Norilsk Golgotha, a memorial to Gulag prisoners who labored at Norilsk
Norilsk Center, Leninsky Prospekt
|Federal subject||Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|City status since||1953|
|o Total||23.16 km2 (8.94 sq mi)|
|Elevation||90 m (300 ft)|
| o Estimate |
|o Rank||102nd in 2010|
|o Density||7,600/km2 (20,000/sq mi)|
|o Subordinated to||krai city of Norilsk|
|o Capital of||krai city of Norilsk|
|o Urban okrug||Norilsk Urban Okrug|
|o Capital of||Norilsk Urban Okrug|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (MSK+4 )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3919|
Norilsk (Russian: , IPA: [n?'r?il?sk]) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula. It has a permanent population of 175,000. With temporary inhabitants included, its population reaches 220,000.
It is the world's northernmost city with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the second-largest city (after Murmansk) inside the Arctic Circle. Norilsk and Yakutsk are the only large cities in the continuous permafrost zone.
The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are the largest-known nickel-copper-palladium deposits in the world. The smelting of the nickel ore is directly responsible for severe pollution, which generally comes in the form of acid rain and smog. By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide emission comes from Norilsk's nickel mines.
Norilsk was founded at the end of the 1920s, but the official date of founding is traditionally 1935, when Norilsk was expanded as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex and became the center of the Norillag system of Gulag labor camps. It was granted urban-type settlement status in 1939 and town status in 1953.
Norilsk is located between the West Siberian Plain and Central Siberian Plateau at the foot of the 1,700-meter-high (5,600 ft) Putoran Mountains, on some of the largest nickel deposits on Earth. Consequently, mining and smelting ore are the major industries. Norilsk is the center of a region where nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium and coal are mined. Mineral deposits in the Siberian Craton had been known for two centuries before Norilsk was founded, but mining began only in 1939, when the buried portions of the Norilsk-Talnakh intrusions were found beneath mountainous terrain.
Talnakh is the major mine/enrichment site now from where an enriched ore emulsion is pumped to Norilsk metallurgy plants.
To support the new city, the Norilsk railway to the port of Dudinka on the Yenisei River was established, first as a narrow-gauge line (winter 1935-36), later as Russian standard gauge line (completed in the early 1950s). From Dudinka, enriched nickel and copper are transported to Murmansk by sea and, then, to the Monchegorsk enrichment and smelting plant on the Kola Peninsula, while more precious content goes up the river to Krasnoyarsk. This transportation takes place only during the summer. The port of Dudinka is closed and dismantled during spring's ice barrier floods of up to 20 meters (66 ft) in late May (a typical spring occurrence on all Siberian rivers).
In the early 1950s, the Salekhard-Igarka Railway was under construction from the European coal city Vorkuta via the Salekhard/Ob River, and Norilsk got a spacious railway station built in the expectation of train service to Moscow, but construction stopped after Joseph Stalin died.
According to the archives of Norillag, 16,806 prisoners died in Norilsk under the conditions of forced labor, starvation and intense cold during the existence of the camp (1935-1956). Fatalities were especially high during World War II from 1942-44 when food supplies were particularly scarce. Prisoners organized the non-violent Norilsk uprising in 1953. An unknown, yet significant number of prisoners continued to serve and die in the mines until around 1979. Norilsk-Talnakh continues to be a dangerous mine to work in. According to the mining company, there were 2.4 accidents per thousand workers in 2005. In 2017, Norilsk Nickel claimed that it had reduced its overall lost time injury frequency rate by almost 60% since 2013.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlement of Snezhnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, incorporated as the krai city of Norilsk--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the krai city of Norilsk is incorporated as Norilsk Urban Okrug.
The population of Norilsk is  after the fall of the USSR, its population went down by 40,000, but this was offset by the subsequent merger of the towns of Kayerkan and Talnakh into Norilsk, maintaining a permanent population of 175,000. Including temporary residents, the population reaches 220,000 people.
Life expectancy for local residents is about ten years less than average Russian life expectancy.
Christianity is the main religion in Norilsk. There is a Russian Orthodox cathedral, several Russian Orthodox churches and a Ukrainian Orthodox church. There is a mosque in Norilsk. Built in 1998 and belonging to the local Tatar community, it is considered to be the northernmost Muslim prayer house in the world.
Norilsk is the world's northernmost city with more than 100,000 inhabitants and the second-largest city (after Murmansk) inside the Arctic Circle. Norilsk, Yakutsk and Vorkuta are the only large cities in the continuous permafrost zone. It lies between Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District to the north, and Turukhansky District to the south.
