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Newark is divided into five political wards (the East, West, South, North and Central wards) and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000.
1910-era map of ethnic enclaves in Newark, New Jersey
Newark was settled in 1666 by ConnecticutPuritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, which was first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713. It was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township (April 14, 1794), Caldwell Township (February 16, 1798; now known as Fairfield Township), Orange Township (November 27, 1806), Bloomfield Township (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township (April 14, 1834, remainder reabsorbed by Newark on March 5, 1902). Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood. As a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newark's Vailsburg.
The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, England, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire. But Pierson is also supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, and James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, and experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots.
The city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles (67.617 km2), including 24.187 square miles (62.644 km2) of land and 1.920 square miles (4.973 km2) of water (7.35% was water). It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U.S., behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 (sea level) in the east to approximately 230 feet (70 m) above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Historically, Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, and Weequahic.
Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were essentially wilderness, with a few dumps, warehouses, and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres (28 ha) of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands.
Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west (on the slope of the Watchung Mountains), the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, and middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north. The city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, which is said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City".
1910-era map of ethnic enclaves in Newark, New Jersey
Newark is New Jersey's largest and second-most racially diverse city (after neighboring Jersey City). It is divided into five political wards, which are often used by residents to identify their place of habitation. In recent years, residents have begun to identify with specific neighborhood names instead of the larger ward appellations. Nevertheless, the wards remain relatively distinct. Industrial uses, coupled with the airport and seaport lands, are concentrated in the East and South Wards, while residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central, and West Wards.
State law requires that wards be compact and contiguous and that the largest ward may not exceed the population of the smallest by more than 10% of the average ward size. Ward boundaries are redrawn, as needed, by a board of ward commissioners consisting of two Democrats and two Republicans appointed at the county level and the municipal clerk. Redrawing of ward lines in previous decades have shifted traditional boundaries, so that downtown currently occupies portions of the East and Central Wards. The boundaries of the wards are altered for various political and demographic reasons and sometimes gerrymandered, especially the northeastern portion of the West Ward.
In the 19th century, the Central Ward was inhabited by Germans and other white Catholic and Christian groups. The German inhabitants were later replaced by Jews, who were then replaced by Blacks. The increased academic footprint in the University Heights neighborhood has produced gentrification, with landmark buildings undergoing renovation. Located in the Central Ward is the nation's largest health sciences university, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School. It is also home to three other universities - New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Rutgers University - Newark, and Essex County College. The Central Ward forms the present-day heart of Newark, and includes 26 public schools, two police precincts, including headquarters, four firehouses, and one branch library.
Home in Forest Hill
The North Ward is surrounded by Branch Brook Park. Its neighborhoods include Broadway, Mount Pleasant, Upper Roseville and the affluent Forest Hill section. Forest Hill contains the Forest Hill Historic District, which is registered on state and national historic registers, and contains many older mansions and colonial homes. A row of residential towers with security guards and secure parking line Mt. Prospect Avenue in the Forest Hill neighborhood. The North Ward has lost geographic area in recent times; its southern boundary is now significantly further north than the traditional boundary near Interstate 280. The North Ward historically had a large Italian population; demographics have transitioned to Latino in recent decades, though the ward as a whole remains ethnically diverse.
The South Ward comprises the Weequahic, Clinton Hill, Dayton, and South Broad Valley neighborhoods. The South Ward, once home to residents of predominantly Jewish descent, now has ethnic neighborhoods made up primarily of African Americans and Hispanics. The South Ward is represented by Council Member John Sharpe James. The city's second-largest hospital, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, can be found in the South Ward, as can 17 public schools, five daycare centers, three branch libraries, one police precinct, a mini precinct, and three fire houses.
The East Ward consists of much of Newark's Downtown commercial district, as well as the Ironbound neighborhood, where much of Newark's industry was in the 19th century. Today, due to the enterprise of its immigrant population, the Ironbound (also known as "Down Neck" and "The Neck") is a destination for shopping, dining, and nightlife. A historically immigrant-dominated section of the city, the Ironbound in recent decades has been termed "Little Portugal" and "Little Brazil" due to its heavily Portuguese and Brazilian population, Newark being home to one of the largest Portuguese speaking communities in the United States. In addition, the East Ward has become home to various Latin Americans, African Americans, and commuters to Manhattan. Public education in the East Ward consists of East Side High School and six elementary schools. The ward is largely composed of densely packed housing, primarily large apartment buildings and rowhouses.
Newark lies in the transition between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate (KöppenCfa/Dfa), with cold, damp winters and hot, humid summers. The January daily mean is 31.6 °F (-0.2 °C), and although temperatures below 10 °F (-12 °C) are to be expected in most years, sub-0 °F (-18 °C) readings are rare; conversely, some days may warm up to 50 °F (10 °C). The average seasonal snowfall is 29.5 inches (75 cm), though variations in weather patterns may bring sparse snowfall in some years and several major nor'easters in others, with the heaviest 24-hour fall of 25.9 inches (66 cm) occurring on December 26, 1947. Spring and autumn in the area are generally unstable yet mild. The July daily mean is 77.4 °F (25.2 °C), and highs exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 27 days per year, not factoring in the oft-higher heat index.
The city receives precipitation ranging from 2.9 to 4.8 inches (74 to 122 mm) per month, usually falling on 8 to 12 days per month. Extreme temperatures have ranged from -14 °F (-26 °C) on February 9, 1934 to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011.
The city had a population of 277,140 as of the 2010 Census, retaining its position as the largest city in the state and making it the nation's 67th-most populous municipality. After reaching a peak of 442,337 residents counted in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a decline of nearly 40% as residents moved to surrounding suburbs, with the increase in 2010 of 3,594 (+1.3%) from the 273,546 counted in the 2000 Census marking the second census in 70 years in which the city's population had grown from the previous enumeration.
"White flight" from Newark to the suburbs started in the 1940s and accelerated in the 1960s. The 1967 riots resulted in a significant population loss of the city's middle class, many of them Jewish, which continued from the 1970s through to the 1990s. The city lost about 130,000 residents between 1960 and 1990.
