Orthodox Slavic countries
|Regions with significant populations|
|Eastern Europe (Balkans + Sarmatic Plain)|
|Eastern Orthodox Church|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Orthodox Slavs form a religious grouping of the Slavic peoples, including ethnic groups and nations that predominantly adhere to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith and whose Churches follow the Byzantine Rite liturgy. Orthodoxy spread to Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages through Byzantine influence, and has been retained in several countries until today.
Orthodox Slavic nations today include the Belarusians, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Russians, Serbs and Ukrainians. They inhabit a contiguous area in Eastern Europe stretching from the northeast in the Baltic Sea to the Carpathian and Balkan Mountains in the southeast and southwest; from the north in the Russian Federation to the southwest in North Macedonia near the Greek border. There are also major Orthodox Slavic population hubs and communities in North Asia (predominantly Siberia), the Americas (predominantly North America), and significant diaspora groups throughout the rest of the world.
All Orthodox Christian Churches with Slavic-language liturgy, with the exception of the Bulgarian Church, use the Julian calendar ("Old Style") exclusively, and all use it to calculate the date Easter is celebrated.
Slavic states with Orthodox majority or plurality:
|Serbia||84.59% (2011 census)|
|Ukraine||78% (2016 research)|
|Russia||71% (2016 research)|
|Montenegro||70.07% (2011 census)|
|North Macedonia||64.78% (2002 census)|
|Bulgaria||59.4% (2011 census)|
|Belarus||48.3% (2011 census)|
Other Slavic-majority states with notable Orthodox minorities include Bosnia and Herzegovina (30.75%, 2013 census) and Croatia (4.44%, 2011 census). Small numbers are found in West Slavic countries such as Slovakia (0.9%, 2011), Poland (0.7%, 2011), and the Czech Republic. There are notable Orthodox Slavic communities among non-Slavic majority states.
|Church||Year autocephaly granted||Number of followers|
|Bulgarian Orthodox Church||870||8-10 million|
|Serbian Orthodox Church||1219||8-12 million|
|Russian Orthodox Church||1589||150 million|
|Polish Orthodox Church||1924||600,000|
|Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church||1998||100,000|
|Orthodox Church of Ukraine||2019||20 million|
Historically, Bulgaria became the earliest and most important centre of the Slavic Orthodoxy, when its early christianization in 864 allowed it to develop into the cultural and literary center of Slavic Europe, as well as one of the largest states in Europe, during the period considered as the Golden Age of medieval Bulgarian culture. The autocephaly of the Bulgarian national church was recognized in 870, the first among the Slavs. Major event is the development of the Cyrillic script at the Preslav Literary School, declared official in 893, as also was declared the liturgy in Old Church Slavonic, also called Old Bulgarian. In 918/919 the Bulgarian Patriarchate became the first Slavic autocephalous Patriarchate, fifth in the Eastern Orthodox Church after the Four Ancient Patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. This status was officially recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 927.
The Psalter and the Book of Prophets were adapted or "modernized" with special regard to their use in Bulgarian churches, and it was in this school that glagolitic writing was replaced by the so-called Cyrillic writing, which was more akin to the Greek uncial, simplified matters considerably and is still used by the Orthodox Slavs.