Ng%C4%81puhi
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Ng%C4%81puhi

Ng?puhi
Iwi (tribe) in M?oridom
North Auckland Peninsula.png
The Northland Peninsula
Nga puhi.png
Rohe (region)Northland
Waka (canoe)M?mari, Ng?tokimatawhaorua, M?h?h?, Ruakaramea, Tainui
Population122,214
Websitehttp://www.ngapuhi.iwi.nz/

Ng?puhi (or Ng? Puhi) is a M?ori iwi located in the Northland region of New Zealand, and centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, and Whangarei.[1]

Ng?puhi has the largest affiliation of any iwi, with 125,601 people identifying as Ng?puhi in the 2013 census,[2] and formed from 150 hap?/subtribes, with 55 marae.

Despite such diversity, the people of Ng?puhi maintain their shared history and self-identity. The iwi is administered by Te R?nanga ? Iwi o Ng?puhi, based in Kaikohe. The R?nanga acts on behalf of the iwi in consultations with the New Zealand Government. It also ensures the equitable distribution of benefits from the 1992 settlement with the Government, and undertakes resource management and education initiatives.

History

Foundations

The founding ancestor of Ng?puhi is R?hiri, the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi. Tauramoko was a descendant of Kupe, from Matawhaorua, and Nukutawhiti, of the Ng?tokimatawhaorua canoe. Te Hauangiangi was the daughter of Puhi, who captained the Mataatua canoe northwards from the Bay of Plenty. R?hiri was born at Whiria p?, near Opononi in the Hokianga.[3] The early tribes led by R?hiri's descendants lived in the Hokianga, Kaikohe and Pouerua areas.[4]

Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants of R?hiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions also fostered ties with neighbouring iwi. Auha and Whakaaria, for example, led expansion eastward from Kaikohe and Pou?rua into the Bay of Islands area, overrunning and often intermarrying with Ng?i T?huhu, Ng?ti Manaia, Te Wahineiti and Ng?ti Miru. These tribes in the east were the first to use the name Ng?puhi. As the eastern and western groups merged, the name came to describe all the tribes settled in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. In the late 1700s and early 1800s the Ng?puhi tribes pushed further east through the southern Bay of Islands to the open coast, absorbing tribes such as Ng?ti Manu, Te Kapotai, Te Uri o Rata, Ngare Raumati and Ng?tiwai.[4]

Hosting the first Christian mission

Ruatara was chief of the Ng?puhi from 1812 to his death in 1815. In 1814, he invited the Rev. Samuel Marsden to set up the first ever Christian mission in New Zealand on Ng?puhi land. The presence of these influential Pakeha secured Ruatara's access to European plants, technology and knowledge, which he distributed to other M?ori, thus increasing his mana. After the death of Ruatara, his uncle Hongi Hika became protector of the mission.

Thomas Kendall, John King, and William Hall, missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, founded the first mission station in Oihi Bay (a small cove in the north-east of Rangihoua Bay) in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decades established farms and schools in the area.[5] In 1823 Rev. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne established a mission station at Paihia on land owned by Ana Hamu, the wife of Te Koki.[6][7][8][5] In 1826 Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission at Paihia. Marianne and Jane Williams established schools for the Ng?puhi. William Williams lead the CMS missionaries in the translation of the Bible and other Christian literature; with the first chapters of the M?ori Bible being printed at Paihia by William Colenso in 1827. The missionaries did not succeed in converting a single M?ori until 1830 when Rawiri Taiwhanga (1818-1874), a Ng?puhi chief, was baptised.[9][10] Ruatara and Hongi Hika themselves welcomed the missionaries' presence, but did not convert.[11]H?ne Heke attended the CMS mission school at Kerikeri and Heke and his wife Ono, were baptised in 1835.[5]

Musket Wars

By the early 19th century, the Bay of Islands had become a prominent shipping port in New Zealand. Through increased trade with Europeans, initiated by Ruatara, Ng?puhi gained greater access to European weapons, including muskets. Armed with European firearms, Ngapuhi, led by Hongi Hika, launched a series of expansionist campaigns, with resounding slaughters across Northland and in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty.[12]