From the 1950s to 1967, white population shrank from 363,000 to 158,000; its black population grew from 70,000 to 220,000. The percentage of Non-Hispanic whites declined from 82.8% in 1950 to 11.6% by 2010. The percentage of Latinos in Newark grew between 1980 and 2010, from 18.6% to 33.8% while that of Blacks decreased from 58.2% to 52.4%.
Poverty remains a consistent problem in Newark, despite its revitalization in recent years. As of 2010, roughly one-third of the city's population was impoverished.
In advance of the 2000 United States Census, city officials made a push to get residents to respond and participate in the enumeration, citing calculations by city officials that as many as 30,000 people were not reflected in estimates from the Census Bureau, which resulted in the loss of government aid and political representation. It is believed that heavily immigrant areas of Newark were significantly undercounted in the 2010 Census, especially in the East Ward. Many households refused to participate in the census, with immigrants often reluctant to submit census forms because they believed that the information could be used to justify their deportation.
There were 94,542 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.0% were married couples living together, 28.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.36.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.3 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $35,659 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,009) and the median family income was $41,684 (+/- $1,116). Males had a median income of $34,350 (+/- $1,015) versus $32,865 (+/- $973) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,367 (+/- $364). About 22.0% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.9% of those under age 18 and 22.4% of those age 65 or over.
Poverty rates, as of 2003
Newark was the 64th-most populous city as of the 2000 Census.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 273,546 people, 91,382 households, and 61,956 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,495.0 per square mile (4,437.7/km²). There were 100,141 housing units at an average density of 4,208.1 per square mile (1,624.6//km²). The racial makeup of the city as of the 2000 Census was 53.46% (146,250) African American, 26.52% (72,537) White, 1.19% (3,263) Asian, 0.37% (1,005) Native American, 0.05% (135) Pacific Islander, 14.05% (38,430) from other races, and 4.36% (11,926) from two or more races. 29.47% (80,622) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the 2000 Census, 49.2% of the city's 80,622 residents who identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino were from Puerto Rico, while 9.4% were from Ecuador and 7.8% from the Dominican Republic. There is a significant Portuguese-speaking community concentrated in the Ironbound district. 2000 Census data showed that Newark had 15,801 residents of Portuguese ancestry (5.8% of the population), while an additional 5,805 (2.1% of the total) were of Brazilian ancestry.
There were 91,382 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.40.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 27.9% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females of age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,913, and the median income for a family was $30,781. Males had a median income of $29,748 versus $25,734 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,009. 28.4% of the population and 25.5% of families were below the poverty line. 36.6% of those under the age of 18 and 24.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The city's unemployment rate was 8.5%.
More than 100,000 people commute to Newark each workday, making it the state's largest employment center with many white-collar jobs in insurance, finance, import-export, health-care, and government. As a major courthouse venue including federal, state, and county facilities, it is home to more than 1,000 law firms. The city is also a "college town", with nearly 50,000 students attending the city's universities and medical and law schools. Its airport, maritime port, rail facilities, and highway network make Newark the busiest transshipment hub on the East Coast in terms of volume.
Though Newark is not the industrial colossus of the past, the city does have a considerable amount of industry and light manufacturing. The southern portion of the Ironbound, also known as the Industrial Meadowlands, has seen many factories built since World War II, including a large Anheuser-Busch brewery that opened in 1951 and distributed 7.5 million barrels of beer in 2007. The service industry is also growing rapidly, replacing those in the manufacturing industry, which was once Newark's primary economy. In addition, transportation has become a large business in Newark, accounting for more than 17,000 jobs in 2011.
Newark is one of nine cities in New Jersey designated as eligible for Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits by the state's Economic Development Authority. Developers who invest a minimum of $50 million within 0.5 miles of a train station are eligible for pro-rated tax credit. After the election of Cory Booker, millions of dollars of public-private partnership investment were made in Downtown development, but persistent underemployment continue to characterize many of the city's neighborhoods. Poverty remains a consistent problem in Newark. As of 2010, roughly one-third of the city's population was impoverished.
Portions of Newark are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
Military Park in Downtown Newark, the town commons since 1869 and home to the Wars of America sculpture and the casual restaurant, Burg. As of 2018, the park is privately operated. Managed by a nonprofit corporation, the Military Park Partnership, which is staffed by Dan Biederman and Biederman Redevelopment Ventures, credited with transforming Manhattan's Bryant Park. The Military Park Partnership manages the programs, events, operations, security, and horticulture of the park.
Lincoln Park in the Arts District, one of three original colonial-era commons in Newark. From the 1920s to the 1950s, Lincoln Park was at the southern end of Newark's jazz and nightlife strip known as "The Coast."
Washington Park, the northernmost of the three original colonial-era commons in Newark. Philip Roth's narrator in Goodbye, Columbus visits the park, saying "Sitting there in the park, I felt a deep knowledge of Newark, an attachment so rooted that it could not help but branch out into affection."
A chain of parkland along the Passaic River, especially along the downward "curve" in the river that gave the Ironbound neighborhood its nickname of "Down Neck," offers waterfront recreation in the city. Kayaking and riverboat tours of the city are offered in the summer months. From east to west along the downward "neck" of the Passaic, parkland includes:
Independence Park, in the Ironbound district. Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, the Ironbound's first Italian parish and now a more Portuguese and Latin parish, faces the park. The church holds an annual June pageant and processional where a statue of the Virgin Mary is carried through the streets.
Jesse Allen Park, in the Central Ward. The 8-acre (3.2 ha) Jesse Allen Park is Newark's second-largest city-owned park. It is located near several schools and youth facilities, including a well-liked Boys & Girls Club of Newark facility. As of 2017, it offered new amenities including new sports fields, skateboarding, basketball, Fitness Zone exercise stations, a water play spray area, and climate-resilient garden features.
Weequahic Golf Course is an 18-hole public course. The facility was described in 2016 by the Golf Channel as a "hidden gem". Home to The First Tee Program of Essex County and golf pro Wiley Williams, who was one of the first African-American golfers to win a major New Jersey golf event and works to introduce city youth to the sport.
The base of the Wars of America (1926) monument at Military Park, created by the sculptor of Mount Rushmore to honor America's war dead. "The design represents a great spearhead. Upon the green field of this spearhead we have placed a Tudor sword, the hilt of which represents the American nation at a crisis, answering the call to arms."-- sculptor Gutzon Borglum
In the house music and garage house genres and scene, Newark is known as an innovator. Newark's Club Zanzibar, along with other gay and straight clubs in the 1970s and 80s, was famous as both a gay and straight nightlife destination. Famed DJ Tony Humphries helped "spawn the sometimes raw but always soulful, gospel-infused subgenre" of house music known as the Jersey Sound. The club scene also gave rise to the ball culture scene in Newark hotels and nightclubs.
