|Formation||4 June 1992|
|Type||Economic cooperation organization|
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region. It traces its origin to 25 June 1992, when Turkish President Turgut Özal and leaders of ten other countries gathered in Istanbul and signed the Summit Declaration and the "Bosphorus Statement". BSEC Headquarters - the Permanent International Secretariat of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC PERMIS) - was established in March 1994, also in Istanbul.
With the entry into force of its Charter on 1 May 1999, BSEC acquired international legal identity and was transformed into a full-fledged regional economic organization: Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. With the accession of Serbia (then Serbia and Montenegro) in April 2004, the Organization's Member States increased to twelve. North Macedonia's accession in 2020 increased the organization's membership to thirteen.
An important aspect of the activities of BSEC is the development of SME and entrepreneurship in the member countries. Concerning these issues, a series of workshops have been organized in cooperation with Konrad Adenauer Foundation and ERENET.
As seen above, membership has not been restricted to countries which have access to the Black Sea: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, North Macedonia, Moldova, and Serbia do not have coastlines on the Black Sea, though the last two are connected through the Danube river corridor and Greece through the two sea straits.
North Macedonia's application was vetoed by Greece after Turkey vetoed the previous application of the Republic of Cyprus, prompting Greece to cease to approve future applications from any country. However, North Macedonia was admitted into the bloc on 9 November 2020.
Sectoral Dialogue Partner Countries:
Sectoral Dialogue Partner organizations:
Related bodies of BSEC carry out their functions due respect to the principles of BSEC defined in the Summit Declaration of 25 June 1992 and in the Charter. They have their own budget.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation based in Istanbul, is the inter-parliamentary consultative institution of the organization formed based on the Declaration on the Establishment of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation on February 26, 1993 by 9 founding states. Greece joined PABSEC in 1995, Bulgaria joined in 1997, and Serbia (former Serbia and Montenegro) joined in 2004.
Representatives of Parliaments of member countries pursue objectives which are stated in the preamble of the PABSEC Rules and Procedures: insure the understanding and adoption of the ideas and objectives of BSEC; provide a legal basis for social, economic, cultural, commercial and political cooperation among the member states; provide support to the national parliaments to reinforce the parliamentary democracy; pass the legislation required for the implementation of the decisions adopted by the Heads of States or by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs.
Main bodies of PABSEC are General Assembly, Standing Committee, the Bureau, Committees, the President, the Secretary General, and the International Secretariat.The Assembly is composed of 76 members. English, French, Russian and Turkish are the working languages of PABSEC.
The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization Business Council was formed in 1992 as an international, non-governmental and non-profit organization to strengthen the improvement of the business environment within Black Sea region. Business Council represents the business communities of member states. The International Secretariat of Business Council is based in Istanbul.
The Black Sea Trade and Development Bank (BSTDB) is an international financial institution that was formed 24 January 1997. It supports economic development and regional cooperation by providing trade and project financing, guarantees, and equity for development projects supporting both public and private enterprises in its member countries. Objectives of the bank include promoting regional trade links, cross country projects, foreign direct investment, supporting activities that contribute to sustainable development, with an emphasis on the generation of employment in the member countries, ensuring that each operation is economically and financially sound and contributes to the development of a market orientation. The organization has an authorized capital of $1.325 billion. The bank's headquarters are located in Thessaloniki, Greece.
BSTDB is governed by the Agreement Establishing Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, a United Nations registered treaty. Unlike the International Monetary Fund and others, the BSTDB does not attach policy conditions by which debtor states can be controlled. The Bank has a long term credit rating of 'A' from Moody's Investors Service and an 'A3' from Standard & Poor's, both with a stable outlook.
The International Center for Black Sea Studies is an independent think tank focused on the wider Black Sea region, which serves as a related body of BSEC at the same time. It was established in 1998.
The BSEC Coordination Center for the Exchange of Statistical Data and Economic Information was established with the aim to collect statistical and economic information, accomplish secretarial functions, coordinate obtained data and share it with member countries.
Member states are cooperating on different issues within the Working Groups. They are the following:
|Working Groups on||Country Coordinator||Term|
|Agriculture and Agro-Industry||Turkey||1 July 2019 - 30 June 2021|
|Banking and Finance||Russia||1 January 2020 - 31 December 2021|
|Combatting Crime||Romania||1 January 2018 - 31 December 2020|
|Culture||Turkey||1 January 2019 - 31 December 2020|
|Education||Russia||1 January 2020 - 31 December 2021|
|Emergency Assistance||Greece||1 July 2019 - 30 June 2020|
|Energy||Ukraine||1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019|
|Environmental Protection||Romania||1 January 2019 - 31 December 2020|
|Exchange of Statistical Data and Economic Information||pending|
|Healthcare and Pharmaceutics||Romania||1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020|
|Information and Communication Technologies||Bulgaria||1 January 2020 - 31 December 2021|
|Institutional Renewal and Good Governance||Romania||1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019|
|Science and Technology||Russia||1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020|
|SMEs||Russia||1 January 2020 - 31 December 2021|
|Tourism||Turkey||1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020|
|Trade and Economic Development||Turkey||1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020|
|Transport||Romania||1 July 2017 - 30 June 2019|
With the accession of Serbia and Montenegro in April 2004, the Organization's Member States increased to twelve.
In retaliation to Turkey's move to veto the application filed by the Greek Cypriot Administration, Greece opposed all BSEC membership applications in protest, including Montenegro's.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
Should Montenegro break away from the state union of Serbia and Montenegro, the international instruments pertaining to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, particularly UN SC Resolution 1244, would concern and apply in their entirety to Serbia as the successor.