Operation Product
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Operation Product

Operation Product
Part of the Indonesian National Revolution
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Militaire kolonne tijdens de eerste politionele actie TMnr 10029134.jpg
Dutch military column during Operation Product
Date21 July - 5 August 1947 (1947-07-21 - 1947-08-05)
Location
Result Dutch victory
Belligerents
 Indonesia  Netherlands
Commanders and leaders
Strength
~200,000 ~120,000

Operation Product was a Dutch military offensive against areas of Java and Sumatra controlled by the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution.[1][2] It took place between 21 July and 4 August 1947. Referred to by the Dutch as the first (of two) "Politionele acties". In Indonesia, the military offensive is more commonly known in history books and military records as Agresi Militer Belanda I (Dutch Military Aggression I).

The offensive was launched in violation of the Linggadjati Agreement between the Republic and the Netherlands. The offensive resulted in the Dutch reducing Republican-held areas to smaller areas of Java and Sumatra, split by Dutch-held areas.[1]

Background

Following Dutch assertions that Indonesia cooperated insufficiently in the implementation of the Linggadjati Agreement, which had been ratified on 25 March 1947 by the lower chamber of the Dutch parliament. This police action was also influenced by a Dutch perception that the Republic had failed to curb the influence of Indonesian Chinese, Indonesian Indians and the rising Indonesian Communist Party.[3]

The 100,000 inactive Dutch soldiers in Java was a significant financial burden on the Netherlands after the ravages of World War II.[4] By May 1947, the Dutch had decided they needed to directly attack the Republic to access commodities in Republican-held areas, in particular sugar in Java and oil and rubber in Sumatra. The Dutch military estimated they would need two weeks to secure Republican-held cities and six months for the whole of the Republican territory.[4] The offensive was intended to not include an attack on Yogyakarta, seat of the Republican government, due to high expected costs of fighting there.[]

Offensive

On 21 July, the Dutch deployed three divisions in Java and three brigades in less-densely populated Sumatra. The operation resulted in the occupation of large parts of Java and Sumatra, with the Republican army (TNI) offering only weak resistance.[5]

Nevertheless, the TNI and its allies continued to conduct guerilla operations from the hills in Dutch-controlled territory. The Dutch retaliated with air strikes and a blockade of Republican-held areas. However, the Dutch were held back from full conquest of the Republic because of pressure from the UN Security Council, and by the United States, who were calling for a ceasefire.[6]

Aftermath

Despite the government of the State of East Indonesia expressing support for the Dutch action,[7] international pressure led to a ceasefire in January 1948 followed by a formal armistice. As a consequence, what was previously considered to be an internal Dutch affair now took on an international dimension. The Renville Agreement, as the armistice was called, stipulated the withdrawal of Indonesian forces from Dutch-occupied territory and the establishment of a ceasefire boundary known as the Van Mook Line.[8] After some time, however, the Indonesian military, secretly, returned and began guerrilla operations against the Dutch. This led, eventually, to the second major Dutch offensive, called Operatie Kraai.[9]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Vickers (2005), p. 99
  2. ^ Cribb 2000, p. 156.
  3. ^ Kahin (2003), p. 27
  4. ^ a b Ricklefs (1991), p. 225
  5. ^ Jackson (2008), p. 23
  6. ^ Spruyt (2005), p. 150
  7. ^ Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung 1996, p. 264.
  8. ^ Kahin (2003), p.29
  9. ^ Agressi II: Operatie Kraai. De vergeten beelden van de tweede politionele actie. Orig. edn. - ZWEERS, L Archived 8 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine

Bibliography

  • Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung (1996) [1995]. From the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Towards the Establishment of the United States of Indonesia. Translated by Owens, Linda. Yayasan Obor. ISBN 979-461-216-2.
  • Cribb, Robert (2000). Historical Atlas of Indonesia. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0985-1.
  • Jackson, Robert (2008). Modern Military Aircraft in Combat. London: Amber Books.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300. San Francisco: Stanford University Press.
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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