House music producer, DJ and writer Junior Sanchez started making house music in his teens growing up in the Ironbound district.
The city is also home to the New Jersey Historical Society, which has rotating exhibits on New Jersey and Newark. The Newark Public Library, the state's largest system with 11 locations, also produces a series of historical exhibits. The library houses more than a million volumes and has frequent exhibits on a variety of topics, many featuring items from its Fine Print and Special Collections.
Since 1962, Newark has been home to the Institute of Jazz Studies, the world's foremost jazz archives and research libraries. Located in the John Cotton Dana Library at Rutgers-Newark, the Institute houses more than 200,000 jazz recordings in all commercially available formats, more than 6,000 monograph titles, including discographies, biographies, history and criticism, published music, film and video; over 600 periodicals and serials, dating back to the early 20th century; and one of the country's most comprehensive jazz oral history collections, featuring more than 150 jazz oral histories, most with typed transcripts.
Congregation Ahavas Sholom
On December 9, 2007, the Jewish Museum of New Jersey at 145 Broadway in the Broadway neighborhood, held its grand opening. The museum is dedicated to the cultural heritage of New Jersey's Jewish people. The museum is housed at Ahavas Sholom, the last continually operating synagogue in Newark. By the 1950s there were 50 synagogues in Newark serving a Jewish population of 70,000 to 80,000, once the sixth-largest Jewish community in the United States.
Since 2009, the Newark Planning Office, in collaboration with local arts organizations, has sponsored Newark Murals, and seen the creation of dozens of outdoor murals about significant people, places, and events in the city.
The Portraits mural, a massive multi-artist painting the length of 25 football fields created in 2016, is the longest continuous mural on the East Coast, and the second longest in the country. Seventeen artists contributed sections to the mural, including Adrienne Wheeler, Akintola Hanif, David Oquendo, Don Rimx, El Decertor, GAIA, GERA, Kevin Darmanie, Khari Johnson-Ricks, Lunar New Year, Manuel Acevedo, Mata Ruda, Nanook, Nina Chanel Abney, Sonni, Tatyana Fazlalizadeh, WERC and Zeh Palito. "Portraits" begins roughly at the intersection of Pointer Street and McCarter Highway in the South Ironbound district and stretches northwards 1.39 miles (2.24 km) along the century-old stone walls supporting the Amtrak, NJ Transit and PATH train tracks facing Newark's McCarter Highway (New Jersey Route 21).
Radio station WJZ (now WABC) made its first broadcast in 1921 from the Westinghouse plant near Broad Street Station. It moved to New York City in the 1920s. Radio station WNEW-AM (now WBBR) was founded in Newark in 1934 and later moved to New York City. WBGO, a National Public Radio affiliate with a format of standard and contemporary jazz, is at 54 Park Place in downtown Newark. WNSW AM-1430 (formerly WNJR) and WQXR (which was formerly WHBI and later WCAA) 105.9 FM are also licensed to Newark.
In 1915, the Bell System under ownership of American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) tested newly developed panel switching technology in Newark when they
cutover the telephone exchangesMulberry and Waverly to semi-mechanical operation on January 16 and June 12, respectively. The Panel system was the Bell System solution to the big city problem, where an exchange had to serve large numbers of subscribers on both manual as well as automatically switched central offices, without negatively impacting established user convenience and reliability. As originally introduced in these exchanges, subscribers' telephones had no dials and customers continued to make calls by asking an operator to ring their called party, at which point the operator keyed the telephone number into the panel equipment, instead of making cord connections manually.
Most Panel installations across the country were replaced by modern systems during the 1970s and the last Panel switch was decommissioned in the BIgelow central office in Newark in 1983.
New Jersey's first television station, WATV Channel 13, signed-on May 15, 1948, from studios at the Mosque Theater known as the "Television Center Newark." The studios were home to WNTA-13 beginning in 1958 and WNJU-47 until 1989.
Numerous movies, television programs, and music videos have been shot in Newark, its period architecture and its streetscape seen as an ideal "urban setting". The Jersey Motion Picture and Television Commission is in the city. In 2011, the city created the Newark Office of Film and Television in order to promote the making of media productions. Some months earlier the Ironbound Film & Television Studios, the only "stay and shoot" facility in the metro area opened, its first production being Bar Karma. In 2012 the city hosted the seventh season of the reality show competition America's Got Talent.
There have been several film and TV productions depicting life in Newark. Life of Crime was originally produced in 1988 and was followed by a 1998 sequel.New Jersey Drive is a 1995 film about the city when it was considered the "car theft capital of the world".Street Fight is an Academy Award-nominated documentary film which covered the 2002 mayoral election between incumbent Sharpe James and challenger Cory Booker. In 2009, the Sundance Channel aired Brick City, a five-part television documentary about Newark, focusing on the community's attempt to become a better and safer place to live, against a history of nearly a half century of violence, poverty and official corruption. The second season premiered January 30, 2011.Revolution '67 is an award-winning documentary which examines the causes and events of the 1967 Newark riots. The HBO television series The Sopranos filmed many of its scenes in Newark, and is partially based on the life of Newark mobster Richard Boiardo.The Once and Future Newark (2006) is a documentary travelogue about places of cultural, social and historical significance by Rutgers History Professor Clement Price.
The Many Saints of Newark, a Sopranos prequel by David Chase set in the late 1960s, in development.
The city is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council Plan C form of local government, which became effective as of July 1, 1954, after the voters of the city of Newark passed a referendum held on November 3, 1953. There are nine council members elected on a nonpartisan basis at the regular municipal election or at the general election for terms of four years: one council member from each of five wards and four council members on an at-large basis. The mayor is also elected for a term of four years.
Newark is split between the 8th and 10th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 28th and 29th state legislative districts. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Newark had been split between the 27th, 28th and 29th state legislative districts. Prior to the 2010 Census, Newark had been split between the 10th Congressional District and the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. As part of the split that took effect in 2013, 123,763 residents in two non-contiguous sections in the city's north and northeast were placed in the 8th District and 153,377 in the southern and western portions of the city were placed in the 10th District.