Despite being located inside the Arctic Circle, Norilsk has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) with very long, severely cold winters and very short, mild summers. It is covered with snow for about 250-270 days a year, with snow storms for about 110-130 days. The midnight sun is above the horizon from 21 May to 24 July (65 days), and the period when the sun does not rise, polar night, is from approximately 30 November to 13 January (45 days). Temperatures can sometimes rise above 25 °C (77 °F) in July. Much of the surrounding areas are naturally treeless tundra. Only a few trees exist in Norilsk.
|Climate data for Norilsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||-3.0
|Average high °C (°F)||-23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-26.9
|Average low °C (°F)||-30.7
|Record low °C (°F)||-53.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||24
|Average precipitation days||11.7||10.9||14.0||13.9||15.7||14.0||13.4||15.9||16.3||18.5||13.7||13.6||171.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||0||28||155||240||248||240||310||186||90||62||0||0||1,559|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||0||1||5||8||8||8||10||6||3||2||0||0||4|
|Source: Weatherbase  MeteoBlue  Weather Atlas  The Siberian Times |
The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are the largest-known nickel-copper-palladium deposits in the world. The deposit was formed 250 million years ago during the eruption of the Siberian Traps igneous province (STIP). The STIP erupted over one million cubic kilometers of lava, a large portion of it through a series of flat-lying lava conduits below Norilsk and the Talnakh Mountains.
The current resource known for these mineralized intrusion exceeds 1.8 billion tons.
Nickel ore is smelted at the company's processing site at Norilsk. This smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, which generally comes in the form of acid rain and smog. By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide emission comes from Norilsk's nickel mines.Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it has now become economically feasible to mine surface soil, as the soil has acquired such high concentrations of platinum and palladium.
The Blacksmith Institute once included Norilsk in its list of the ten most polluted places on Earth. The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137 and the metals nickel, copper, cobalt, lead and selenium; and by gases (such as nitrogen and carbon oxides, sulfur dioxide, phenols and hydrogen sulfide). The Institute estimates four million tons of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, arsenic, selenium and zinc are released into the air every year.
Russia's Federal State Statistics Service lists Norilsk as the most polluted city in Russia. In 2017, Norilsk produced 1.798 million tonnes of carbon pollutants -- nearly six times more than the 304.6 thousand tonnes that was generated by Russia's second-most polluted city, Cherepovets. Norilsk, the report states, decontaminates almost half of its emissions.
According to an April 2007 BBC News report, Norilsk Nickel accepted personal responsibility for what had happened to the forests, and insisted that the company was implementing measures to reduce pollution. In 2016, company chairman Vladimir Potanin admitted that its biggest problem was environmental.
In 2017, Norilsk Nickel announced that it had invested $14 billion in a major development programme aimed at reducing sulfur dioxide emissions in Norilsk by 75% by 2023, compared to 2015 as a base year. One of the bigger steps taken to combat pollution was the closure of Nornickel's old smelter in Norilsk, the main source of SO2 emissions within the city boundaries since 1942.
"Nornickel on the Kola Peninsula" (PDF). network.bellona.org. 2018. Retrieved 2019. Norilsk Nickel has stated that the total emissions of its Russian operations was 6% lower in 2016 than in 2015, primarily due to the shutdown of the smelter. The company's environmental programme also includes an upgrade of the Talnakh Concentrator, to increase sulphur disposal to tailings, and the construction of recycling units to extract sulphur dioxide from waste gases at Nadezhda Metallurgical Plant and Copper Plant.
In September 2016, images surfaced on social media of the nearby Daldykan River, which had turned red. Russia's Environment Ministry issued a statement claiming that preliminary evidence pointed towards Nornickel-owned wastewater pipes from a nearby smelting plant as the source of the contamination. The company referred to intense rainfall and insisted that the incident of sedimentary colouring was of no danger to people or wildlife. The smelting plant, the company said then, was in the process of being modernized.
The city is served by Alykel Airport and Valek Airport. There is a freight-only railway, the Norilsk railway between Norilsk and the port of Dudinka. There is a road network around Norilsk (such as the A-382 which links to Dudinka and Norilsk Alykel Airport), but no road or railway to the rest of Russia. In essence, Norilsk and Dudinka function like an island. Freight transport is by boat on the Arctic Ocean or on the Yenisei River.
For a while, the internet was only available via a slow satellite connection. However, a 957 km communications cable was laid along the Yenisei River towards Krasnoyarsk, with the work finishing in 2017.
Norilsk has a history museum and an art gallery, the Norilsk Polar Drama Theater, a cultural center, a sports and entertainment complex, and many monuments and historical buildings.
Norilsk Golgotha, a memorial to Gulag prisoners who labored at Norilsk
Norilsk is twinned with: