Ondes Martenot
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Ondes Martenot
Ondes Martenot
Ondes martenot.jpg
An ondes Martenot (seventh generation model, 1975)
Dates 1928-present
Technical specifications
Polyphony none[1]
Oscillator vacuum tube
Synthesis type heterodyne
Input/output
Keyboard 1 or 2 x 35 note manuals (G2-F5)[]

The ondes martenot ( OHND mar-t?-NOH; French: [d ma?t?no], "Martenot waves") or ondes musicales ("musical waves") is an electronic musical instrument. It is played with a keyboard or by moving a ring along a wire, creating wavering, theremin-like sounds. A player of the ondes martenot is called an ondist.

One of the earliest electronic instruments, the ondes martenot was invented in 1928 by the French inventor Maurice Martenot. Martenot was inspired by the accidental overlaps of tones between military radio oscillators, and wanted to create an instrument with the expressiveness of the cello.

The instrument is used in more than 100 classical compositions. The French composer Olivier Messiaen used it in pieces such as his 1949 symphony Turangalîla-Symphonie, and his sister-in-law Jeanne Loriod was a celebrated player of the instrument. It appears in numerous film and television soundtracks, particularly science fiction and horror films. Jonny Greenwood of the English rock band Radiohead is credited with bringing the ondes to a larger modern audience. It has also been used by pop artists such as Daft Punk and Damon Albarn.

History

The ondes martenot (French for "martenot waves") is one of the earliest electronic instruments,[2][3][4] patented in the same year as another early electronic instrument, the theremin.[2] It was invented in 1928 by French cellist Maurice Martenot.[2] Martenot had been a radio operator during World War I, and developed the ondes martenot in an attempt to replicate the accidental overlaps of tones between military radio oscillators.[2] He hoped to bring musical expressivity associated with the cello to his new instrument.[5] He first demonstrated the ondes martenot on April 20, 1928,[6] performing Dimitrios Levidis's Poème symphonique at the Paris Opera.[7]

Units were manufactured individually to order.[6] Over the following years, Martenot produced several new models, introducing the ability produce vibrato by moving the keys from side to side, a feature adapted in the 1970s by some Yamaha GX-1 synthesisers.[3] According to the Guardian, "the most familiar model resembles a cross between an organ and a theremin".[2]

In 1983, Martenot's son created a new, digital[clarification needed] ondes martenot model; 44 went to a music school in Japan and rest to musicians.[8]Jonny Greenwood of the English rock band Radiohead purchased one of these instruments in the late 90s.[2] In 2000, Greenwood commissioned the synthesiser company Analog Systems to develop a new version of the ondes martenot as he was nervous about damaging his instrument on tour. The new version, the French Connection, replicates the ondes martenot controller, but does not generate sound; instead, it may be used to control an external oscillator.[3]

Sounds and technique

Au ruban playing technique

The ondes martenot is unique among electronic musical instruments in its methods of control.[9] The ondes martenot can be played with a metal ring worn on the right index finger. Sliding the ring along a wire produces "theremin-like" tones, generated by oscillations in vacuum tubes,[2] or transistors in later later models.[8][better source needed]

One of the earliest models of the instrument had a non-functioning simulacrum of a keyboard below the wire to indicate pitch.[10] This model also had a "black fingerguard" on a wire which could be used instead of the ring. It was held between the right thumb and index finger, which was played standing at a distance from the instrument. When played in this way, the drawer is removed from the instrument and placed on a bench next to the player. Maurice Martenot's pedagogical manual for the ondes martenot, written in 1931, offers instruction on both methods of playing.[11][a]

Later versions added a real 83-key keyboard;[10][12] the keys produce vibrato when wiggled from side to side.

A drawer to the left of the instrument allows manipulation of volume and timbre by the left hand.[b] Volume is controlled with a touch-sensitive glass "lozenge"; the harder the lozenge is pressed, the louder the volume.[2] Early models could produce only a few waveforms.[b] Later models can simultaneously generate sine, triangle, square, pulse waves, pink noise, and several waveforms unique to the instrument, all controlled by switches in a drawer.[2][13][14][better source needed]

Diffuseurs from left to right: Métallique, Palme, Principal and Résonance

Martenot produced three amplifiers for the instrument. One features a gong instead of a speaker cone, producing a metallic timbre. Another, the palm speaker, has a resonance chamber laced with strings tuned to all 12 semitones of an octave; when a note is played in tune, it resonates a particular string, producing chiming tones.[2][15]