On the national level, Newark leans strongly toward the Democratic Party. As of March 23, 2011, out of a 2010 Census population of 277,140 in Newark, there were 136,785 registered voters (66.3% of the 2010 population ages 18 and over of 206,253, vs. 77.7% in all of Essex County of the 589,051 ages 18 and up) of which 68,393 (50.0% vs. 45.9% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 3,548 (2.6% vs. 9.9% countywide) were registered as Republicans, 64,812 (47.4% vs. 44.1% countywide) were registered as Unaffiliated and there were 30 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 95.0% of the vote (78,352 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 4.7% (3,852 votes), and other candidates with 0.4% (298 votes), among the 82,030 ballots cast by the city's 145,059 registered voters for a turnout of 56.5%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 90.8% of the vote (77,112 ballots cast), ahead of Republican John McCain who received 7.0% of the vote (5,957 votes), with 84,901 of the city's 140,946 registered voters participating, for a turnout of 60.2% of registered voters. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 85.9% of the vote (62,700 ballots), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received 12.8% (9,344), with 72,977 of 127,049 registered voters participating, for a turnout percentage of 57.4%.
In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton received 90.7% of the vote (69,042 cast); Republican, Donald Trump received 6.7% of the vote (5,094 cast); and other candidates received 1.5% of the vote (1,139 cast).
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 80.8% of the vote (29,039 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 17.9% (6,443 votes), and other candidates with 1.2% (437 votes), among the 37,114 ballots cast by the city's 149,778 registered voters (1,195 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 24.8%. In the 2009 Gubernatorial Election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 90.2% of the vote (36,637 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie who received 8.3% of the vote (3,355 votes), with 40,613 of the city's 134,195 registered voters (30.3%) participating.
Newark has been marred with political corruption throughout the years. Five of the previous seven mayors of Newark have been indicted on criminal charges, including the three mayors before Cory Booker: Hugh Addonizio, Kenneth Gibson and Sharpe James. As reported by Newsweek: "... every mayor since 1962 (except one, Cory Booker) has been indicted for crimes committed while in office".
Addonizio was mayor of Newark from 1962 to 1970. A son of Italian immigrants, a tailor and World War II veteran, he ran on a reform platform, defeating the incumbent, Leo Carlin, whom, ironically, Addonizio characterized as corrupt and a part of the political machine of the era. In December 1969, Addonizio and nine present or former officials of the municipal administration in Newark were indicted by a Federal grand jury; five other persons were also indicted. In July 1970, the former mayor, and four other defendants, were found guilty by a Federal jury on 64 counts each, one of conspiracy and 63 of extortion. In September 1970, Addonizio was sentenced to ten years in federal prison and fined $25,000 by Federal Judge George Herbert Barlow for his role in a plot that involved the extortion of $1.5 million in kickbacks, a crime that the judge said "tore at the very heart of our civilized society and our form of representative government".
His successor was Kenneth Gibson, the city's first African American mayor, elected in 1970. He pleaded guilty to federal tax evasion in 2002 as part of a plea agreement on fraud and bribery charges. During his tenure as mayor in 1980, Gibson was tried and acquitted of giving out no-show jobs by an Essex County jury.
Sharpe James, who defeated Gibson in 1986 and declined to run for a sixth term in 2006, was indicted on 33 counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, and wire fraud by a federal grand jury sitting in Newark. The grand jury charged James with spending $58,000 on city-owned credit cards for personal gain and orchestrating a scheme to sell city-owned land at below-market prices to his companion, who immediately re-sold the land to developers and gained a profit of over $500,000. James pleaded not guilty on 25 counts at his initial court appearance on July 12, 2007. On April 17, 2008, James was found guilty for his role in the conspiring to rig land sales at nine city-owned properties for personal gain. The former mayor was sentenced to serve up to 27 months in prison, and was released on April 6, 2010, for good behavior.
As of the 2006-2010 American Community Survey, 16.0% of Newark residents ages 25 and over had never attended high school and 15.9% didn't graduate, while 68.1% had at least graduated from high school, including the 12.3% who had earned a bachelor's degree or higher. The total school enrollment in Newark city was 75,025 in the 2006-2010 ACS, with pre-primary school enrollment of 10,560, elementary or high school enrollment of 46,691 and college enrollment of 17,774.
The Newark Public Schools, a state-operated school district, is the largest school system in New Jersey. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement that the state cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its 76 schools had an enrollment of 34,861 students and 2,815.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student-teacher ratio of 12.4:1.
Science Park High School, which was the 69th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 50th in 2008 out of 316 schools. Technology High School has a GreatSchools rating of 9/10 and was ranked 165th in New Jersey Monthly's 2010 rankings. Newark high schools ranked in the bottom 10% of the New Jersey Monthly 2010 list include Central (274th), East Side (293rd), Newark Vocational (304th), Weequahic (310th), Barringer (311th), Malcolm X Shabazz (314th) and West Side (319th). Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg donated a challenge grant of $100 million to the district in 2010, choosing Newark because he stated he believed in Mayor Cory Booker and Governor Chris Christie's abilities.
Link Community School is a non-denominational coeducational day school that serves approximately 128 students in seventh and eighth grades. The Newark Boys Chorus School was founded in the 1960s. University Heights Charter School, which opened in 2006, taught 614 students in grades PK-8 in 2014-2015.
Newark Trolley line on Market Street near the present-day courthouse
The Morris Canal, stretching 102 miles (164 km) to Newark from Phillipsburg on the Delaware River, was completed in 1831 and allowed coal and other industrial and agricultural products from Pennsylvania to be transported cheaply and efficiently to the New York metropolitan area. The canal's completion led to increased settlement in Newark, vastly increasing the population for years to come. After the canal was decommissioned, its right of way was converted into the Newark City Subway, now known as the Newark Light Rail. Many of the subway stations still portray the canal in its original state, in the form of mosaic works.
As the city became increasingly congested further means of transportation were sought, eventually leading to horse-drawn trolleys. These, in turn, were replaced by electric trolleys that traveled down the main streets of downtown Newark, including Broad Street, and up Market Street near the courthouse. The trolley cars did not last long as the personal motor vehicle quickly gained popularity and slowly made the trolley system seem like a burden.
