Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
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Open-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
Open-mid front unrounded vowel
?
IPA Number303
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɛ
Unicode (hex)U+025B
X-SAMPAE
Braille? (braille pattern dots-345)
Audio sample

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ⟨?⟩.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic See Im?la
Armenian Eastern[2] ?? [?d] 'page'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩.[3]
Bengali[4] ?? [?k] 'one' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] ??? [p?t?] 'five' See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[6] [orthographic
form needed
]
[m?] 'mother'
Catalan[7] mel [m] 'honey' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[8] ? / ti?n 'sky' Height varies between mid and open depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
Czech[9][10] led [l?t] 'ice' In Bohemian Czech, this vowel varies between open-mid front [?], open-mid near-front [] and mid near-front .[9] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[11][12] frisk ['fs] 'fresh' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[13] bed 'bed' See Dutch phonology
The Hague[14] jij 'you' Corresponds to [?i] in standard Dutch.
English General American[15] bed 'bed'
Northern England[16] May be somewhat lowered.[16]
Received Pronunciation[17][18] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel . See English phonology
Scottish[19]
Cockney[20] fat [f?t] 'fat'
Singaporean[21]
New Zealand[22] See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad
South African speakers[23]
Other speakers realize this vowel as or . See South African English phonology
Belfast[24] days [d?:z] 'days' Pronounced [i?] in closed syllables; corresponds to [e?] in RP.
Zulu[25] mate [m?t] 'mate' Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Faroese[26] frekt [fkt] 'greedy' See Faroese phonology
French[27][28] bête 'beast' See French phonology
Galician ferro ['f?ro?] 'iron' See Galician phonology
Georgian[29] ? [di] 'swan'
German Standard[30][31] Bett 'bed' Also described as mid .[32] See Standard German phonology
Franconian accent[33] oder ['o:d?] 'or' Used instead of .[33] See Standard German phonology
Coastal Northern accents[33]
Swabian accent[34] fett [f?t] 'fat' Contrasts with the close-mid .[34] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[35] See [z:] 'lake' Close-mid in other accents; contrasts with the near-open .[36] See Standard German phonology
Italian[37] bene 'good' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[38] mbre ['?b] 'with'
Korean / maemi [m?:mi] 'cicada' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Kurmanji (Northern) hevde [h?vd?] 'seventeen' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) [h?vdæ]
Palewani (Southern) [h?vda]
Limburgish[39][40][41] crème [k:m] 'cream' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[42] serp [srp] 'sickle'
Luxembourgish[43] Stär [?t?:] 'star' Allophone of /e:/ before /?/.[43] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian[44][45] Standard ??? ['m?d?] 'honey' See Macedonian language § Vowels
Norwegian Sognamål[46] pest [pst] 'plague See Norwegian phonology
Polish[47] ten 'this one' (nom. m.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[48][49] meleca [me?'lk?] 'goo' Stressed vowel might be lower . The presence and use of other unstressed ?e? allophones, such as [e? e ? i ?], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[50] tempo ['tmpu] 'time' Timbre differences for nasalized vowels are mainly kept in European Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[51] vede ['ve] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[52] ? 'this' See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[53] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.
Slovene met [mt] 'throw' (n.) See Slovene phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[54] las madres [læ?: 'mæ?:ð:] 'the mothers' Corresponds to in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[54]
Swahili shule [?ul?] 'school'
Swedish Central Standard[55] ät [:t?] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted.[55] See Swedish phonology
Turkish[56][57] ülke [y?l?'c?] 'country' Allophone of /e/ described variously as "word-final"[56] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[57] See Turkish phonology
Twi ?y? 'it is good/fine' See Twi phonology
Ukrainian[58] ?? [d?n?] 'day' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[42][59] ?elo ['tl?] 'calf' See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[60] beppe ['b?p?] 'grandma' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[61] ?s [s?] 'leg'

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010), p. 222.
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  6. ^ Watkins (2001), pp. 292-293.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  8. ^ Lin (2007), p. 65.
  9. ^ a b Dankovi?ová (1999), p. 72.
  10. ^ ?imá?ková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  11. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  12. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  13. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  15. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  16. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  17. ^ Schmitt (2007), pp. 322-323.
  18. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved .
  19. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  20. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  21. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000).
  22. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  23. ^ Lanham (1967), p. 9.
  24. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved .CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  26. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  27. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  28. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  29. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261-262.
  30. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  31. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  32. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  33. ^ a b c Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 40.
  34. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  35. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  36. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  37. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  38. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676-677, 682.
  39. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  40. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  41. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  42. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 600.
  43. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  44. ^ Friedman (2001:10)
  45. ^ Lunt (1952:10-11)
  46. ^ Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  47. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  48. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  49. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica - Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira Archived 2014-12-15 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  51. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  52. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  53. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  54. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  55. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  56. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  57. ^ a b Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  58. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  59. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  60. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  61. ^ Bamgbo?e (1969), p. 166.

References

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External links


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Open-mid_front_unrounded_vowel
 



 



 
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