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Ni%C5%A1
Ni?

?
Grad Ni?
City of Ni?
Panorama Nisa.JPG
Church in Ni?.IMG 3832.jpg
Bubanj-Pesnice 7.jpg
?egar spomenik.JPG
Ni?ava River, Ni?, Serbia.jpg
Palata pravde Nis.jpg
Ni?ka tvr?ava, Ni?, Srbija, 013.JPG
Zgrada Banovine u Nisu.JPG
From top: Panoramic view of Ni?, Church of the Holy Emperor Constantine and Empress Helena, Bubanj Memorial Park, Monument on ?egar, Ni?ava river, Ni? Courthouse, Ni? Fortress, University of Ni?
Nickname(s): 
"Second capital"[1]
Ni? is located in Serbia
Ni?
Ni?
Location of the city of Ni? within Serbia and Europe
Ni? is located in Europe
Ni?
Ni?
Ni? (Europe)
Coordinates: 43°19?09?N 21°53?46?E / 43.31917°N 21.89611°E / 43.31917; 21.89611
Country Serbia
RegionSouthern and Eastern Serbia
DistrictNi?ava
Municipalities5
First mention2nd century AD
Liberation from Ottomans11 January 1878
Government
 o MayorDarko Bulatovi? (SNS)
 o Ruling partiesSNS/ SPS/ SRS
 o LegislatureCity Assembly of Ni?
Area
Area rank51st in Serbia
 o Urban266.77 km2 (103.00 sq mi)
 o Administrative596.41 km2 (230.28 sq mi)
Elevation
195 m (640 ft)
Population
(2011)[4]
 o Rank3rd in Serbia
 o Urban
Increase 187,544
 o Administrative
Increase 260,245 or 393,357a[3]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
18000
Area code(s)+381(0)18
ISO 3166 codeSRB
Car platesNI
Websitewww.ni.rs
^a Refugees were not recorded in the 2011 census

Ni? (Serbian Cyrillic: , pronounced [nî:?]) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Ni?ava District. According to the 2011 census, the urban area of Ni? has a population of 187,544, while the administrative area has a population of 260,237 inhabitants.

It is one of the oldest cities in the Balkans and Europe, and has from ancient times been considered a gateway between the East and the West.[5] It was founded by the Scordisci in 279 BC after the invasion of the Balkans. The city was among several taken during the Roman conquest in 75 BC; the Romans constructed the Via Militaris through the city in the 1st century, and it is also the birthplace of Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor and the founder of Constantinople, as well as Constantius III and Justin I. It is home to one of the oldest churches in Serbia, dating back to the 4th century, in the suburb of Mediana. During the partition of the Roman Empire it fell under the control of the Byzantine Empire. In the 6th century Slavic tribes began settling the Balkans; the town was held by the Byzantines until the 9th century when it fell under Bulgar rule. Authority over the city was contested until the Byzantines eventually granted the city to the Serbs in the 12th century. Ni? served as Stefan Nemanja's capital. It was conquered by the Ottomans in the 15th century, becoming the seat of a sanjak initially in Rumelia Eyalet (1385-1443, 1448-1846), then in Ni? Eyalet (1846-1864) and finally in Danube Vilayet (1864-1878). It was conquered by the Serbian Army in 1878 during the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876-78).

Ni? is one of the most important industrial centers in Serbia, especially in the electronics (see Elektronska Industrija Ni?), mechanical engineering, textile, and tobacco industries. Ni? Constantine the Great Airport is its international airport. In 2013 the city was host to the celebration of 1700 years of Constantine's Edict of Milan.[6]

Name

Ni? from space.

The town was named after the Ni?ava River, which flows through the city and which was named Navissos by the Celtic in the 3rd century BC; from this term comes the Roman Naissus, Byzantine Nysos and Slavic Ni?. Legend has it that Ni? was founded by a Prince Nisa, who built it using the nearby Humska ?uka stone.[] It has been called The Emperor's City.[7] The name is sometimes rendered as Nish or Nissa in English.