Roads and highways
View north along the New Jersey Turnpike/Interstate 95 at the exit for Interstate 78, U.S. Route 1 and U.S. Route 9 in Newark
Local streets in Newark conform to a quasi-grid form, with major streets radiating outward (like spokes on a wheel) from the downtown area. Some major roads in the city are named after the towns to which they lead, including South Orange Avenue, Springfield Avenue, and Bloomfield Avenue, as well as Broadway, which had been renamed from Belleville Avenue.
In a city extensively served by mass transit, 44.2% of Newark residents did not have a car as of the 2000 Census, ranked second in the U.S. to New York City in the proportion of households without an automobile among cities with more than 250,000 people. According to the 2016 American Community Survey, the number of households without an automobile has decreased to 39.2%. The same year, the average Newark household owned .89 cars compared to a national average of 1.8 cars per household.
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 53.7% of working city of Newark residents commuted by driving alone, 9.3% carpooled, 27.3% used public transportation, and 6.5% walked. About 5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 5.7% of working Newark residents worked at home.
University Hospital EMS (UH-EMS) operates the EMS system for the city. The department operates a fleet of six BLS units staffed with two EMTs 24/7, supplemented by four 12-hour "power" trucks (operated during peak demand time hours), five ALS units staffed with two paramedics (one of which is stationed at Newark International Airport and covers the airport and Port Newark-Elizabeth, and frequently responds into the City of Elizabeth), and a critical care unit staffed by a paramedic and an RN. With distinction they also staff the only hospital based heavy rescue truck in the country, known as University EMS Rescue 1. The EMS system is the busiest system per unit in the nation. On average, a BLS unit may be sent to 20-25 dispatches in a 12-hour shift. They also provide the medical staffing for Northstar, with one of the two NJ State Police medevac helicopters, staffing one flight nurse and a flight medic around the clock. The EMS system in Newark handles upwards of 125,000 requests for service annually.
Former Engine 8 firehouse in the Ironbound neighborhood
The city is protected by more than 700 full-time, paid firefighters of the Newark Fire Department (NFD). Founded in 1863, the NFD operates out of 16 firehouses throughout the city that are organized into 4 battalions (Battalions 1,3,4, and 5), under the command of a deputy chief/tour commander. There is also a Safety Battalion Chief, Battalion 2, and a Special Operations Battalion Chief, Battalion 6, on duty 24/7. The NFD operates 16 engine companies, 8 ladder companies, 1 rescue company, an Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) Collapse Rescue Unit (Rescue 2), a USAR Collapse Rescue Shoring Unit, 2 fire boats, a scuba diving unit, a mobile medical ambulance bus, an air cascade unit, a foam unit, a quick attack response vehicle (QRV 1), a mobile command unit, 3 HazMat units, and numerous special, support, and reserve units. The NFD responds to approximately 45,000 emergency calls annually. In 2006, the NFD responded to 2,681 fire and hazardous condition calls. The department is a member of the Metro USAR Strike Team, which is composed of nine North Jersey fire departments.
In 1996, Money magazine ranked Newark "The Most Dangerous City in the Nation." By 2007, the city recorded a total of 99 homicides for the year, representing a significant drop from the record of 161 murders set in 1981. The number of murders in 2008 dropped to 65, a decline of 30% from the previous year and the lowest in the city since 2002 when there were also 65 murders.
In 2010, Newark recorded 90 homicides. March 2010 was the first calendar month since 1966 in which the city did not record a homicide. Overall, there was a 6% increase in crime numbers over the previous year, including a rise in carjackings for the third straight year, with the 337 incidents raising concerns that the city was returning to its status as the "car theft capital of the world". Along with the increase in crime, the Newark Police Department increased its recovery of illegally owned guns in 2011 to 696, up from 278 in 2010. The Federal Bureau of Investigation recorded 94 homicides in 2011 and 95 in 2012. In 2012 CNNMoney ranked Newark as the 6th most dangerous city in the United States, based on numbers by FBI Crime in the United States 2011 report. The city had 10 murders in 10 days during the period ending September 6, 2013, a statistic largely attributed to the reduction of the police force. In 2013 Newark recorded 111 homicides, the first year ending in triple digits in seven years and the highest tally since 1990, accounting for 27% of all murders statewide. In 2014, the total number of homicides in Newark was 93, while Essex County as a whole had 117 murders.The Star-Ledger reported that there were 105 homicides in the city in 2015. The city had 72 homicides in 2017, a statistic described as a "historic low", and a sharp drop from the 96 murders recorded in the city in 2016.
^ abcSturken, Barbara. "Newark Airport Gains In International Travel", The New York Times, February 11, 1990. Accessed June 25, 2012. "The oldest airport in the New York metropolitan region, Newark opened in 1928 on 68 acres (28 ha) of reclaimed swampland. It underwent a major overhaul in 1973, when an immense $400 million complex opened to replace an outmoded 20-year-old terminal."
^Staff. "Newark on Trent Shows Interest in Newark, New Jersey", p. 123. Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume VI, 1921. Accessed September 10, 2015. "It seems to be understood that the name of Newark, New Jersey, is traceable to the influence of the first pastor of the settlement, Rev. Abraham Pierson, who was a native of Yorkshire, England, and is said to have probably ministered first to a church in Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire."
^Princeton Alumni Weekly vol. 78; The Puritans in America: a narrative anthology, by Andrew Delbanco, Alan Heimert
^National Archives, Kew, England, T 1/65261-64; Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, The life and correspondence of James McHenry (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907)
^Riche, Patrick. "Newark's Prudential Center: A Key Player in Newark's Re-Branding Efforts", Forbes, January 10, 2012. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Newark is currently undergoing a major revitalization. The Prudential Center, the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, The Newark Symphony, Riverfront Stadium and Red Bull Park in nearby Harrison and home to Major League Soccer's New York Red Bulls represent just part of the nearly $2 billion in construction underway."
^A View of Mt. Prospect, NewarkHistory.com. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Of the upper class districts of Old Newark - High Street, Lincoln Park, Weequahic and Forest Hill - Forest Hill is the most famous and best preserved."
