Turkish phonology

See also


  1. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 208.
  2. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 206.
  3. ^ Smyth (1920), p. 11.
  4. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  5. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 105-106.
  6. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 198.
  9. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 86.
  10. ^ Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), p. 340.
  11. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 51.
  12. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 83.
  13. ^ Hall (2003), p. 48.
  14. ^ Ó Sé (2000), p. 17.
  15. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  16. ^ a b Silverman et al. (1995), p. 83.
  17. ^ Mathiassen (1996), pp. 22-23.
  18. ^ Augustaitis (1964), p. 23.
  19. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997), pp. 46-47.
  20. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 91.
  21. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 22 and 25.
  22. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 41.
  23. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 74.
  24. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  25. ^ (in Portuguese) Delta: Documentation of studies on theoric and applied Linguistics - Problems in the tense variant of carioca speech.
  26. ^ (in Portuguese) The acoustic-articulatory path of the lateral palatal consonant's allophony. Pages 223 and 228.
  27. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bun?i? (2015), p. 223.
  28. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  29. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 106.
  30. ^ a b Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 205.
  31. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  32. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  33. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 21.
  34. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.


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