History

Historical affiliations

Archaeological evidence shows neolithic settlements in the city and area dating from 5,000 to 2,000 BCE.[15][better source needed] A notable archeological site is Humska ?uka. The ethnogenesis of the Thracians began in the Iron Age, and one of their chief towns was Aiadava, the Roman Remesiana; specifically, the Triballi are mentioned as inhabiting this region as early as 424 BC. In 279 BC, during the Gallic invasion of the Balkans, the Scordisci tribe defeated the Triballi and settled the lands, and the town became known as Navissos.[16] During conquest of the Balkans by Rome in 168-75 BC, Naissos (Latin: Naissus) was used as a base for operations. Naissus was first mentioned in Roman documents near the beginning of the 2nd century CE, and was considered a place worthy of note in the Geography of Ptolemy of Alexandria.

The Romans occupied the town during "Dardanian War" (75-73 BC), and set up a legionary camp.[17] The city (called refugia and vici in pre-Roman relation), because of its strategic position (the Thracians were based to the south[17]) developed as an important garrison and market town of the province of Moesia Superior.[18] In 272 AD, the future Emperor Constantine the Great was born in Naissus. Constantine created the Dacia Mediterranea province, of which Naissus was the capital, which also included Remesiana of the Via Militaris and the towns of Pautalia and Germania. He lived in Naissus briefly from 316-322.[19] In 364 AD, the imperial Villa Mediana 3 km (2 mi) was the site where emperors Valentinian and Valens met and divided the Roman Empire into halves which they would rule as co-emperors[20]

Remains of the luxurious residence palace of Mediana, erected by Constantine I near his birth town of Naissus.

It was besieged by the Huns in 441 and devastated in 448, and again in 480 when the partially-rebuilt town was demolished by the Barbarians. Byzantine Emperor Justinian I restored the town but it was destroyed by the Avars once again. The Slavs, in their campaign against Byzantium, conquered Ni? and settled here in 540. In 805, the town and its surroundings were taken by Bulgarian Emperor Krum.[21] In the 11th century Byzantium reclaimed control over Ni? and the surrounding area.

During the People's Crusade, on July 3, 1096, Peter the Hermit clashed with Byzantine forces at Ni?. Manuel I fortified the town, but under his successor Andronikos I it was seized by the Hungarian king Béla III. Byzantine control was eventually reestablished, but in 1185 it fell under Serbian control. By 1188, Ni? became the capital of Serbian king Stefan Nemanja.[22] On July 27, 1189, Nemanja received German emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his 100,000 crusaders at Ni?.[23] Ni? is mentioned in descriptions of Serbia under Vukan in 1202, highlighting its special status.[24] In 1203, Kaloyan of Bulgaria annexed Ni?.[25]Stefan Nemanji? later regained the region. The fall of the Serbian Empire, which was conquered by Ottoman Sultan Murad I in 1385, decided the fate of Ni? as well. After a 25-day-long siege the city fell to the Turks. It was returned to Serbian rule in 1443. Ni? again fell under Ottoman rule in 1448, and remained thusly for 241 years. During Ottoman rule Ni? was a seat of Turkish military and civil administration. A Silesian traveler stated in 1596 that the route from Sofia to Ni? was littered with corpses and described the gates of Ni? as bedecked with the freshly-severed heads of poor Bulgarian peasants.[26] In 1689 Ni? was seized by the Austrian army during the Great Turkish War, but the Turks regained it in 1690. In 1737, Ni? was again seized by the Austrians, who attempted to rebuild the fortifications around the city. In that same year, however, the Turks would reclaim the city without resistance.

Siege of Ni?, Crusaders attacking Ni? on 4 July 1096.

During the First Serbian Uprising in 1809, Serbian revolutionaries attempted to liberate Ni? in the famous Battle of ?egar. After the defeat of the Serbian forces, the Ottoman commander of Ni? ordered the heads of the slain Serbs mounted on a tower to serve as a warning. The tower is known as the Skull Tower (?ele Kula). In 1821, the Ottomans arrested the Bishop of Ni?, Milentija, as well as 200 Serbian patriots, on charges of preparing an uprising in the Ni? area in support of the Greek War of Independence. On June 13 of that year, Bishop Milentija and other Serbian leaders were hanged in public.

