Open Back Unrounded Vowel
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Open Back Unrounded Vowel
Open back unrounded vowel
?
IPA Number305
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɑ
Unicode (hex)U+0251
X-SAMPAA
Braille? (braille pattern dots-16)
Audio sample

The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is A. The letter ⟨?⟩ is called script a because it lacks the extra hook on top of a printed letter a, which corresponds to a different vowel, the open front unrounded vowel. Script a, which has its linear stroke on the bottom right, should not be confused with turned script a, ?, which has its linear stroke on the top left and corresponds to a rounded version of this vowel, the open back rounded vowel.

In some languages (such as Azerbaijani, Estonian, Luxembourgish and Toda)[2][3][4][5] there is the near-open back unrounded vowel (a sound between cardinal [?] and ), which can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩.

The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels.[6] This is extremely unusual.

Features

  • Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned far from the roof of the mouth - that is, low in the mouth.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[7] daar [d?:r] 'there' The quality varies between open near-back unrounded [:], open back unrounded [?:] and even open back rounded .[7] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Standard[8] ? [t'wi:l] 'tall' Allophone of long and short /a/ near emphatic consonants, depending on the speaker's accent. See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[8] ??? [h?t?s?] 'bread'
Azerbaijani[2] qarda? [?'d?] 'brother' Near-open.[2]
Bashkir ??? / qað 'goose'
Catalan Many dialects[9] pal ['p] 'stick' Allophone of /a/ in contact with velar consonants.[9] See Catalan phonology
Some dialects[10][11] mà ['m?] 'hand' More central ([], ) in other dialects; fully front in Majorcan Catalan.[11]
Some Valencian and Majorcan speakers[9] lloc ['k] 'place' Unrounded allophone of /?/ in some accents.[9] Can be centralized.
Some southern Valencian speakers[12] bou ['b?w] 'bull' Pronunciation of the vowel /?/ before [w].[12] Can be centralized.
Chinese Mandarin[13] ? / bàng 'stick' Allophone of /a/ before /?/.[13] See Standard Chinese phonology
Dutch Standard[14][15] bad [b?t] 'bath' Backness varies among dialects; in the Standard Northern accent it is fully back.[16][14] In the Standard Belgian accent it is raised and fronted to [].[15] See Dutch phonology
Leiden[16] [bt] Near-open fully back; can be rounded instead.[16] See Dutch phonology
Rotterdam[16]
Amsterdam[17] aap [?:p] 'monkey' Corresponds to [a: ~ ä:] in standard Dutch.
Antwerp[18]
Utrecht[18]
The Hague[19] nauw [n?:] 'narrow' Corresponds to [?u] in standard Dutch.
English Cardiff[20] hot [ht] 'hot' Somewhat raised and fronted.[20][21]
Norfolk[21]
General American[22] [h?t] May be more front [ ~ ä], especially in accents without the cot-caught merger. See English phonology
Cockney[23] bath [b?:?] 'bath' Fully back. It can be more front [:] instead.
General South African[24] Fully back. Broad varieties usually produce a rounded vowel [?: ~ ?:] instead, while Cultivated SAE prefers a more front vowel [: ~ ä:]. See South African English phonology
Cultivated
South African[25]
[b:?] Typically more front than cardinal [?]. It may be as front as in some Cultivated South African and southern English speakers. See English phonology and South African English phonology
Received Pronunciation[26]
Non-local Dublin[27] back [b?q] 'back' Allophone of /a/ before velars for some speakers.[27]
Estonian[3] vale ['vle] 'wrong' Near-open.[3] See Estonian phonology
Faroese Some dialects[28] vátur ['v?:t] 'water' Corresponds to // in standard language.[28] See Faroese phonology
Finnish[29] kana ['kn] 'hen' Near-open,[29] also described as open central .[30] See Finnish phonology
French Conservative Parisian[31][32] pas [p?] 'not' Contrasts with , but many speakers have only one open vowel .[33] See French phonology
Quebec[34] pâte [p?:t] 'paste' Contrasts with .[34] See Quebec French phonology
Galician[35][36] irmán [i?'m] 'brother' Allophone of /a/ in contact with velar consonants.[35][36] See Galician phonology
Georgian[37] ? / guda [k?ud] 'leather bag' Usually not fully back [?], typically [] to [ä].[38] Sometimes transcribed as /a/.
German Standard[39] Gourmand [?'m:] 'gourmand' Nasalized; often realized as rounded .[40] See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[41] nah [n?:] 'near' Used by speakers in Northern Germany, East Central Germany, Franconia and Switzerland.[41] Also a part of the Standard Austrian accent.[42] More front in other accents. See Standard German phonology
Greek Sfakian[43] [example needed] Corresponds to central [ä ~ ?] in Modern Standard Greek.[44][45] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian Some dialects[46] magyar ['mr] 'Hungarian' Weakly rounded in standard Hungarian.[47] See Hungarian phonology
Inuit West Greenlandic[48] [example needed] Allophone of /a/ before and especially between uvulars.[48] See Inuit phonology
Italian Some Piedmont dialects casa ['k?:z?] 'house' Allophone of /a/ which in Italian is largely realised as central [ä].
Kaingang[49] [] 'land, soil' Varies between back [?] and central .[50]
Limburgish[51][52][53] bats [bts] 'buttock' The quality varies between open back [?],[51] open near-back [][52] and near-open near-back [][53] (illustrated in the example word, which is from the Maastrichtian dialect), depending on the dialect.