The United Tribes of New Zealand and the Declaration of Independence

On 28 October 1835 various Northland chiefs, primarily from the Ngapuhi tribe, met at Waitangi with British resident James Busby and signed the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand, proclaiming the United Tribes of New Zealand. In 1836, the Crown received and recognized the United Tribes independence under King William IV. By 1839, 52 chiefs from around Northland and central North Island had signed the Declaration, including most Ng?puhi chiefs and P?tatau Te Wherowhero, ariki of the Tainui tribes of the Waikato (iwi).[13]

The Northern War / Flagstaff War

In 1840, the Ng?puhi chiefs were all signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. However, from 1845-1846, Ng?puhi fought against the British Crown over treaty disputes and European encroachment and interference. The M?ori forces were led by Te Ruki Kawiti and H?ne Heke, who instigated the war when he chopped down the flagpole at Koror?reka to commence what is sometimes called the Flagstaff War. The British did not fight alone but had Ng?puhi allies; T?mati W?ka Nene had given the government assurances of the good behaviour of the Ng?puhi and he felt that H?ne Heke had betrayed his trust in instigating the Flagstaff War.

The outcome of the Flagstaff War is a matter of some debate. Although the war was widely lauded as a British victory,[14] it is clear that the outcome was somewhat more complex, even contentious. The flagstaff which had proved so controversial was not re-erected by the colonial government. Whilst the Bay of Islands and Hokianga was still nominally under British influence, the fact that the Government's flag was not re-erected was symbolically very significant. Such significance was not lost on Henry Williams, who, writing to E. G. Marsh on 28 May 1846, stating that "the flag-staff in the Bay is still prostrate, and the natives here rule. These are humiliating facts to the proud Englishman, many of whom thought they could govern by a mere name."[15][16]

The flagstaff that now stands at Kororareka was erected in January 1858 at the direction of Kawiti's son Maihi Paraone Kawiti; the symbolism of the erection of the fifth flagstaff at Kororareka by the Ng?puhi warriors who had conducted the Flagstaff War, and not by government decree, indicates the colonial government did not want to risk any further confrontation with the Ng?puhi.

In a symbolic act, the 400 Ng?puhi warriors involved in preparing and erecting the flagpole were selected from the 'rebel' forces of Kawiti and Heke - that is, Ng?puhi from the hap? of T?mati W?ka Nene (who had fought as allies of the British forces during the Flagstaff War), observed, but did not participate in the erection of the fifth flagpole. The restoration of the flagpole was presented by Maihi Paraone Kawiti was a voluntary act on the part of the Ng?puhi that had cut it down on 11 March 1845, and they would not allow any other to render any assistance in this work.[17]

The legacy of Kawiti's rebellion during the Flagstaff War was that during the time of Governor Grey and Governor Thomas Gore Browne, the colonial administrators were obliged to take account of opinions of the Ng?puhi before taking action in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. The continuing symbolism of the fifth flagpole at Kororareka is that it exists because of the goodwill of the Ng?puhi.

The Waitangi Tribunal in The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38) state that "[a]fter the war in the north, government policy was to place a buffer zone of European settlement between Ngapuhi and Auckland. This matched Ngati Whatua's desire to have more settlers and townships, a greater abundance of trade goods and protection from Ngapuhi, their traditional foe." [18]

Notwithstanding the achievements of Te Ruki Kawiti and H?ne Heke in pushing back colonial government control over the Ng?puhi, in the years after the Flagstaff War over 2,000 km² of Ng?puhi land was alienated from M?ori control. A significant transfer of land occurred in 1857/1858 when Maihi Paraone Kawiti, the son of Te Ruki Kawiti, arranged for the fifth flagpole to be erected at Kororareka. The flagpole was intended as a signal to Governor Thomas Gore Browne, that Maihi did not follow his father's path. Tawai Kawiti described the circumstances of the offer of land as being "[a]s a whariki" (or mat) for the flag to repose on, Maihi offered to the Governor all lands between Karetu and Moerewa to north of Waiomio and as far south as the Ruapekapeka Pa. This offer was accepted but was paid for at half the value.[19]

