Old Anatolian Turkish
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Old Anatolian Turkish
Old Anatolian Turkish
Native toSultanate of Rum, Anatolian beyliks
EraArrived in Anatolia late 11th century. Developed into Early Ottoman Turkish c. 15th century[1]
Ottoman Turkish alphabet augmented with ?arak?t[1]
Official status
Official language in
Karamanid Dynasty flag.svg Beylik of Karaman[2]
Language codes
-
1ca Old Anatolian Turkish
GlottologNone

Old Anatolian Turkish[3] (OAT, Turkish: Eski Anadolu Türkçesi, EAT) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish. It was written in the Arabic script. Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used.[4]

It had no official status until 1277, when Mehmet I of Karaman declared a firman in order to break the supremacy, dominance and popularity of Persian:[5]

Examples

Following texts are excerpts of Qabus-Nama, taken from Turan Fikret's work: "Old Anatolian Turkish: Syntactic Structure" (1996):[7]

  • bizüm delilümüz: "Our proofs."
  • devletlü gi?iler: "Fortunate ones."
  • zinh?r zinh?r: "Never."
  • p?rlikde yigitlenmek rüsv?yl?qdur: "It is a shame to act like a young man in old age."
  • bulardan artan? beytü'l m?lda qoyalar: "They should put inpublic treasury that which remained from them."
  • birgün bu ilçiyile oturur iken Q?sri Büzürcmihre sorar: "One day when he was sitting with this [foreign] ambassador, Chosroes asked Büzürcmihr."
  • Kel?m-? mec?d: "The word of the most glorious (God), the Qoran."
  • dar'ül-harb: "Countries outside of the domain of Islam."
  • Ta?r? a?a ra?met itmez: "God does not forgive him."
  • arla? a?a?uz? ana?uz? egerçi k?firse daq?: "Respect your parents even if they are unbelievers."
  • Ne qul kim alam ?z?z olsun: "Every slave that I would buy should be freed"
  • ve c?hil gi?ileri gi?i sanma ve hünersüzleri bilür sayma: "And do not consider the ignorant ones the [real] men, and [do not consider] the untalented ones the knowledgeable ones."
  • zinh?r i?ü?i ?anmaqdan rlanma: "Beware, and do neverbe ashamed of learning your job."
  • sen yalan söyleyesi gi?i degülsin: "You are not person whowould lie."
  • artuq za?met çeküp artuq ?ama? eyleme: "Do not suffertrouble too much being too greedy."
  • eger sen Ta?r?ya mu olmayup bunlardan mul?q isteyüp bunlara za?met virür ise? Ta?r?l?q da?v?sin itmi? olurs?n: "If you yourself do not obey God and ask these people for obedience [for you] and oppres them, then you are considered assomeone pretending to be God."
  • ya?n? bir ?a?su? bir sarayda nabi olsa andan ol nabi ?atsa ne qadardur b?yi?y? mü?ter? bilmese Eb? ?an?feden üç riv?yetdür: "In other words, if someone has a share in a palace and then if he sells it without either seller or buyer knowing the exact value of it, then there are three traditions according to Abû ?anîfe."
  • benüm dostlarum beni yet sevdüklerinden ba?a ?aybum dimezler idi ve dü?m?nlarum benüm ?aybum? ?alqa söylerler idi: "Because my friends liked me very much they did not say my shortcomings to me, [but] my enemies told the peoplemy shortcomings."
  • ben eyittim sübn All?h q?rq iki yanda gi?i neçün ?öyle içekim nerdüb ayan nice uras?n bilmeye dü?e ve dün buçunda neçün ?öyle yörüye kim ?unu? gibi v?qaya u?raya: "I said 'O God why would a person of forty-two drink so much that he can not judge how to put this feet on the steps of a ladder, so he falls, and also why would he walk like that in the middle of the night that he experiences such an incident."

Orthography

Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish
(Kamus-? Türkî spelling)
Modern Turkish English
Gözler "Eyes"
? Dede "Grandfather"
? Küçük "Little"

Alphabet

Letter Modern Turkish Letter Modern Turkish
? a, e, i ? s
? b ? d
? p ? t
? t ? z
? s ? a
? c ? ?, g
? ç ? f
? h ? k
? h ? k
? d ? l
? d, z ? m
? r ? n
? z ? o, ö, u, ü, v
? j ? h
? s la, le
? ? ? i, y, ?

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Old Anatolian Turkish at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ "Kim Kimdir?� Biyografi Bankas� - FORSNET". Kimkimdir.gen.tr. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Excerpt from Britannica Entry "..so-called Old Anatolian Turkish.."
  4. ^ Ergin, Muharrem, Osmanl?ca Dersleri, BO?AZ?Ç? YAYINLARI, ISBN 975-451-053-9[page needed]
  5. ^ Yaz?c?, Tahsin (2010). "Persian authors of Asia Minor part 1". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Persian language and culture were actually so popular and dominant in this period that in the late 14th century, Mo?ammad (Me?med) Bey, the founder and the governing head of the Qaramanids, published an official edict to end this supremacy, saying that: "The Turkish language should be spoken in courts, palaces, and at official institutions from now on!"CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. ^ Culture and Tourism Ministry Karaman page (in Turkish) Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Mahsun Ats?z, (2020), A Syntactic Analysis on Gonbad Manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut, p. 190-196

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