Low German[54] al / aal [?:l] 'all' Backness may vary among dialects.[54]
Luxembourgish[4] Kapp [kp] 'head' Near-open fully back.[4] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay Kedah dialect[55] mata [mat?] 'eye' See Malay phonology
Norwegian[56][57] hat [h?:t] 'hate' The example word is from Urban East Norwegian. Central in some other dialects.[56][57][58] See Norwegian phonology
Russian[59] ?? ['pk?] 'stick' Occurs only before the hard /l/, but not when a palatalized consonant precedes. See Russian phonology
Sema[60] amqa [à?mq] 'lower back' Possible realization of /a/ after uvular stops.[60]
Swedish Some dialects j?g [j?:?] 'I' Weakly rounded in Central Standard Swedish.[61] See Swedish phonology
Toda[5] [orthographic
form needed
]
[:n] 'elephant' Near-open.[5]
Turkish[62] at [?t?] 'horse' Also described as central .[63] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[64] ?? ['m?t?] 'mother' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese Some dialects in North Central and Central gà [?] 'chicken' See [65][66]
West Frisian Standard[67] lang [] 'long' Also described as central .[68] See West Frisian phonology
Aastersk[69] maat [m?:t] 'mate' Contrasts with a front .[69] See West Frisian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b c Mokari & Werner (2016), p. 509.
  3. ^ a b c Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  4. ^ a b c Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  5. ^ a b c Shalev, Ladefoged & Bhaskararao (1993), p. 92.
  6. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  7. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded low-central vowel /a/".
  8. ^ a b Thelwall & Sa'Adeddin (1990), p. 39.
  9. ^ a b c d Saborit (2009), p. 10.
  10. ^ Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  11. ^ a b Recasens (1996), pp. 90-92.
  12. ^ a b Recasens (1996), pp. 131-132.
  13. ^ a b Mou (2006), p. 65.
  14. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  15. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  16. ^ a b c d Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  17. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 78, 104, 133.
  18. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 104, 133.
  19. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  20. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  21. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  22. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  23. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  24. ^ Lass (2002), p. 117.
  25. ^ Lass (2002), p. 116-117.
  26. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  27. ^ a b "Glossary". Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ a b Árnason (2011), pp. 69, 79.
  29. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  30. ^ Maddieson (1984), cited in Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  31. ^ Ashby (2011), p. 100.
  32. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), pp. 225-227.
  33. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), pp. 226-227.
  34. ^ a b Walker (1984), p. 53.
  35. ^ a b Regueira (1996), p. 122.
  36. ^ a b Freixeiro Mato (2006), pp. 72-73.
  37. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261-262.
  38. ^ Aronson, Howard (1990), Georgian: A Reading Grammar (2nd ed.), Columbus, OH: Slavica
  39. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 38.
  40. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 38.
  41. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  42. ^ Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), pp. 342-344.
  43. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83-84.
  44. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  45. ^ Arvaniti (2007), pp. 25, 28.
  46. ^ Vago (1980), p. 1.
  47. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  48. ^ a b Fortescue (1990), p. 317.
  49. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676-677, 682.
  50. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  51. ^ a b Peters (2006), p. 119.
  52. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  53. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  54. ^ a b Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  55. ^ Zaharani Ahmad (1991).
  56. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16-17.
  57. ^ a b Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 4.
  58. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 16-17.
  59. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 50.
  60. ^ a b Teo (2014), p. 28.
  61. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  62. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  63. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  64. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  65. ^ Ph?m, Andrea Hòa (2014). "Ngôn ng? bi?n i và s? ph?n c?a nguyên âm /a/ trong gi?ng Qu?ng Nam [Issues in Language change and the phonemic status of /a/ in the Quang Nam dialect]" (PDF). T?p chí Ngôn ng? (Journal of Vietnamese Linguistics). 6: 10-18.
  66. ^ Ph?m, Andrea Hòa (2016). "S? bi?n âm trong v?n ti?ng Vi?t: th? ng? làng H?n, huy?n c Th?, t?nh Hà T?nh [Sound change in Vietnamese rhymes: the dialect of H?n Village of c Th? District, Hà T?nh Province]" (PDF). T?p Chí Ngôn Ng? H?c (Journal of Vietnamese Linguistics). 11: 7-28.
  67. ^ de Haan (2010), p. 333.
  68. ^ Visser (1997), p. 14.
  69. ^ a b van der Veen (2001), p. 102.

References

External links


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