^Erminio, Vinessa. "Gateway? Renaissance? A reviving city earns its nicknames", The Star-Ledger, December 8, 2005. Accessed June 25, 2012. "Newark also was known as the Gateway City about 1960. This may have been because of a statewide tourism campaign in which regions of the state were designated with names. Newark, Jersey City and the surrounding communities were called Gateway."
^ abLiving Here: Neighborhoods, Brick City Development Corporation for Newark, New Jersey. Accessed June 25, 2012. "The city is divided into five wards, each with distinct neighborhoods. Residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central and West Wards, while industry is concentrated largely in the East and South Wards near the airport and seaport.... East Ward. The most densely populated section of Newark, the East Ward, is home of one of the largest Portuguese-speaking communities in the country."
^Reock Jr., Ernest C. Redistricting New Jersey After the Census of 2010, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, March 2008, pp. 7-9. Accessed September 10, 2015. "The law requires that wards be formed of compact and contiguous territory. The most precise requirement is that the population of the largest ward may not exceed the population of the smallest ward by more than 10% of the mean average population of the wards."
^Dolan, Thomas. "Newark and Its Gateway Complex - Part 2: Old Newark, New Newark"Archived April 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Newark Metro. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Even prior to the riots, Newark was on a steady decline as residents began to leave the city. 'White flight' from Newark to the suburbs, which started in the '40s and accelerated in the '60s, meant that an increasing number of people who worked in the city no longer lived there."
^Burr, Ty. "Heart of Stone: Seeing the good one man can do"Archived May 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. The Boston Globe, October 22, 2009. Accessed February 15, 2012. "The twin forces of light at Weequahic are principal Ron Stone and the school's alumni association, the latter made up almost entirely of white middle-class Jews. Until the Newark riots and ensuing white flight crippled the neighborhood in the late 1960s, Weequahic was one of the country's finest schools..."
^ abWilwohl, Joshua. "Report: Newarkers Among New Jersey's Poorest", Newark Patch, September 26, 2011. Accessed May 10, 2016. "U.S. Census Bureau statistics reveal there are 79,243 people living in poverty in the city of Newark. Those numbers, which were part of the census' American Community Survey released last Thursday, mean roughly one in three residents of New Jersey's largest city are poor."
^Delgado, Samuel A. "Newark could be a real college town", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2012. Accessed April 7, 2015. "With 60,000 students and faculty at six colleges and universities, Newark has the fifth-highest concentration of higher education on the East Coast, after Boston, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C."
^Newark The Living Downtown Development PlanArchived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. City of Newark, 2008. Accessed May 10, 2016. "Downtown Newark is the largest downtown in the state of New Jersey. Its assets include nearly 50,000 office workers, the headquarters of five major corporations, five university campuses with nearly 50,000 students and faculty, two hospital campuses, one of the best public transit systems in the nation among mid-sized cities, and important sports, cultural, and entertainment destinations...In 2000, the daytime population of Newark was estimated at over 330,000, including a workforce of 47,000 people within one half-mile of the intersection of Broad and Market Streets, Newark's legendary Four Corners."
^Morley, Hugh R. "Anheuser-Busch announces 60 NJ jobs cuts", The Record (Bergen County), January 20, 2015. Accessed June 14, 2016. "A company spokesman declined to say how many employees work at the plant, which was opened in 1951 and makes Budweiser, Bud Light and other company brands. In 2007, there were 800 workers at the brewery, which at that time shipped 7.5 million barrels of beer annually."
^Luxenberg, Stan. "Developers Rediscover Newark"Archived October 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. National Real Estate Investor, May 18, 2011. Accessed August 15, 2012. "Downtown Newark accounts for 50,000 jobs. The city is the third largest insurance center in the U.S. after New York City and Hartford, Conn."
^About Audible, Audible.com. Accessed September 10, 2015. "'The vision behind the move was to try to combine a missionary, disruptive, technology-driven company with Newark's transformation. I consider the Newark move one of the best decisions we've made as a company.' - Donald Katz, Audible Founder & CEO"
^Lipton, Eric. "New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade", The New York Times, November 22, 2004. Accessed September 13, 2011. "New York is not the only seaport lifted by the tide of Asian imports. No one expects it to regain its status as the world's busiest container port - a title it held until 1985 - or the nation's. Today it is ranked 15th in the world, 3rd in the United States."
^Joseph G. Minish Passaic River Waterfront Park and Historic Area, United States Army Corps of Engineers. Accessed June 11, 2018. "The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, is partnered with the State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and City of Newark to construct the Minish Park Project which will reduce riverbank erosion and lay the foundation for waterfront park development and return of public access to the Passaic River in Newark, NJ. Phase I of the project includes 6,000 linear feet of bulkhead construction, and 3,200 linear feet of riverbank grading and native plantings."
^Ivy Park includes hard surface tennis courts, softball/baseball fields, a combination football/soccer field, a lighted basketball court, a playground, a shelter and a band concert area.
^Ivy Hill Park, Essex County Department of Parks, Recreation and Cultural Affairs. Accessed June 11, 2018.
^Staff. "Newark receives federal grant to complete Jessie Allen Park", TAP into Newark, July 24, 2017. Accessed June 11, 2018. "Newark has received a $750,000 federal grant from the National Park Service to build the final phase of Jesse Allen Park in Newark's Central Ward that will replace the existing baseball, football, and soccer fields with a synthetic three-season turf."
^"Golfer Of The Week: Wiley Williams", African American Golfer's Digest. Accessed June 11, 2018. "Wiley Williams is a Weequahic Golf Course legend and outstanding New Jersey golf Pro. At Weequahic, the oldest public golf course in the state of New Jersey, Wiley almost single handedly put this course on the map with his stellar golf game and sharp ball striking skills."
^Ahearn, James. "Opinion: Mission accomplished, NJPAC chief moves on", The Record (Bergen County), October 26, 2010. Accessed April 7, 2015. "The first project, on a 1.2-acre lot across the street from the center, is conceived as a high-rise, multi-use tower, which at 44 stories would be the tallest building in the city.... The sixth-largest performing arts center in the country, home to the increasingly respected New Jersey Symphony Orchestra, NJPAC attracts more than 400,000 patrons annually."
^About, Newark Symphony Hall. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Newark Symphony Hall enjoys a long and rich cultural history as New Jersey's oldest and largest showcase for the arts, education and entertainment programming. This multi-facility edifice was built by the Shriners, a Masonic order, in 1925 and known as the Salaam Temple."