According to the Guardian, the ondes martenot "can be as soothing and moving as a string quartet, but nerve-jangling when gleefully abused".[2] Greenwood described it as "a very accurate theremin that you have far more control of ... When it's played well, you can really emulate the voice."[15] The New York Times described its sound as a "haunting wail".[6]

Use

Classical music

Messiaen (pictured 1930), a notable composer of the ondes martenot

The ondes martenot is used in more than 100 classical compositions,[3] most notably by the French composer Olivier Messiaen. Messiaen first used it in Fête des Belles Eaux, for six ondes,[16] and went on to use it in several more works, including Trois Petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine and Saint-François d'Assise. For his Turangalîla-Symphonie, Messiaen used to create "shimmering, swooping musical effects".[6] Messiaen's widow, Yvonne Loriod-Messiaen, arranged and edited four unpublished Feuillets inedits for ondes martenot and piano which were published in 2001.[17]

Other composers who used the instrument include Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Edgard Varèse, Charles Koechlin, Florent Schmitt and Jacques Ibert.[6]

According to the New York Times, the ondes' most celebrated performer was the French musician Jeanne Loriod (1928 - 2001), who studied under Martenot at the Paris Conservatory. She performed internationally in more than 500 works, created 85 works for a sextet of ondes she formed in 1974, and wrote a three-volume book on the instrument, Technique de l'Onde Electronique Type Martenot.[6]

The English composer Hugh Davies estimated that more than 1,000 works had been composed for the ondes.[6]Jeanne Loriod estimated that there were 15 concertos and 300 pieces of chamber music.[6]

Popular music

Jonny Greenwood playing a 1980s student-model digital ondes martenot [8][18] (Glastonbury Festival 2010)

One of the first integrations of the ondes martenot into popular music was done in French chanson during the fifties and sixties. For example in some of Baudelaire's poems set to music by French singer Léo Ferré in his albums Les Fleurs du mal (1957)[19] and Léo Ferré chante Baudelaire (1967), or in popular dramatic lovesong Jacques Brel's "Ne me quitte pas" (1959).[20] During the seventies Beau Dommage and Harmonium, the two most popular musical groups of the Quebec musical scene, made extensive use of this instrument (introduced there by Marie Bernard) in each of their 1975 albums, respectively Où est passée la noce?[21] and Si on avait besoin d'une cinquième saison.[22]

Jonny Greenwood of the English rock band Radiohead is credited with bringing the ondes to a larger audience. He first used it on Radiohead's 2000 album Kid A, and it has appeared on Radiohead songs including "The National Anthem", "How to Disappear Completely", and "Where I End and You Begin".[10] Radiohead have performed versions of their songs "How to Disappear Completely" and "Weird Fishes / Arpeggi" using several ondes martenots.[2] On their fifth album, Amnesiac (2001), they used the ondes martenot's palm speaker to add a "halo of hazy reverberance" to Thom Yorke's vocals.[15] Greenwood also composed a piece for two ondes martenots, Smear.[23]

The ondes martenot was used by Bryan Ferry on the 1999 album As Time Goes By,[24] and by Joe Jackson on his 1988 soundtrack for Tucker: The Man and His Dream[25] and his 1994 album Night Music.[26] Ondes player Thomas Bloch toured in Tom Waits and Robert Wilson's show The Black Rider (2004-06)[27] and in Damon Albarn's opera "Monkey: Journey to the West" (2007-2013).[28] Bloch performed ondes martenot on the 2013 Daft Punk album Random Access Memories.[10]

Film and television

The ondes martenot has featured in many films, particularly science fiction or horror films.[10] In 1936 Adolphe Borchard used it in Sacha Guitry's Le roman d'un tricheur, played by Martenot's sister, Ginette.[29][better source needed] It was used by composer Brian Easdale in the ballet music for The Red Shoes.[30][better source needed] French composer Maurice Jarre introduced the ondes martenot to American cinema in his score for Lawrence of Arabia (1962).[31] The English composer Richard Rodney Bennett used it for scores for films including Billion Dollar Brain (1967) and Secret Ceremony (1968).[32]Elmer Bernstein learned about the ondes martenot through Bennet, and used it in scores for films including Heavy Metal,[33]Ghostbusters,[34][35]The Black Cauldron,[35] and My Left Foot.[35]