In the 19th century Ni? was an important town, but populated by Bulgarians in the 19th century, when the Ni? rebellion broke out in 1841.[27] According to Ottoman statistics during the Tanzimat the population of Sanjak of Ni? was treated as Bulgarian[28] and according to French travelers such as Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui and Ami Boue in 1837/1841. According to all authors between 1840-72 the delineation between Bulgarians and Serbs is undisputed and ran north of Nis,[29] although one author Cyprien Robert claims that half of the population of the town was made up by Serbians.[30] The Serbian cartographers (such as Dimitrije Davidovi? in 1828 and Milan Savi? in 1878) also accepted South Morava river as such delineation and added Ni? outside the borders of the Serbian people.[29][31] The urban Muslim population of Ni? consisted mainly of Turks, of which a part were of Albanian origin, and the rest were Muslim Albanians and Muslim Romani.[32][33]

In 1870, Ni? was included in the Bulgarian Exarchate.,[34] before the area had been under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Serbian Patriarchate of Pe?. The city was also stipulated the area to be ceded to Bulgaria according to the Constantinople Conference in 1876.[35] Ni? was finally liberated during the Serbian-Turkish Wars (1876-1878). The battle for the liberation of Ni? started on 29 December 1877 and the Serbian Army entered in Ni? on 11 January 1878 and Ni? became a part of the Serbian state. During the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876-1878) the Albanian neighbourhood was burned and some of the Muslim population of Ni? fled to the Ottoman vilayet of Kosovo resettling in Pristina where they dominated trade while others went to Skopje.[32][36][33] The number of remaining Muslims counted were 1,168, with many being Muslim Romani, out of the pre-war ca. 8,500.[37][33] The demographics of Ni? underwent change whereby Serbs who formed half the urban population prior to 1878 became 80 percent in 1884.[38]

Independent Serbia

Tram in Ni? 1930.

In the following years, the city saw rapid development. The city library was founded in 1879, and its first clerk was Stevan Sremac. The first hotel, Europe, was built in 1879; shortly after a hospital and the first bank started operating in 1881. In 1878, the first Grammar School (Gimnazija), in 1882 the Teacher Training College, and in 1894, the Girls' College were founded in Ni?. In 1895, Ni? had one girls' and three boys' primary schools. The City Hall was built from 1882-87.

In 1883, Kosta ?enda? established the first printing house. In 1884, the first newspaper in the city Ni?ki Vesnik was started. In 1884, Jovan Apel built a brewery. A railway line to Ni? was built in 1884, as well as the city's railway station; on 8 August 1884, the first train arrived from Belgrade. Since 1885, Ni? was the last station of the Orient Express, until the railroad was built between Ni? and Sofia in 1888. In 1887 Mihailo Dimi? founded the "Ni? Theatre Sin?eli?."

In 1897 Mita Risti? founded the textile factory Nitex. In 1905 female painter Nade?da Petrovi? established the Si?evo art colony. The first film was screened in 1897, and the first permanent movie theater started operating in 1906.[39] Hydroelectric dam in Si?evo Gorge on Ni?ava was built in 1908; at the time, it was the largest in Serbia. The airfield was built in 1912 on the Trupale field, and the first airplane arrived on 29 December 1912. City Museum was founded in 1913, hosting archaeological, ethnographic and art collections.

During the First Balkan War, Ni? was the seat of The Main Headquarters of Serbian Army, who led the military operations against the Ottoman Empire. In World War I, Ni? was the wartime capital of Serbia, hosting the Government and the National Assembly, until Central Powers conquered Serbia in November 1915, when the city was ceded to Bulgaria. After the breakthrough of the Thessaloniki Front, First Serbian Army commanded by general Petar Bojovi? liberated Ni? on 12 October 1918.

During the age and breakup of Yugoslavia

Ni? main square.