^ abNewark Black Film Festival, Newark Museum. Accessed June 13, 2016. "Since its inception in 1974, the Newark Black Film Festival (NBFF) has become known among its peers as the longest running black film festival in the United States."
^About, Congregation Ahavas Sholom. Accessed May 12, 2017.
^Levinson, Jay. "This City is Just Memories", Jewish magazine. Accessed June 28, 2012. "The Jewish community of Newark, New Jersey is a page in history. The era of some 50 synagogues and 70,000 Jewish residents in the city during the 1950s is long over. Today there is just one remaining synagogue building which is owned by Jews, and it operates only on Shabbat."
^Carter, Barry. "Murals bring vibrant colors, culture to Newark neighborhoods", The Star-Ledger, June 24, 2016. Accessed January 7, 2018. "Murals are not new to Newark. There are at least 40 scattered throughout the city's five wards in the program that started seven years ago.But Mayor Ras Baraka's administration made a push this past year to target neglected neighborhood corridors with an infusion of art as the anchor for economic growth and social transformation."
^Mazzola, Jessica. "N.J. is now home to 2nd longest mural in the U.S.", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 27, 2016. Accessed June 11, 2018. "Stretching 1.39 miles on the walls underneath the Amtrak train tracks along Route 21, the newly-painted mural is about the length of 25 football fields, city officials said in a recent announcement. It is the longest continuous mural on the East Coast, and the second longest in the U.S., city officials confirmed. The 'Portraits' mural, part of the larger 'Gateways to Newark' beautification effort, was painted by 17 different artists."
^Sherman, Ted. "Newark headquarters of Star-Ledger sold to New York real estate development firm", The Star-Ledger, July 24, 2014. Accessed September 10, 2015. "The Star-Ledger has sold its long-time home in Newark, where the state's largest daily newspaper was headquartered for nearly 50 years, according to publisher Richard Vezza. The company would not disclose a sale price for the 177,000-square-foot building - many of the offices already vacant because of layoffs, attrition and the move of some operations to new offices in Woodbridge and Secaucus."
^Home Page, 165 Halsey Street. Accessed June 13, 2016.
^Western Electric, The Last Panel Office, WE Magazine 1983 No. 1, page 22
^Model, Eric. "Remembering Channel 13 -- New Jersey's first television station"Archived September 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. NewJerseyNewsroom.com, August 8, 2011. Accessed September 11, 2014. "Initially the station was known as WATV, and was a commercial television station owned by Atlantic Television, a subsidiary of Bremer Broadcasting Corporation. It started broadcasting on May 15, 1948 on Channel 13. Bremer also owned two northern New Jersey radio stations, WAAT (970 AM, now WNYM) and WAAT-FM (94.7 MHz, now WFME). The three stations were based in the Mosque Theater on Broad Street in Newark."
^Kannapell, Andrea. "CITY LIFE; Giving Away a Film's Ending: It's Not Happy", The New York Times, December 13, 1998. Accessed January 19, 2012. "And the backdrop to these unhappy lives, the Ironbound - a residential and industrial section outlined in Newark's southeast corner by various train lines - emerges as a vicious trap of a neighborhood, a painful counterpoint to downtown Newark's spreading veneer of investment and municipal energy."
^Quinn, Zachary. "Analysis of New Jersey Drive", University of Minnesota Duluth. Accessed January 19, 2012. "The story takes place in Newark, New Jersey, the car theft capital of the world. And in this urban setting we find the young African American teens involved in stealing cars and dodging police in what can be described as empty lives, no goals, no focus and no direction. The only thing that these young men are interested in is the ride."
^Kuperinsky, Amy. "Sopranos prequel movie The Many Saints of Newark in the works", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, March 8, 2018. Accessed June 11, 2018. "The Many Saints of Newark," a screenplay from Sopranos creator David Chase, has been picked up by New Line Cinema, the report says. The story is reportedly set in 1960s Newark, around the time of the Newark riots."
^Kilday, Gregg. "Glendon Palmer Joins IM Global as SVP", The Hollywood Reporter, April 10, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2018. "Palmer will also oversee development on The Short and Tragic Life of Robert Peace, based on the novel by Jeff Hobbs, which Antoine Fuqua and his writing partner Jamal Joseph are adapting for the screen, with Fuqua Films producing."
^Hague, Jim. "Ridiculous auction last sad chapter for Newark Bears", The Observer Online, April 30, 2014. Accessed June 14, 2016. "After all, it was the kind of Saturday in April where baseball was played at the ballpark every year since 1999, when the Newark Bears rose from the ashes of an era long gone and brought professional baseball back to the Brick City for the first time in almost 50 full years. Sure, Rutgers-Newark and NJIT have also called Riverfront Stadium home since the $34 million facility was opened 15 years ago."
^Ivers, Dan. "Former Newark Bears stadium sold to NYC developer for $23M", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, March 20, 2016. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The former home of the Newark Bears minor league baseball team - left to languish along Broad Street since the hard-luck franchise folded in 2013 - has been sold to a New York-based developer for $23.5 million.The site at the corner of Broad Street and Orange Street has been sold to the Lotus Equity Group, city officials confirmed this week. Lotus plans to demolish Riverfront Stadium and build a mixed-use, high-rise tower in its place."
^Mazzeo, Mike. "Chris Christie: No love lost for Nets", ESPN New York, April 24, 2012. Accessed June 26, 2012. "The New Jersey Nets are playing their final game in New Jersey on Monday night and leaving for Brooklyn at the end of this season, but the governor of New Jersey isn't about to get all nostalgic over it."
^Fowlkes, Ben. "UFC Not the First on Network TV, but Can It Learn From Others' Mistakes?", mmafighting.com, November 9, 2011. Accessed July 9, 2015. "On May 31, 2008, EliteXC brought a live MMA event to primetime network television for the first time in American TV history. The aptly named Primetime event went down in Newark's Prudential Center, and was loaded with EliteXC's most marketable stars, including Kimbo Slice, Gina Carano, Robbie Lawler, and Phil Baroni."