Director Lucille Had?ihalilovi? decided to use the instrument in her film Evolution (2015) as it "brings a certain melancholy, almost a human voice, and it instantly creates a particular atmosphere".[36] Other film scores that use the ondes martenot include A Passage to India, Amelie, Bodysong,[2]There Will Be Blood (2007) and Hugo (2011).[37]

The ondes martenot is the subject of the 2013 Quebec documentary Wavemakers.[38] It is used in a performance of Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time in an episode from the third season of the Amazon series Mozart in the Jungle, where a musician plays the ondes martenot to inmates on Rikers Island.[39][40]

The British composer Barry Gray studied the instrument with Martenot in Paris, and used it in his soundtracks for 1960s films including Fahrenheit 451, Dr Who and the Daleks, and Journey To The Far Side Of The Sun.[3] The ondes martenot is sometimes reported as having been used in the original Star Trek theme; in fact, the part was performed was a female vocalist.[2]

Legacy

In 2001, the New York Times described the ondes, along with other early electronic instruments such as the theremin, teleharmonium, trautonium, and orgatron, as part of "a futuristic electric music movement that never went remotely as far as its pioneers dreamed ... proponents of the new wired music delighted in making previously unimaginable noises".[6] The French classical musician Thomas Bloch said: "The ondes martenot is probably the most musical of all electric instruments ... Martenot was not only interested in sounds. He wanted to use electricity to increase and control the expression, the musicality. Everything is made by the musician in real time, including the control of the vibrato, the intensity, and the attack. It is an important step in our electronic instrument lineage."[10]

According to music journalist Alex Ross, fewer than 100 people have mastered the instrument.[41] In 1997, Mark Singer wrote for The Wire that the ondes would likely remain obscure: ''The fact is that any instrument with no institutional grounding of second- and third-raters, no spectral army of amateurs, will wither and vanish: how can it not? Specialist virtuosos may arrive to tackle the one-off novelty ... but there's no meaningful level of entry at the ground floor, and, what's worse, no fallback possibility of rank careerism if things don't turn out.''[6]

In 2009, the Guardian reported that the last ondes martenot was manufactured in 1988, but that a new model was being manufactured.[2] In 2011, Sound on Sound wrote that original ondes martenot models were "all but impossible to obtain or afford, and unless you can stump up 12,000 Euros for one of Jean-Loup Dierstein's new reproduction instruments, the dream of owning a real Ondes is likely to remain such".[3] In 2017, the Japanese company Asaden began manufacturing the Ondomo, an instrument based on the ondes martenot.[42]

The ondes martenot's electronics are fragile, and it includes a powder which transfers electric currents, which Martenot would mix in different quantities according to musicians' specifications; the precise proportions are unknown. Attempts to construct new ondes martenot models using Martenot's original specifications have been mixed. [10]

Notes

  1. ^ Martenot (1931) pp. 39-40[11]
  2. ^ a b Martenot (1931) pp. 14-15[11]