In the first few years after the war, Ni? was recovering from the damage. In 1921, Ni? became the centre of the Region (oblast), governed by a grand-?upan, appointed by royal decree. From 1929-41, Ni? was the capital of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The tram system in Ni? started to run in November 1930. The national airline Aeroput included Ni? as a regular destination for the route Belgrade--Ni?--Skopje--Thessaloniki in 1930. During the time of German occupation in World War II, the first Nazi concentration camp in Yugoslavia was in Ni?. About 30,000 people passed through this camp, of whom over 10,000 were shot on nearby Bubanj hill. On 12 February 1942, 147 prisoners staged a mass escape. In 1944, the city was heavily bombed by the Allies.[40]

On 14 October 1944, after a long and exhausting battle, the 7th German SS Division 'Prinz Eugen' was defeated and Ni? was liberated by Bulgarian Army,[41][42][43] and Partisans. The city was also the site of a unique and accidental friendly fire air war on November 7, 1944 between the air forces of the United States and Soviet Union. On June 23, 1948, Ni? was the site of a catastrophic flood during which the Ni?ava river's water level raised by an unprecedented 5.5 meters.[44]

After World War II, the University of Ni? was founded on 15 June 1965.

Over the course of the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Ni? was subject to airstrikes on 40 occasions.[45] On May 7, 1999, the city was the site of a NATO cluster bomb raid which killed up to 16 civilians.[45] By the end of the NATO bombing campaign, a total of 56 people in Ni? had been killed from airstrikes.[45]

2000-present

In April 2012, the Russian-Serbian Humanitarian Center was established in the city of Ni?. In December 2017, a new building of Clinical Centre of Ni? spreading over 45,000 square meters was opened.[46]

Geography

The road running from the North, from Western and Central Europe and Belgrade down to the Morava River valley, forks into two major lines at Ni?: the southern line, leading to Thessalonica and Athens, and the eastern one leading towards Sofia and Istanbul.[]

Suva Planina (Dry Mountain) surrounds the city

Ni? is situated at the 43°19' latitude north and 21°54' longitude east, in the Ni?ava valley, near the spot where it joins the South Morava. The main city square, the city's central part, is at 194 m (636 ft) above sea level. The highest point in the city area is "Sokolov kamen" (Falcon's rock) on the Suva Planina (Dry Mountain) (1,523 m (4,997 ft)) while the lowest spot is at Trupale, near the mouth of the Ni?ava (173 m (568 ft)). The city covers 596.71 square kilometres (230 sq mi) of five municipalities. Below Niska Banja and Nis, under the ground is a natural source of hot water, unique potential of clean and renewable geothermal energy at the surface of up to 65 square kilometers. The natural reservoir is at a depth of 500 to 800 meters, and the estimated capacity is about 400 million cubic meters of thermal mineral water.[47]

Climate

Average annual temperature in the area of Ni? is 11.9 °C (53.4 °F). July is the warmest month of the year, with an average of 22.5 °C (72.5 °F). The coldest month is January, averaging at 0.6 °C (33.1 °F). The average of the annual rainfall is 580.3 mm (22.85 in). The average barometer value is 992.74 mb. On average, there are 134 days with rain and snow cover lasts for 41 days.

Climate data for Ni? (1981-2010, extremes 1940-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.7
(71.1)
24.0
(75.2)
33.5
(92.3)
33.0
(91.4)
35.3
(95.5)
40.3
(104.5)
44.2
(111.6)
42.2
(108)
39.6
(103.3)
35.0
(95)
29.0
(84.2)
22.2
(72)
44.2
(111.6)
Average high °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
7.5
(45.5)
13.0
(55.4)
18.4
(65.1)
23.8
(74.8)
27.1
(80.8)
29.8
(85.6)
30.1
(86.2)
25.0
(77)
19.3
(66.7)
11.9
(53.4)
6.1
(43)
18.1
(64.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
2.4
(36.3)
7.0
(44.6)
12.2
(54)
17.1
(62.8)
20.4
(68.7)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
17.4
(63.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.4
(43.5)
2.1
(35.8)
11.9
(53.4)
Average low °C (°F) -2.2
(28)
-1.4
(29.5)
2.3
(36.1)
6.4
(43.5)
11.0
(51.8)
13.8
(56.8)
15.4
(59.7)
15.4
(59.7)
11.5
(52.7)
7.4
(45.3)
2.6
(36.7)
-0.8
(30.6)
6.8
(44.2)
Record low °C (°F) -23.7
(-10.7)
-21.6
(-6.9)
-13.2
(8.2)
-5.6
(21.9)
-1.0
(30.2)
4.2
(39.6)
4.1
(39.4)
4.6
(40.3)
-2.2
(28)
-6.8
(19.8)
-14.0
(6.8)
-16.6
(2.1)
-23.7
(-10.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38.8
(1.528)
36.8
(1.449)
42.5
(1.673)
56.6
(2.228)
58.0
(2.283)
57.3
(2.256)
44.0
(1.732)
46.7
(1.839)
48.0
(1.89)
45.5
(1.791)
54.8
(2.157)
51.5
(2.028)
580.3
(22.846)
Average precipitation days 13 13 12 13 12 11 9 8 9 9 11 14 134
Average snowy days 10 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 37
Average relative humidity (%) 80 74 66 63 65 65 61 61 69 73 77 81 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64.5 93.3 147.8 171.5 220.9 251.2 286.7 274.3 201.9 150.5 85.9 49.4 1,997.7
Source #1: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[48]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[49]