^ abGeneral Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018. "The County Executive, elected from the County at-large, for a four-year term, is the chief political and administrative officer of the County.... The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
^Sullivan, Ronald. "Addonizio Given a 10-Year Term", The New York Times, September 23, 1970. Accessed November 13, 2016. "Former Mayor Hugh J. Addonizio of Newark was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $25,000 in Federal Court here today for conspiracy and extortion. Convicted of sharing in the proceeds of extorted kickbacks totaling $1.5 million from contractors on city water and sewer lines, Addonizio stood impassively with his head bowed as Judge George H. Barlow declared that his crimes were of 'monumental proportion' that 'tore at the very heart of our civilized society and our form of representative government.'"
^Narvaez, Alfonso A. "GIBSON ACQUITTED OF A CONSPIRACY IN 'NO SHOW' CASE", The New York Times, October 22, 1982. Accessed September 10, 2015. "Mayor Kenneth A. Gibson was found not guilty today of conspiracy in connection with charges that he had helped create a 'no show' job for a former city official. But the Superior Court jury could not reach a unanimous verdict on a charge of official misconduct."
^Martin, John. "Judge, prosecutors clash over James' 27-month jail term", NJ.com, July 29, 2008. Accessed April 7, 2015. "Former Newark mayor Sharpe James was ordered Tuesday to serve 27 months in prison and pay a $100,000 fine for fraud and conspiracy - a sentence that capped a spectacular downfall for one of New Jersey's political titans, but one that incensed prosecutors who thought it was too light."
^Delgado, Samuel A. "Newark could be a real college town", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2012. Accessed May 20, 2017. "With 60,000 students and faculty at six colleges and universities, Newark has the fifth-highest concentration of higher education on the East Coast, after Boston, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C.... With the recent burst in construction, Newark's universities off Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and the Central Ward are increasingly becoming residential campuses, as more students want the experience of living and studying in a big city."
^McGeehan, Patrick. "Commuters Feel Pinch as Christie Tightens", The New York Times, May 16, 2011. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Without the Port Authority money, Mr. Simpson said, New Jersey would have to spend about $30 million a year just to keep the Pulaski Skyway - a 70-year-old bridge that serves as a link between Newark Liberty International Airport and the Holland Tunnel - from falling down. Now, it will invest about $900 million over five years to 'basically rebuild the whole bridge.'"
^On Broadway, NewarkHistory.org. Accessed June 26, 2012. "Newark's Broadway was called Belleville Avenue in the Nineteenth Century. Like Springfield Avenue, Bloomfield Avenue, and South Orange Avenue, Broadway is one of Newark's great radial streets. The name of the street, for reasons unknown to me, was changed from Belleville Ave to Broadway in the early Twentieth century."
^Murr, Andrew; and Noonoo, Jemimah. "A Return To The Bad Old Days?", Newsweek, August 17, 2007. "Murders rose 27 percent in Newark (population 280,000) in the past two years, as killings rose from 83 in 2004 to 104 last year. So far, the pace this year is slower--61 deaths since January."[dead link]
^This linkArchived November 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. contains a reference to a June 11, 2007 article in Newsday stating that "Meanwhile, homicides in Newark have jumped from 65 in 2002 to 113 last year, with nonfatal shootings also on the rise." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
^Queally, James. "Newark records first homicide-free month in more than 40 years", The Star-Ledger, April 1, 2010. Accessed July 9, 2015. "For the first time in more than 40 years, an entire calendar month has come and gone without a homicide in the state's largest city. It's been 32 days since a homicide took place in Newark, marking the first time there has been a slay-free calendar month in the city since 1966."
^Queally, James. "Newark carjackings rise for 3rd straight year", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2012. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The increases have sparked concerns among business leaders and residents that the state's largest city is once again becoming the 'car theft capital of the world,' a dubious monicker it earned in the 1990s."
^Johnson, Anthony. "Newark murders hit triple digits", WABC-TV, December 27, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015."Murders in Newark hit triple digits this year for the first time in seven years.... So far in 2013, there have been 102 murders. The last time the murder rate was in triple digits was in 2007 when there were 107 murders."
^Ivers, Dan. "Declines in Newark, Camden drive N.J. homicides to 5-year low in 2014", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 1, 2015, updated January 5, 2015. "More than a third of those incidents took place in Essex County, where Newark and Irvington accounted for all but five of the county's 117 homicides. The state's largest city totaled 93 for the year - by far the highest in the state, but a sizeable reduction from the 111 it recorded last year."
^Ivers, Dan. "Despite progress in cities, N.J. homicides jump 4 percent in 2015", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 1, 2016, updated January 14, 2016. Accessed June 13, 2016. "More than a quarter of those slayings took place in Newark, where a bloody finish to the year, which included 25 homicides over November and December, drove the city's total to 105*, according to police department statistics - an uptick of 12 over 2014."
^Yi, Karen. "Homicides hit a low but shootings on the rise in N.J.'s largest city", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, December 14, 2017. Accessed June 11, 2018. "There were 70 homicides to date this year -- about a 28 percent drop from the year prior, Mayor Ras Baraka said during a press conference on the city's year-end crime statistics at the police-fire communications center. That's 26 fewer murders than last year's 96, officials said."
^Home Page, Consulado de Colombia en newark. Accessed July 9, 2015.
^Haddon, Heather. "Saying Arrivederci to N.J.'s Consulate", The Wall Street Journal, September 17, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has decided to close its consulate in Newark, the only full-fledged office in a state renowned as the home of Italian-American pop-culture fixtures such as Frank Sinatra and The Sopranos."
^Rose, Liza. "Planned closure of Italian consulate in Newark sparks criticism", The Star-Ledger, September 20, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Italian consulate in Newark is slated to close in March, passing its jurisdiction over to New York. Although 13 other Italian consulates worldwide are being shuttered due to fiscal woes, the New Jersey office is the only location in the United States that is getting the boot."
^Home PageArchived February 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Consulate of Italy in Newark. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Consulate Of Italy In Newark, New Jersey Is Closed As Of February 28, 2014."
^Piazza, Jo. "Dalai Lama's Latest Peace Project: Newark", The Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2011. Accessed July 9, 2015. "The Tibetan spiritual leader has been to 62 countries on six continents in his 75 years on Earth, but until Thursday, he had never had an extended stay in Newark, save for a brief stop in 1990 to consecrate a Buddhist altar at the Newark Museum."