Location of North Sumatra in Indonesia
|Established||15 April 1948|
and largest city
|o Body||North Sumatra Provincial Government|
|o Governor||Edy Rahmayadi|
|o Vice Governor||Musa Rajekshah|
|o Total||72,981.23 km2 (28,178.21 sq mi)|
|Area rank||8th in Indonesia|
|Highest elevation||2,457 m (8,061 ft)|
|o Rank||4th in Indonesia|
|o Density||200/km2 (520/sq mi)|
|o Density rank||11th in Indonesia|
|o Religion (2016)||60.4% Islam|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||ID-SU|
|HDI rank||12th in Indonesia (2019)|
|GRP Nominal||$56.70 billion|
|GDP PPP (2019)||$185.33 billion|
|GDP rank||3rd in Indonesia (2019)|
|Nominal per capita||US$ 3,894 (2019)|
|PPP per capita||US$ 12,798 (2019)|
|Per capita rank||13th in Indonesia (2019)|
North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatra Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It consists of a large northwestern belt of the island of Sumatra and its capital is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most-populous province after West Java, East Java and Central Java — it covers an area of 72,981 sq.km, and at the Census of 2015 it had a population of 13,923,262; the latest official estimate as at mid 2019 is 14,639,400.
The last seafarers that made it to Sumatra were the Dutch. A government of North Sumatra named Gouvernement van Sumatra with the area covering the whole of the island of Sumatra, was headed by a governor who was based in the city of Medan.
After independence, the first session of the National Committee of Regions (KND), Sumatra was then divided into three sub-provinces namely North Sumatra, Central Sumatra and South Sumatra. North Sumatra province itself was an amalgamation of three administrative regions called Residencies namely: the Residency of Aceh, the East Sumatra Residency, and the Residency of Tapanuli.
With the publication of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia (R.I.) No. 10 Year 1948 on April 15, 1948, it was determined that Sumatra was divided into three provinces, each of which has the right to organize and manage their own household, namely: North Sumatra, Central Sumatra Province, and South Sumatra Province. The date of 15 April 1948 was subsequently determined as the anniversary of North Sumatra Province.
In early 1949, the reorganization of government took place in Sumatra, with the decision of the Government Emergency R.I. No. 22 / Govt / Emergency Government on May 17, 1949, which abolished the post of Governor of North Sumatra. Furthermore, the Government Emergency Decree R.I. on December 17, 1949, established the Province of Aceh and Tapanuli Province / East Sumatra. Then, with a Government Regulation in lieu of Law No. 5 Year 1950 on August 14, 1950, such provisions were lifted and reshaped North Sumatra Province.
Act R.I. No. 24 of 1956, promulgated on December 7, 1956, established an autonomous Aceh Province, independent of the Province of North Sumatra.
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca. It borders Aceh province on the northwest and Riau and West Sumatra provinces in the southeast. It has an area of 72,981 km². The province contains a broad, low plain along the Strait of Malacca on which the provincial capital, Medan, is located. In the south and west, the land rises to the mountain range that runs the length of Sumatra; the mountains here are dominated by Lake Toba, formed from the caldera of an ancient volcano. Several large islands in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra are currently part of North Sumatra, most notably Nias Island and the Batu Islands.
The Nias archipelago consists of the main island of that anme and other smaller islands in the vicinity, located off the coast of western Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. The administration center is located in Gunung Sitoli.
The Batu Islands consist of 51 islands including four major islands: Sibuasi, Pini, Tanahbala, Tanahmasa. Pulautelo is the administrative center on the island of Sibuasi. The Batu Islands are located to the southeast of the island of Nias. Other islands in the North Sumatra are Imanna, Pasu, Bawa, Hamutaia, Batumakalele, Lego, Masa, Bau, Simaleh, Makole, Jake, and Sigata, Wunga.
In North Sumatra, there are currently two national parks, the Gunung Leuser National Park and Batang Gadis National Park. According to the Ministerial Decree, No. 44 of 2005, the forest area in North Sumatra today covers 3,742,120 hectares (ha), which consist of a Natural Reserve Area / Natural Conservation Area covering an area of 477,070 ha, 1,297,330 ha of protected forest, limited production forest 879,270 ha, Permanent production forest 1,035,690 ha and production forest that can be converted covering 52 760 ha.
But this figure character is de jure alone. Because as a de facto , the existing forests is not covering it anymore. Happens a lot of damage due to encroachment and illegal logging. So far, over 206,000 ha of forest in Sumatra has experienced changes in function. Has been turned into plantations, transmigration. And of the total, as many as 163,000 ha of plantations and 42,900 ha for transmigration area.
The administrative center of North Sumatra is located in the city Medan, governed by a governor. Earlier, North Sumatra was included in a single Sumatra province when Indonesia became independent in 1945. In 1950, North Sumatra Province was formed including the former residencies of East Sumatra, Tapanuli, and Aceh. In 1956, Aceh split off to form a separate Aceh Province.
North Sumatra is currently subdivided into 25 regencies and 8 autonomous cities (formerly municipalities), listed below with their populations at the 1 May 2010 Census and the 1 May 2015 Intermediate Census, and the officially estimated populations as at 2018. these in turn are sub-divided into 325 districts, which in turn are further sub-divided into 5,456 villages.With proposals under consideration to create three new provinces from parts of the present North Sumatra, these regencies and cities are grouped below according to the putative new province in which they are situated:
|Gunungsitoli City||280.8||126,202||135,868||139,094||Gunungsitoli||0.693 (Medium)|
|Nias Regency||809.7||131,377||136,079||152,774||Gidó||0.616 (Medium)|
|North Nias Regency
|South Nias Regency #
|1,825.5||289,708||307,980||360,683||Teluk Dalam||0.615 (Medium)|
|West Nias Regency
|Dairi Regency||1,927.5||270,053||278,912||283,203||Sidikalang||0.714 (High)|
|Pakpak Bharat Regency||1,218.3||40,481||42,208||48,119||Salak||0.674 (Medium)|
|Samosir Regency||2,069.0||119,653||123,744||125,816||Pangururan||0.705 (High)|
|Toba Regency||2,328.8||173,129||179,600||182,673||Balige||0.749 (High)|
|North Tapanuli Regency
|Humbang Hasundutan Regency||2,335.3||171,650||182,804||188,480||Dolok Sanggul||0.688 (Medium)|
|Central Tapanuli Regency
|Sibolga City||41.3||84,481||86,499||87,317||Sibolga||0.734 (High)|
|South Tapanuli Regency
|Padang Sidempuan City||114.6||191,531||209,550||218,892||Padang Sidempuan||0.750 (High)|
|North Padang Lawas Regency
(Padang Lawas Utara)
|3,918.0||223,531||252,084||267,771||Gunung Tua||0.692 (Medium)|
|Padang Lawas Regency||3,892.8||225,259||257,473||275,515||Sibuhuan||0.681 (Medium)|
|Mandailing Natal Regency||6,134.0||404,945||430,485||443,490||Panyabungan||0.665 (Medium)|
|Langkat Regency||6,263.1||967,535||1,012,739||1,035,411||Stabat||0.707 (High)|
|Binjai City||59.2||246,154||264,440||273,892||Binjai||0.758 (High)|
|Deli Serdang Regency||2,241.6||1,790,431||2,025,533||2,155,625||Lubukpakam||0.754 (High)|
|Medan City||265.0||2,097,610||2,209,139||2,264,145||Medan||0.809 (Very High)|
|Karo Regency||2,126.7||350,960||388,969||409,675||Kabanjahe||0.742 (High)|
|Simalungun Regency||4,369.2||817,720||848,940||863,693||Raya||0.729 (High)|
|Pematangsiantar City||55.7||234,698||247,219||253,500||Pematangsiantar||0.785 (High)|
|Serdang Bedagai Regency||1,900.3||594,383||608,484||614,618||Sei Rampah||0.702 (High)|
|Tebing Tinggi City||31.0||145,248||156,619||162,581||Tebing Tinggi||0.750 (High)|
|Batubara Regency||922.2||375,885||400,406||412,992||Limapuluh||0.683 (Medium)|
|Asahan Regency||3,702.7||668,272||705,734||724,379||Kisaran||0.699 (Medium)|
|Tanjungbalai City||107.8||154,445||166,782||173,302||Tanjungbalai||0.685 (Medium)|
|North Labuhan Batu Regency
(Labuhan Batu Utara)
|3,571.0||330,701||350,783||360,926||Aek Kanopan||0.714 (High)|
|Labuhan Batu Regency||2,155.6||415,248||461,513||486,480||Rantau Prapat||0.719 (High)|
|South Labuhan Batu Regency
(Labuhan Batu Selatan)
|3595.9||277,673||313,343||332,922||Kota Pinang||0.713 (High)|
North Sumatra recorded a population of 12,985,075 in the 2010 national census, making the 4th most populous province in Indonesia, with a sex ratio of 99.59 men per 100 women. The 2015 Intermediate Census gave a total of 13,923,262, while the latest official estimate (for mid 2019) is 14,639,400.