Demographics

Cathedral of Holy Trinity.

According to the final results from the 2011 census, the population of urban area of Ni? was 183,544,[51] while its administrative area had a population of 260,237.[51] There is still much dispute about the true population of the city, since there are tens of thousands of Kosovo Serb refugees who officially don't live in the city, but are living there with their local family members.[] It's estimated that Ni? has 393,357 citizens, making him second largest city in Serbia (after capital Belgrade). A total of 70.38% of the city's population is living in urban areas.

The city of Ni? has 87,975 households with 2,96 members on average, while the number of homes is 119,196.[52]

Religion structure in the city of Ni? is predominantly Serbian Orthodox (240,765), with minorities like Muslims (2,486), Catholics (809), Protestants (258), Atheists (109) and others.[53] Most of the population speaks Serbian language (249,949).[53]

The composition of population by sex and average age:[53]

  • Male - 126,645 (40.90 years) and
  • Female - 133,592 (42.81 years).

A total of 120,562 citizens (older than 15 years) have secondary education (53.81%), while the 51,471 citizens have higher education (23.0%). Of those with higher education, 34,409 (15.4%) have university education.[54]

Ethnic composition

The ethnic composition of the city of Ni?:[55]

Demographics of Ni?
Ethnic group City Urban
Serbs 243,381 174,225
Romani 6,996 5,490
Montenegrins 659 579
Bulgarians 927 741
Yugoslavs 202 202
Croats 398 344
Others 7,674 1,963
Total 260,237 183,544

Administrative divisions

Nis Municipalities.png

The city of Ni? consists of five municipalities. The first four municipalities are in the urban area of Ni?, while Ni?ka Banja is a suburban municipality. Before 2002, the city of Ni? had only two municipalities, one of them named "Ni?" and another named "Ni?ka Banja".

The city of Ni? includes further neighborhoods:

Medijana    Palilula, Ni?    Pantelej    Crveni Krst    Ni?ka Banja   
Center Palilula Pantelej Crveni Krst Ni?ka Banja
Marger Staro Groblje Jagodin Mala (partly) Beograd Mala nas. Nikola Tesla (broj 6)
Trg Kralja Aleksandra Crni put Durlan Jagodin Mala (partly) Jela?nica
Ki?evo Bubanj Komren (partly) Komren (mostly) Si?evo
?air Ledena Stena ?alije ?ljaka Ostrovica
Bulevar Nemanji?a Suvi Do Somborska Medosevac Prva Kutina
Bulevar Djindjica Apelovac Vre?ina   Radikina Bara
Medijana Kovanluk     Prosek
Tro?arina Tutunovi? Podrum     ?ukljenik
Duvani?te Kala? Brdo Kur?a Greda   Donja i gornja Studena
Brzi Brod Gabrova?ka reka     Kur?a Greda

Economy

The city of Ni? is the administrative, industrial, commercial, financial and cultural center of the south-eastern part of Republic of Serbia. The position of Ni? is strategically important, at the intersection of European highway and railway networks connecting Europe with Asia. Ni? is easily accessible, having an airport - Ni? Constantine the Great Airport and being a point of intersection of numerous railroad and highway lines.

