Northeast Asia, North-East Asia or Northeastern Asia is a geographical subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of the ethno-cultural East Asia.
The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by an American historian and political scientist named Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Northeast China Plain, the Korean Peninsula and the mountainous regions of the Far East controlled by Russia, stretching from Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
The definition of Northeast Asia is not static but often changes according to the context in which it is discussed.
In common usage, the term Northeast Asia typically refers to a region including China. In this sense, the core countries constituting Northeast Asia are China, Japan, Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea and South Korea.
Broader definitions, such as that used by the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia. The Council on Foreign Relations includes Mongolia and the Russian Far East. The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong and Macau. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".
Despite not being culturally or ethnically East Asian, Russia is sometimes included in discussion as its political interests and policies clashes with those, in particular, of China, Japan, and the Koreas due to its control over the Russian Far East.
Northeast Asia is one of the most important economic regions of the world. It is also one of the major political centers and has significant influence on international affairs. By the end of the 1990s, Northeast Asia had a share of 12% of the global energy consumption, with a strong increasing trend. By 2030, the strong economic growth in the region is expected to double or triple this share.
In biogeography, Northeast Asia generally refers to roughly the area spanning Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, and the Far East between Lake Baikal in Central Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.