20th and 21st century

Amidst cultural and economic decline, the twentieth century saw a steady migration of Ng?puhi M?ori from Northland into other regions of the North Island, mainly Auckland, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty. In part, this has seen the organisation of Ng?puhi into large geographic and urban divisions.[20]

'"Kia t? tika ai te whare tapu o Ng?puhi"'
May the sacred house of Ng?puhi always stand firm

-- Ng?puhi motto

Waitangi Tribunal - Te Paparahi o te Raki (Wai 1040)

In 2010 the Waitangi Tribunal began hearings into the Ng?puhi's claim that sovereignty was not given up in their signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.[21] The Tribunal, in Te Paparahi o te Raki inquiry (Wai 1040),[22] is considering the M?ori and Crown understandings of He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga / The Declaration of Independence 1835 and Te Tiriti o Waitangi / the Treaty of Waitangi 1840.

Many of the arguments used were outlined in Paul Moon's 2002 book Te Ara Ki Te Tiriti: The Path to the Treaty of Waitangi, which argued that not only did the M?ori signatories have no intention of transferring sovereignty, but that at the time the British government and James Busby did not wish to acquire it and that the developments and justifications leading to the present state were later developments.[23] A common Ng?puhi interpretation of the Declaration of the United Tribes is that the British government was simply recognizing M?ori independence and putting the world on check, merely re-asserting sovereignty that had existed from "time immemorial".[24]

The Te Paparahi o Te Raki stage 1 inquiry hearings phase was intended to reach conclusions as to the meaning and effect of the treaty for the Crown and Te Raki M?ori in 1840.[25] Hearings began in May 2010 and on 14 November 2014, the Te Raki stage 1 report handover took place at Te Tii Marae, Waitangi.

The key conclusion of the stage 1 report was that the treaty signatories did not cede sovereignty in February 1840.[26][27] "That is, they did not cede authority to make and enforce law over their people or their territories." The rangatira did, however, agree "to share power and authority with Britain".[28]

The consequences of the findings in the stage 1 report are being considered in the Te Raki stage 2 inquiry, with the Tribunal hearings considering issues including the immediate aftermath of the Treaty of Waitangi, the Northern War (1844-46) and Crown pre-emption (the right of the Crown to acquire M?ori land that is addressed in the treaty).

Hap? and marae

East Coast

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of the east coast include:

  • Ng? Uri o Puhatahi, of Omauri marae
  • Ng?ti Hao, of Pehiaweri and Whakapara marae
  • Ng?ti Hau, of Akerama, Ng?raratunua, Pehiaweri and Whakapara marae
  • Ng?ti Hine, of Ng?rartunua marae
  • Ng?ti Kahu o Torongare, of Ng?raratunua marae
  • Te Parawhau, of Ng?raratunua, Pehiaweri and Toetoe marae
  • Te Patuharakeke, of Takahiwai marae
  • Te Uriroroi, of Pehiaweri and Toetoe marae
  • Uri o Te Tangata, of Te Kotahitanga Marae o Otangarei and Terenga Par?oa marae[1]

P?kotai

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of the area around P?kotai include:

  • Ng?ti Horahia Parahaki, of Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te T?rai o R?hiri marae
  • Ng?ti Moe, of Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te T?rai o R?hiri marae
  • Ng?ti Te Rino, of Maung?rongo, Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru and Te T?rai o R?hiri marae
  • Ng?ti Toki, of Parahaki, Parakao, Te Oruoru marae and Te T?rai o R?hiri marae
  • Ng?ti Whakahotu, of Parahaki marae
  • Ng?ti Whakaminenga, of Te Kiore marae
  • Te Kumutu, of Parahaki and Te Oruoru marae
  • Te Parawhau, of Korokota, Maung?rongo, Parakao and Tangiter?ria marae
  • Te Uriroroi, of Maung?rongo and Tangiter?ria marae[1]

Kaikohe

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of the area south of Kaikohe include:

  • Ng?i T?wake, of Puker?t? marae
  • Ng?i T?wake ki te Waoku, of Kaingahoa, Ng?i T?wake and Paripari marae
  • Ngaitu te Auru, of Puker?t? marae
  • Ng?ti Hine, of Te H?ruhi marae
  • Ng?ti Hinemutu, of Parihaka and ?korihi marae
  • Ng?ti Kura, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae
  • Ng?ti M?hia, of Te H?ruhi and Ururangi marae
  • Ng?ti Moerewa, of Te Hung?iti, Te Maata and Te R?ngi marae
  • Ng?ti Rangi, of Kaingahoa, Te Hung?iti and Te Maata marae
  • Ng?ti Tautahi, of Parihaka, Te Kotahitanga and ?korihi marae
  • Ng?ti Ueoneone, of ?korihi marae
  • Ng?ti Whakaeke, of Te Kotahitanga marae
  • Takoto K?, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae
  • Te Uri o Hua, of Kohewhata and Te Kotahitanga marae[1]

The wh?renui of ?korihi marae burned down in 2003.[1]

Inner Hokianga Harbour

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of the inner Hokianga Harbour include:

  • K?hatutaka, of Mangamuka and Te Arohanui Mangataipa marae
  • Ng?i T?wake ki te Moana, of Mokonui?rangi Piki te Aroha R?hiri, Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
  • Ng?i T?wake ki te Tuawhenua, of Piki te Aroha R?hiri marae
  • Ng?ti Hao, of Paremata, Piki te Aroha R?hiri, Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
  • Ng?ti Toro, of Mataitaua, Mokonui?rangi, Paremata, Piki te Aroha R?hiri, Puketawa and Rangatahi marae
  • Te Honihoni, of Puketawa and Tauratumaru marae
  • Te Ngahengahe Mokonui?rangi, of Mokonui?rangi and Rangatahi marae
  • Te Popoto, of Rangatahi and Tauratumaru marae
  • Te Uri M?hoe, of Mangamuka and Te Arohanui marae[1]

West Coast

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of the west coast include:

  • Ng?ti Hau, of Te P?ti marae
  • Ng?ti Kairewa, of M?tai Aranui, M?ria and P? te Aroha marae
  • Ng?ti Kerewheti, of M?tai Aranui, M?ria and P? te Aroha marae
  • Ng?ti Korokoro, of K?k?huia, P?kanae, Te Whakamaharatanga Waimamaku and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
  • Ng?ti P?kau, of M?huri and T?heke marae
  • Ng?ti Rauwawe, of T?heke marae
  • Ng?ti Te Pou, of K?k?huia ?m?pere, M?tai Aranui, M?ria, P? te Aroha, Te P?ti ?manaia, Te Whakamaharatanga Waimamaka marae
  • Ng?ti Toro, of Mataitaua, Mokonui?rangi, Motukiore, Paremata, Piki te Aroha R?hiri, Rangatahi and Tauratumaru marae
  • Ng?ti Tuapangom, of Matahuru Papakainga, M?ria and P? te Aroha marae
  • Ng?ti Wh?rara, of K?k?huia ?m?pere, P?kana, and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
  • Te Hikutu, of M?tai Aranui, M?ria and P? te Aroha marae
  • M?hurehure, of M?huri, Moehau, Arohamauora, ?t?tara, T?heke and Tuhirangi marae
  • Te Ngahengahe Mokonui?rangi, of Mokonui?rangi, Motukiore and Rangatahi marae
  • Te Pouk?, of K?k?huia ?m?pere, P?kanae and Waiwhatawhata Aotea marae
  • Te Wh?nau Whero, of M?tai Aranui, M?ria and P? te Aroha marae[1]
  • Ng?ti Wai