References

  1. ^ Sibyl Marcuse, "Ondes Martenot", Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary, corrected edition (New York: W. W. Norton 7 Company, Inc., 1975): 377.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o McNamee, David (12 October 2009). "Hey, what's that sound: Ondes martenot". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Reid, Gordon (February 2002). "Analogue Systems French Connection". Sound on Sound. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ Ross, Alex (21 August 2001). "The Searchers: Radiohead's unquiet revolution". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  5. ^ Jean Laurendeau: Maurice Martenot: Luthier de l'Electronique (Dervy Livres, 1996)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Martin, Douglas (19 August 2001). "Jeanne Loriod, Who Transformed Electronic Wails Into Heartfelt Music, Dies at 73". New York Times. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "The Musical Times: Jeanne Loriod 1928-2001". 2009-12-26. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b c ONDES MUSICALES BY DIERSTEIN, Thomas Bloch, 2018
  9. ^ Loriod, 1987
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Battaglia, Andy (6 March 2014). "Ondes Martenot: An Introduction". Red Bull Music Academy. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Martenot, Maurice (1931). Methode pour l'enseignement des ondes musicales: instrument radio-électrique martenot [method for teaching the ondes martenot: martenot's radioelectric instrument] (in French). Paris: Alphonse Leduc. ISMN 979-0-04-617828-3.
  12. ^ "Détail du document ONDES MARTENOT". cité de la musique philharmonie de paris. 2018.
  13. ^ "TECHNICAL OVERVIEW: For composers". Estelle Lemire, Composer & Ondist.
  14. ^ THE ONDES MARTENOT, Thomas Bloch, 2018
  15. ^ a b c Reynolds, Simon (July 2001). "Walking on Thin Ice". The Wire. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 2007.
  16. ^ Hill, Peter; Simeone, Nigel (2005). Messiaen. Yale. pp. 74-75. ISBN 978-0-300-10907-8.
  17. ^ Bloch, p. 7.
  18. ^ Ondes Martenot, The King of Gear, 2013
  19. ^ Léo Ferré (10 Apr 2008) [reissue from 1957 album], Les Fleurs Du Mal (CD, Album, Remastered), La Mémoire Et La Mer, 19 956, Track 3. Les Hiboux, 10. La Vie Antérieure, 11. La Pipe'
  20. ^ Jacques Brel (Nov 1959), N° 4 (Vinyl, Album), Philips, B 76.483 R, Track A5. Ne Me Quitte Pas - Music By [Uncredited] - Gérard Jouannest, Ondes Martenot [Uncredited] - Sylvette Allart
  21. ^ Beau Dommage (1975), Où Est Passée La Noce? (Vinyl, Album), Capitol Records / EMI, SKAO 70.037, Track B1. En Pleine Face - ... Ondes Martenot - Marie Bernard ...
  22. ^ Harmonium (1975), Les Cinq Saisons (Vinyl, Album), Celebration, CEL-1900, Track B: Un Incident À Bois-Des-Filions - ... Ondes Martenot - Marie Bertrand, ..."
  23. ^ Jonny Greenwood's "smear" to Receive US Premiere at New York's SONiC Festival, Nonesuch Records, October 17, 2011, Greenwood's smear is scored for large ensemble and two ondes martenots, early electronic instruments that Greenwood often uses with Radiohead. ...
  24. ^ Bryan Ferry (1999), As Time Goes By (CD, Album), Virgin, DGVIR89, Credits: Ondes Martenot - Cynthia Millar
  25. ^ Joe Jackson (1988), Tucker: The Man And His Dream (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) (Vinyl, LP, Album), A&M Records, SP-3917, Credits: Ondes Martenot - Arlette Fibon
  26. ^ Joe Jackson (1988), Night Music (CD, Album), Virgin Records America, 7243 8 39880 2 0, Credits: Ondes Martenot - Jean Laurendeau (tracks: 1,10)
  27. ^ Robert Simonson (2004-09-09), Tom Waits' Black Rider Extends Again at ACT, Playbill.com, The score of The Black Rider calls for an eclectic pit of such instruments as the toy piano, the pocket trumpet, the Stroh violin, the Ondes Martenot, the glass harmonica, the Cristal Baschet, the drunk piano and the musical saw.
  28. ^ Ivan Hewett (23 Jun 2007), "A whole new aria for Damon", The Daily Telegraph, He shows me some of the instruments in the ensemble: there's a glass harmonica, which looks like a giant ribbed glass vase tipped on one side, and an ondes Martenot, the tremulous 1920s electronic instrument. ...
  29. ^ entry at imdb.com
  30. ^ "Brian Easdale at the Proms". www.powell-pressburger.org. Retrieved .
  31. ^ Mervyn Cooke (2008). A History of Film Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 333.
  32. ^ Ross Care and Lukas Kendall, "FSM Online Liner Notes" Film Score Monthly (n.d.).
  33. ^ Interview with Dan Goldwasser, originally published on SoundtrackNet, July 2000 Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Interview with Randall D. Larson, originally published in CinemaScore #13/14, 1985
  35. ^ a b c Bernstein biography from official site
  36. ^ "Evolution: Interview with Lucile Hadzihalilovicz". Electric Sheep. 2016-05-06. Retrieved .
  37. ^ Howard Shore, Hugo - Original Score, CD booklet, published by Paramount Pictures in the year 2011
  38. ^ Dunlevy, T'cha (13 March 2013). "Review: Le chant des Ondes". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2014.
  39. ^ "New Season of 'Mozart in the Jungle' Features a Unique Performance". WQXR. Retrieved .
  40. ^ "How 'Mozart in the Jungle' Brought an Obscure, Avant-Garde Piece of Classical Music to Rikers Island". Flavorwire. 2016-12-13. Retrieved .
  41. ^ Ross, Alex (21 August 2001). "The Searchers: Radiohead's unquiet revolution". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  42. ^ "Ondomo is revitalising a 90-year-old electronic instrument". Sound on Sound. 22 April 2017. Retrieved 2018.

Further reading


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