Panorama picture of the Square of the King Milan I.

It is in Ni? that the trunk road running from the north down the Morava River valley forks into two major lines:

  • the south one, leading to Thessalonica and Athens, along the Vardar River valley,
  • and the east one, running along the Nisava and the Marica, leading towards Sofia and Istanbul, and further on, towards the Near East.

These roads have been widely known from ancient times, because they represented the beaten tracks along which peoples, goods and armies moved. Known as 'Via Militaris' in Roman and Byzantine periods, or 'Constantinople road' in Middle Ages, these roads still represent major European traffic arteries. Ni? thus stands at a point of intersection of the roads connecting Asia Minor to Europe, and the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Nis had been a relatively developed city in the former Yugoslavia. In 1981, its GDP per capita was 110% of the Yugoslav average.[56]

Economic preview
Ni?ava river.
Tinkers Alley, old urban downtown built in the first half of the 18th century.

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[57]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 196
Mining 79
Processing industry 16,060
Distribution of power, gas and water 900
Distribution of water and water waste management 1,794
Construction 2,937
Wholesale and retail, repair 13,326
Traffic, storage and communication 5,604
Hotels and restaurants 2,877
Media and telecommunications 2,410
Finance and insurance 1,508
Property stock and charter 95
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 2,947
Administrative and other services 3,282
Administration and social assurance 3,857
Education 6,360
Healthcare and social work 8,318
Art, leisure and recreation 1,249
Other services 1,604
Total 75,311

Companies

Ni? Forum shopping centre
Business center Kal?a

Ni? is one of the most important industrial centers in Serbia, well known for its tobacco, electronics, construction, mechanical-engineering, textile, nonferrous-metal, food-processing and rubber-goods industries.

Among the manufacturing companies which had a huge impact during the second half of 20th century on Ni?'s development are: EI Ni? (electronics industry), Mechanical Industry Ni?, "Gra?evinar" (construction company), Ni? Tobacco Factory, "Nitex - Ni?" (textile industry), "Ni? Brewery" (beverages) and "?itopek" (bakery). Other prominent companies which went bankrupt during the 1990-s and 2000-s are: "Vulkan" (rubber-goods manufacturer), "NISSAL" (nonferrous-metal industry).

Prominent tobacco manufacturer "Ni? Tobacco Factory" was sold to Philip Morris in August 2003 for 518 million euros.[58]

Transportation

Railway station in Ni?.

Ni? is strategically between the Morava river valley in North and the Vardar river valley in the south, on the main route between Greece and Central Europe. In the Ni? area, this major transportation and communication route is linked with the natural corridor formed by the Ni?ava river valley, which runs Eastwards in the direction of Sofia and Istanbul. The city has been a passing station for the Orient Express.

The first highways date back to the 1950s when Ni? was linked with capital Belgrade through the Brotherhood and Unity Highway, the first in Central-Eastern Europe.

Historically, because of its location, the city had always great importance in the region. The first to take advantage of it was the Roman Empire that built the important road Via Militaris, linking the city with Singidunum (current Belgrade) to the North and Constantinople (current Istanbul) to the southeast. Nowadays, the city is connected by the highway E75 with Belgrade and Central Europe in north, and Skopje, Thessaloniki and Athens in the south. The road E80 connects Ni? with Sofia, Istanbul towards the Middle East, and Pristina, Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea to the West. The road E771 connects the city with Zaje?ar, Kladovo and Drobeta-Turnu Severin in Romania.

The city is also a major regional railway junction linking Serbia to Sofia and Istanbul.

The Ni? Constantine the Great airport is the second most important airport in Serbia. The first airfield serving the city of Ni? was established in 1910, near the village of Donje Me?urovo. In the 1930s then-national airline company Aeroput used the airport for civil service. In 1935 Aeroput included a stop in Ni? in its route linking Belgrade with Skoplje.[59]

The city public transportation consists nowadays of 13 bus lines. A tram system existed in Ni? between 1930 and 1958.[60]Ni? Bus Station is the city's largest and main bus station which offers both local urban and intercity transport to international destinations. The largest intercity bus carrier based in the city is Ni?-Ekspres, which operates to various cities and villages in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[]

Culture

Theatre

The Film Festival - a Festival of Serbian Actors held since 1966.