Western Bay of Islands

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of western and northern Bay of Islands include:

  • Ng?i T?wake, of Tauwhara marae
  • Ng?ti Hineira Parawhenua, of Parawhenua, R?whitiroa (Te Ahuahu), and Tauwhara marae
  • Ng?ti Kawa, of Orom?hoe marae, Te Tii Waitangi lower marae, Waitangi National upper marae
  • Ng?ti Kiriahi Ng?wh?, of E Koro Kia Tutuki marae
  • Ng?ti Korohue Parawhenua, of Parawhenua marae
  • Ng?ti Kura, of M?tauri (Te T?pui) marae
  • Ng?ti Mau, of Ng?wh? and Wharengaere marae
  • Ng?ti Miru, of M?tauri (Te T?pui) marae
  • Ngati Moko, of Waitangi National upper marae
  • Ng?ti R?hiri, of Orom?hoe, Te Tii Waitangi lower marae, and Waitangi National upper marae
  • Ng?ti Rangi, of Ng?wh? marae
  • Ng?ti R?hia, of Hiruh?rama Hou, Korokota, M?toa, Maung?rongo, T?kou, Tauwhara and Whitiora marae
  • Ngati Ruamahue, of Piapia, Wainui, Mahinepua, Whangaihe and Ngati Ruamahue marae
  • Ng?ti Tautahi T?kou, of Te Whet? Marama marae
  • Ng?ti Tawake ki te Tuawhenua, of Tauwhara marae
  • Ng?ti Torehina, of Wharengaere marae
  • Ng?ti T?pango T?kou, of Te Whet? Marama marae
  • Ng?ti Whakaeke, of M?toa and T?kou marae
  • Te Kapotai, of Kororareka, R?whitiroa (Te Ahuahu) and Waikare (Te T?ruki) marae
  • Te M?hurehure, of Te Raukura marae
  • Te Popoto, of Rangatahi and R?whitiroa (Te Ahuahu) marae
  • Te Uri o Hawato, of Ng?wh? and Kaikou marae
  • Te Uri Taniwha, of Ng?wh?, Parawhenua and R?whitiroa (Te Ahuahu) marae
  • Te Whanauwhero, of Parawhenua marae
  • Wh?nautara, of Tauwhara marae[1]
  • Ng?ti Wai, Of Aotea

Eastern Bay of Islands

The Ng?puhi hap? (sub-tribes) of eastern and southern Bay of Islands include:

  • Ng?ti Kuta, of Te R?whiti marae
  • Ng?ti Manu, of K?retu P?karu-ki te Rangi marae
  • Ng?ti Pare, of Te T?ruki marae
  • Patukeha, of Kaingahoa R?whiti and Te R?whiti Omakiwi marae
  • Te Kapotai, of Kororareka, Waihaahaa and Waikare Te T?ruki marae
  • Te Rauwera, of Te Rauwera marae
  • Te Uri Karaka K?retu, of Ng?ti Manu marae
  • Te Uri Ongaonga, of Waimangaro[1]

Ng?ti Hine

The hap? (sub-tribes) of Ng?ti Hine takiw? (district) include:

  • Ng?ti Hine of Horomanga, Kaikou, Kawiti, Matawaia, Maung?rongo, Miria, Mohinui, M?tatau, ?tiria, Parakao, Tau Henare, Te Rito, Tere Awatea, Ng?ti Kahu o Torongare, Ng?ti K?paki, Ng?ti Ng?herehere, Ng?ti Te Ara, Ng?ti Te T?wera, Te Kau i Mua and Te Orewai marae[29]
  • Ng?ti Kahu o Torongare, of Mohinui marae
  • Ng?ti K?paki, of ?tiria marae
  • Ng?ti Ng?herehere, of Matawaia marae
  • Ng?ti Te Ara, of ?tiria marae
  • Ng?ti Te T?wera, of M?tatau marae
  • Te Kau i Mua, of Matawaia marae
  • Te Orewai, of Tau Henare marae[1]

