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Native to Indonesia
Region Flores
Native speakers
ca. 65,000 (1994-1995)[1]
Language codes
nxg - Ngad'a
nea - Eastern Ngad'a
Glottolog ngad1261  [2]
east2464  [3]

Ngadha (also known as Ngada or Ngad'a) is an Austronesian language, one of six languages spoken in the central stretch of the Indonesian island of Flores.[4] From west to east these languages are: Ngadha, Nage, Keo, Ende, Lio, and Palu'e. These languages form the proposed Central Flores group of the Sumba-Flores languages, according to Blust (2009).[5]

Ngadha is the only language reported to have a retroflex implosive /? /.[6]

Ngadha is "bizarre" because it has no prefixes nor suffixes at all.[7] This "strangely streamlined language" is thought by linguist John McWhorter to have originated when "little people" were "subjugated" into the Austronesian population.[7] McWhorter (2006) speculates this rare linguistic transformation would have occurred to the ancestor of Ngadha and the related Keo and Rongga languages.[7] Nonetheless, in basic vocabulary, such as body parts, numbers, and action verbs, Ngadha has kept 94 out of a list of 247 lexical items of the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language.[8]


  1. ^ Ngad'a at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Eastern Ngad'a at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngad'a". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Ngad'a". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Rongga Documentation Project, Australian National University.
  5. ^ Robert Blust, 2009. "Is there a Bima-Sumba subgroup?" In Oceanic Linguistics
  6. ^ Djawanai, Stephanus. (1977). A description of the basic phonology of Nga'da and the treatment of borrowings. NUSA linguistic studies in Indonesian and languages in Indonesia, 5, 10-18.
  7. ^ a b c John McWhorter, What We Believe but Cannot Prove, pp. 68-70 (ed. Ian McEwan) (Harper 2006).
  8. ^ "Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database, Language: Ngadha". language.psy.auckland.ac.nz. Retrieved 2012. 

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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