|Open-mid back unrounded vowel|
The open-mid back unrounded vowel or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital ⟨?⟩ without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as a "wedge", "caret" or "hat". In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel and in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.
|Catalan||Solsonès||tarda||['ta?ð:]||'afternoon'||Realization of final unstressed /?/|
|Danish||ånd||['?n?]||'spirit'||Also pronounced without the stress.
See Danish phonology.
|Emilian-Romagnol ||most Emilian dialects||Bulåggna||[bu'l:?]||'Bologna'||It corresponds to a sound between /?/ a /ä/; written ò in some spellings|
|English||Cape Town||lot||[l?t]||'lot'||It corresponds to a weakly rounded in all other South African dialects. See South African English phonology|
|Cardiff||thought||[:t]||'thought'||For some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology|
|General South African||no||[n?:]||'no'||May be a diphthong  instead. See South African English phonology|
|General American||gut||'gut'||In most dialects, fronted to , or fronted and lowered to . See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift|
|Inland Northern American|
|Northern East Anglian|
|Some Estuary English speakers|
|French||Picardy||alors||[a'l]||'so'||Corresponding to /?/ in standard French.|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||machen||['m?]||'to do'||Allophone of /?, ?:/ (which phonetically are central [?, ?:]) before and after /?, k?, k, ?, ?/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /?, ?/.|
|Haida||?waáay||[q?á:j]||'the rock'||Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /a:/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.|
|Irish||Ulster dialect||ola||[?l]||'oil'||See Irish phonology|
|Kaingang||[']||'mark'||Varies between back [?] and central .|
|Korean||? / neo||[n?]||'you'||See Korean phonology|
|Lillooet||[example needed]||Retracted counterpart of /?/.|
|Mah Meri||[example needed]||Allophone of /?/; can be mid central or close-mid back instead.|
|Nepali||/asal||[?s?l]||'good'||See Nepali phonology|
|O'odham||Pima||corresponds to [?] in Papago.|
|Russian||Standard Saint Petersburg||?/golová||['vä]||'head'||Corresponds to in standard Moscow pronunciation; occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology|
|Tamil||[example needed]||Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be or instead. See Tamil phonology|
Before World War II, the /?/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [?], which has since shifted forward towards (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reported his speech (southern British) as having an advanced back vowel  between his central /?/ and back /?/; however, he also reported that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel that approached cardinal . In American English varieties, such as in the West, the Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /?/ is an open-mid central . Truly backed variants of /?/ that are phonetically [?] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some of African-American English, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas. However, the letter ⟨?⟩ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants or . That may be because of both tradition and some other dialects retaining the older pronunciation.