Media

Tautoko FM

Tautoko FM broadcasts to the people of Ng?puhi-nui-tonu, and began operating on 28 November 1988. It broadcasts on 99.5 FM in Mangamuka.[30] The Tautoko FM building burnt to the ground on 18 May 2015, cutting power to the small Mangamuka community.[31]

Notable Ng?puhi people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "TKM Ng?puhi". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni K?kiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ "2013 Census totals by topic". Statistics New Zealand. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ Taonui, R?wiri (3 March 2017). "Ng?puhi - Ancestors". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ a b Taonui, R?wiri (3 March 2017). "Ng?puhi - Tribal links and movement". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. I". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library.
  6. ^ Fitzgerald, Caroline (2004). Marianne Williams: Letters from the Bay of Islands. Penguin Books, New Zealand. p. 62. ISBN 0-14-301929-5.
  7. ^ Rogers, Lawrence M. (1973). Te Wiremu: A Biography of Henry Williams. Pegasus Press. p. 55.
  8. ^ Fitzgerald, Caroline (2011). Te Wiremu: Henry Williams - Early Years in the North. Huia Publishers, New Zealand. pp. 25, 39-40. ISBN 978-1-86969-439-5.
  9. ^ Orange, Claudia & Ormond Wilson. 'Taiwhanga, Rawiri fl. 1818 - 1874'. in: Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 22 June 2007
  10. ^ Missionary Impact > 'A high profile conversion' by Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
  11. ^ James Belich, Making Peoples; A History of the New Zealanders, 1996, ISBN 0-8248-2517-9, pp.141-168.
  12. ^ "The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38)". Waitangi Tribunal. 1992. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "Treaty events 1800-49 - Treaty timeline". Treaty events 1800-49 - Treaty timeline. New Zealand History online. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ "OFFICIAL DESPATCHES. Colonial Secretary's Office, Auckland, January 17, 1846". New Zealander, Volume 1, Issue 34. 24 January 1846. p. 4. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 137-8.
  16. ^ James Belich, The New Zealand Wars, p.70
  17. ^ Carleton, Hugh (1874). "Vol. II". The Life of Henry Williams. Early New Zealand Books (ENZB), University of Auckland Library. pp. 328-331.
  18. ^ The Te Roroa Report 1992 (Wai 38), Waitangi Tribunal (1992) Chapter 1, Section 1.1. p 8
  19. ^ Kawiti, Tawai (October 1956). "Heke's war in the North". Te Ao Hou / The New World. Maori Affairs Department (16): 38-46. Retrieved 2012.
  20. ^ Events of August 2004 may have the effect of recognising Ng?ti Hine as an independent iwi rather than a hap? of Ng?puhi.
  21. ^ Field, Michael. "Hearing starts into Ngapuhi's claims". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) inquiry, Waitangi Tribunal
  23. ^ "Book lies at the heart of Ngapuhi's sovereignty". NZNewsUK. New Zealand News Online. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ "Joshua Hitchcock sets the record straight regarding Ngapuhi, sovereignty, and legal pluralism in New Zealand". Settler Colonial Studies Blog. 3 August 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ "Te Manutukutuku (Issue 67)". Waitangi Tribunal. February 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  26. ^ "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 1" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  27. ^ "Te Paparahi o Te Raki (Northland) (Wai 1040) Volume 2" (PDF). Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ "Report on Stage 1 of the Te Paparahi o Te Raki Inquiry Released". Waitangi Tribunal. 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  29. ^ "TKM Te R?nanga o Ng?ti Hine". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni K?kiri, New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2018.
  30. ^ "Iwi Radio Coverage" (PDF). maorimedia.co.nz. M?ori Media Network. 2007. Retrieved 2015.
  31. ^ Koti, Tepara. "Fire engulfs Tautoko FM in Mangamuka". Te Kaea. M?ori Television. Retrieved 2015.

External links


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