North Sumatra is a multi-ethnic province. The Malay people are regarded as the native people of this province. The Javanese reside around Deli Serdang Regency, including Medan, while the west coast of the province is mainly inhabited by Pakpak, Mandailing and Minangkabau people. The central region around Lake Toba, is predominantly inhabited by Bataks. The Nias people reside mostly in Nias Island and the surrounding islands. With the opening of tobacco plantations in East Sumatra during the Dutch East Indies era, the colonial government employed many contract labourers for plantations. The newcomers were Chinese refugees, who were welcomed in Sumatra.
Bataks make up 44.95% out of the population, including Batak Karo and Mandailing. The Javanese come second with 30.62%, the Malays add up to 5.92% and the ethnic Chinese comprise 5.75%. Nias people make up around 4.10% and the rest are Minangkabau (2.66%), Acehnese (1.27%), ethnic Indian (0.80%) and other ethnic groups (1.15%)
In general, the widely used language is Indonesian. The Malays around Deli Serdang and Langkat mostly speak Malay language, which is similar to Peraknese Malay language. The Javanese people, especially around rural and plantation areas, use Javanese in daily conversation, while the urban Javanese mostly speak Indonesian.
The Batak people speak Bataknese, which is divided into four dialects (Silindung, Samosir, Humbang and Toba), while Batak Karo people use Karo language and the Batak Mandailing people around South Tapanauli, Padang Lawas and Mandailing Natal speak Mandailing language. Nias language is spoken among Nias people.
Mostly ethnic Chinese in North Sumatra are fluent in Hokkien with Zhangzhou dialect mixed with Malay/Bataknese/Indonesian words, while for Chinese around Labuhan Batu area using Quanzhou dialect that has similarity with Bagansiapiapi Hokkien. The small Teochew and Hainanese speakers are also exist. The ethnic Indian people in Medan speak Tamil with a some Punjabi speakers among Punjabis. The Acehnese people speak Aceh and Gayo language.
More than 95 percent out of all residents are either Muslim or Christian; the remainder are Buddhist, Hindus, or follow folk religions such as Confucian, Parmalim, and Taoist. These are the recognized religions of North Sumatra:
North Sumatra is rich in natural resources such as natural gas in the area of Tandam, Binjai and petroleum in Pangkalan Brandan, Langkat which has been explored since the days of the Dutch East Indies. Besides that, in Kuala Tanjung, Asahan, there are the company named PT Inalum (abbreviated of Indonesia Aluminium) that engaged in ore mining and smelting of aluminium which is the only one in Southeast Asia.
The rivers that disgorge in the mountains around Lake Toba is also a natural resource that is potential enough to be an exploited to resource of hydropower plants. Asahan hydropower which is the largest hydropower plant in Sumatra Island is located on Porsea in Toba Samosir Regency.
Moreover, in the mountains there are many geothermal hot spots were very likely to be developed as a source of thermal energy or steam that can then be transformed into electrical energy.
The province is famous for its plantation area, until now, the plantation economy of the province remains to be excellent. The plantations are managed by private companies and the state. SOE Plantation area is located in North Sumatra, among others PT Perkebunan Nusantara II (PTPN II), PTPN IV and PTPN III.
Besides North Sumatra is also famous for its plantation area. Until now, the plantation economy of the province remains to be excellent. The plantations are managed by private companies also the state. North Sumatra produces rubber, cocoa, tea, palm oil, coffee, cloves, coconut, cinnamon, and tobacco. The plantation is spread in East coast area such as Deli Serdang, Serdang Bedagai Langkat, Simalungun, Asahan, Labuhan Batu, and also around west coast: Central and South Tapanuli.
Sumatra Mandheling and Sumatra Lintong coffee beans are grown in North Sumatra and largely exported to the United States. Mandheling is named after the similarly spelt Mandailing people located in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The name is the result of a misunderstanding by the first foreign purchaser of the variety, and no coffee is actually produced in the "Mandailing region". Lintong on the other hand, is named after the Lintong district, also located in North Sumatra.
In addition to national banks, state banks and international banks, currently there are 61 units of Credited Peoples Banks (BPR) and 7 Credited Sharia Bank (BPRS). Data from Bank Indonesia showed, in January 2006, the Third Party Funds (TPF), which absorbed BPR reached Rp253,366,627,000 (around US$19 million) and loans reached Rp260.152.445.000 (around US$19.5 million). While assets reached Rp340,880,837,000 (US$25.5 million).