Ni? is a home of the National Theatre in Ni?, that was founded as "Sin?eli?" Theatre in 1889.

Music

From 1981 Ni? is the host of Ni?ville International Jazz music festival which begins in mid-August and lasts for 4 days. Galija, Kerber and Eyot are considered the most notable music bands to have originated from Ni?. Other notable Ni? music acts include Daltoni, Dobri Isak, Lutaju?a Srca, Mama Rock, Hazari, Novembar, Trivalia and others.

Tourism

Tourist sites

  • ?egar - The place where Battle on ?egar Hill took place on 19 May 1809.
  • Crveni Krst concentration camp - One of the few preserved Nazi concentration camps in Europe. It is on 12 February Boulevard.
  • Memorial to Constantine the Great - built in the city centre in 2013, in commemoration to Constantine the Great who was born in the city, on the anniversary of the Edict of Milan.
  • Bubanj - Monument to fallen Yugoslav World War II fighters, forming the shape of three clenched fists. The place where 10,000 civilian hostages from Ni? and south Serbia were brutally murdered by German Nazis.
  • Kal?a, City passage and Gor?a - Trade centers situated in Milana Obrenovi?a Street.
  • Memorial Chapel in the memory of NATO bombing victims - The chapel was built by local authorities while the monument was built by the State government in 1999. They are situated in Sumatovacka street near Ni? Fortress.
  • Ni? Fortress - The remaining fortification was built by the Turks, and dates from the first decades of the 18th century (1719-23). It is situated in the city center.
  • The fortress-cafes - They are situated near Stambol gate (the main gate of the fortress).
  • Mediana - Archeological site, an Imperial villa, from the late Roman period on the road leading to Sofia, Bulgaria, near EI Nis.
  • Ni?ka Banja (Ni? spa) - A very popular spa during the summer season. It is 10 km (6 mi) from city center on the road leading to Sofia, in the bottom of Suva Planina Mountain.
  • Tinkers Alley - An old urban downtown zone in today's Kopitareva Street, built in the first half of the 18th century. It was a street full of tinkers and other craftsmen, but today it is packed with cafes and restaurants.
  • Skull Tower (?ele Kula) - A monument to the Serbian revolutionaries (1804-13); a tower made out of skulls of Serbian uprisers, killed and decapitated by the Ottomans. It is situated on Zoran ?in?i? Boulevard, on the old Constantinople road leading to Sofia.
  • Sultans Trail Long distance hiking and biking route from Vienna to ?stanbul runs through Ni?.

Architecture and monuments

Buildings in Ni? are constantly being built. Ni? is the second largest city after Belgrade for number of high-rises. The Ambassador Hotel is one of the tallest buildings in Ni?, but there are also other buildings like TV5 Tower.

Sport

The city of Ni? is home to numerous sport clubs including ?elezni?ar Ni?, Ma?inac, OFK Ni?, Jastrebac Proleter, Palilulac, Sin?eli? Ni? and Radni?ki Ni?.

The biggest stadium in Ni? is the Stadion ?air, which is currently undergoing renovations and will have a total seating-capacity of 18,151 when renovations are completed.[61] The stadium is part of the ?air Sports Complex that also includes an indoor swimming pool and an indoor arena. Ni? was one of four towns which hosting the 2012 European Men's Handball Championship.

Notable residents

The people listed below were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with the city of Ni?, and its surrounding metropolitan area.

Local media

International relations

Twin towns -- sister cities

Ni? is twinned with the following cities, according to their City Hall website:[73]

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship

References

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  13. ^ Known as Democratic Federal Yugoslavia until 1945
  14. ^ Officially known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 2003
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External links

Coordinates: 43°18?N 21°54?E / 43.3°N 21.9°E / 43.3; 21.9


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