There are three leading mining company in North Sumatra:
North Sumatra has several industrial sites, mainly around Deli Serdang. Medan Industrial Area (Indonesian: Kawasan Industri Medan) stands for KIM is the main industrial complex in Medan.
Sei Mangkei Industrial Area, also known as Sei Mangkei - Integrated Sustainable Palm Oil Cluster (SM-ISPOIC), is located in Simalungun Regency and was formally opened on 12 June 2010. Four companies have joined in this area, with investment costs totaling up to Rp1.5 trillion ($176 million). In April 2011, three other companies also joined in the Sei Mangkei area. They are Procter & Gamble Co for making CPO derivatives of cosmetic raw materials, Ferrostaal AG and Fratelli Gianazza SpA.
North Sumatra export performance is likely to increase from year to year. In 2004 the foreign exchange earnings reached US$4.24 billion, up 57.72% from the previous year from the sector.
Coffee exports from North Sumatra reached a record high of 46.290 tonnes with Japan's main export destination countries during the last five years. Sumatra coffee exports also listed as the top 10 highest export products with a value of US$3.25 million or 47200.8 tons from January to October 2005.
Of the garment sector, garment exports tend to fall in January 2006. The results of special apparel industry down 42.59% from US$1,066,124 in 2005, to US$2,053 in 2006 in the same month.
Import export performance of some industrial products showed a decline. Namely furniture fell 22.83% from US$558,363 (2005) to US$202,630 (2006), plywood down 24.07 percent from US$19,771 to US$8,237, misteric acid down 27.89% from US$115,362 into US$291,201, stearic acid dropped 27.04% from US$792,910 to US$308,020, and soap noodles down 26% from US$689,025 to US$248,053.
Export performance of agricultural imports also decreased the essential oil dropped 18 percent from US$162,234 to US$773,023, seafood / shrimp, coconut oil and robusta coffee also dropped quite dramatically to 97 per cent. Some commodities were increased (a value of over US $ Million) is cocoa, horticulture, arabica coffee, palm oil, natural rubber, seafood (non shrimp). For the results of the molding industry, vehicle tires and rubber gloves.
North Sumatra considered as one of top tourism activities in Sumatra Island, just below Riau Islands. According to Ministry of Tourism, North Sumatra is included on top 10 visited province in Indonesia. There are various kind of tourism place that could be found throughout the province, Berastagi is the best known as hilly place with a cooler temperature as the whole province is in tropical region. Lake Toba also the hilly area included a largest volcanic lake with an island in the center. Nias Island and other several islands nearby named Batu Islands is the best place for surfing cause a good sea waves. The capital itself, Medan, has many places of interest, mainly on historical tourism. The city also known for its great and various cuisine. The list below is the most known places of interest in North Sumatra:
The modern Kualanamu International Airport was opened on July 25, 2013 and is located almost 40 kilometres from Medan. The airport replaces the old Polonia International Airport. It serves flights to several Indonesian and Malaysian cities, along with flights to Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. In passenger numbers, Kualanamu is the fifth largest airport in Indonesia.
Other airports in North Sumatra are:
In North Sumatra, there is 2098.05 kilometres down a state-road, which pertained only steady 1095.70 kilometres or 52.22 percent and 418.60 kilometres or 19.95 percent in a state of being, remaining in a state of disrepair. While of 2752.41 kilometres of provincial roads, which is in a state of steady length 1237.60 kilometres or 44.96 per cent, while in a state of being 558.46 kilometres, or 20.29 percent. As damaged roads length 410.40 kilometres, or 14.91 percent, and the damaged length 545.95 kilometres, or 19.84 percent.
There are 28 km toll road in named as Belmera Toll Road in Medan, connecting from Belawan to Tanjungmorawa, passing east side of the city, the government also on going to built a 62 km Medan-Kualanamu-Tebing Tinggi Toll Road and 17 km Medan-Binjai Toll Road. A project to built toll road from Tebing Tinggi to Parapat and also from Tebing Tinggi to Kisaran also in proportion.
Regional Division I North Sumatra and Aceh or Divre I is regional railway from Aceh to North Sumatra operated by Kereta Api Indonesia, but only in-operation railway are from Binjai to Medan (Sri Lelawangsa), Medan to Pematangsiantar (Siantar Express), Medan to Tanjungbalai (Putri Deli) and Medan to Rantau Parapat (Sribilah), there are an underconstruction rail way to Banda Aceh in Aceh province also to Pekanbaru, Riau province. Medan also has it first airport rail link in Indonesia, called Kualanamu Airport Rail Link. It connects the city to Kualanamu Airport.