New York City Landmark
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New York City Landmark

Coordinates: 40°42?47?N 74°00?14?W / 40.71295°N 74.00377°W / 40.71295; -74.00377

The demolition of Pennsylvania Station was a key moment in the preservationist movement, which led to the creation of the LPC

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) is the New York City agency charged with administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law. The LPC is responsible for protecting New York City's architecturally, historically, and culturally significant buildings and sites by granting them landmark or historic district status, and regulating them after designation. It is the largest municipal preservation agency in the nation.[1] As of July 1, 2020, the LPC has designated more than 37,000 landmark properties in all five boroughs. Most of these are concentrated in historic districts, although there are over a thousand individual landmarks, as well as numerous interior and scenic landmarks.

Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. first organized a preservation committee in 1961, and the following year, created the LPC. The LPC's power was greatly strengthened after the Landmarks Law was passed in April 1965, one and a half years after the destruction of Pennsylvania Station. The LPC has been involved in several prominent preservation decisions, including that of Grand Central Terminal. By 1990, the LPC was cited by David Dinkins as having preserved New York City's municipal identity and enhanced the market perception of a number of neighborhoods.

The LPC is governed by eleven commissioners. The Landmarks Preservation Law stipulates that a building must be at least thirty years old before the LPC can declare it a landmark.

Role

The goal of New York City's landmarks law is to preserve the aesthetically and historically important buildings, structures, and other objects that make up the New York City vista. The Landmarks Preservation Commission is responsible for deciding which properties should be subject to landmark status and enacting regulations to protect the aesthetic and historic nature of these properties. The LPC preserves not only architecturally significant buildings, but the overall historical sense of place of neighborhoods that are designated as historic districts.[2] The LPC is responsible for overseeing a range of designated landmarks in all five boroughs ranging from the Fonthill Castle in the North Bronx, built in 1852 for the actor Edwin Forrest, to the 1670s Conference House in Staten Island, where Benjamin Franklin and John Adams attended a conference aimed at ending the Revolutionary War.

The LPC helps preserve the city's landmark properties by regulating changes to their significant features.[3] The role of the LPC has evolved over time, especially with the changing real estate market in New York City.[4]

Potential landmarks are first nominated to the LPC from citizens, property owners, city government staff, or commissioners or other staff of the LPC. Subsequently, the LPC conducts a survey of properties, visiting sites to determine which structures or properties should be researched further. The selected properties will then be discussed at public hearings where support or opposition to a proposed landmark designation are recorded.[5] According to the Landmarks Preservation Law, a building must be at least thirty years old before the LPC can declare it a landmark.[6][7] Approval of a landmark designation requires six commissioners to vote in favor. Approved designations are then sent to the New York City Council, which receives reports from other city agencies including the New York City Planning Commission, and decides whether to confirm, modify, or veto the designation.[8] Before 1990, the New York City Board of Estimate held veto power, rather than the City Council.[9] After the City Council's final approval, a landmark designation may be overturned if an appeal is filed within 90 days.[10]

Staff

The Landmarks Preservation Commission consists of 11 commissioners, who are unpaid and serve three-year terms on a part-time basis. By law, the commissioners must include a minimum of six professionals: three architects, a historian, a city planner or landscape architect, and a realtor. In addition, the commission must be represented by at least one resident of each of New York City's five boroughs. All of the commissioners are unpaid, except for the chairman.[11][5]

The commission also employs a full-time, paid workforce of 80, composed of administrators, legal advisors, architects, historians, restoration experts, and researchers. Students sponsored by the federal government, as well as volunteers, also assist the commission.[5] The full-time staff, students, and volunteers are divided into six departments.[12][11][13] The research department performs research of structures and sites that have been deemed potential landmarks. The preservation department reviews and approves permit applications to structures and sites that have been deemed landmarks. The enforcement department reviews reports of alleged violations of the Landmarks Law, which includes alterations to a landmark.[13] The archaeology department is composed of four archaeologists, who review the impact of proposed subsurface projects, as well as oversee any archaeological discoveries.[14] The environmental review department uses data from the research and archaeology departments to collect reports for governmental agencies that require environmental review for their projects.[15] Finally, the Historic Preservation Grant Program distributes grants to owners of landmark properties designated by the LPC or on the National Registered Historic Places (NRHP).[16]

Types

As of July 1, 2020, there are more than 37,000 landmark properties in New York City, most of which are located in 150 historic districts in all five boroughs. The total number of protected sites includes 1,439 individual landmarks, 120 interior landmarks, and 11 scenic landmarks.[1] Some of these are also National Historic Landmark (NHL) sites, and many are on the NRHP.[1][17]

  • Individual landmark: The exteriors of objects or structures; the interior is not included unless designated separately. Individual landmarks must be at least 30 years old and contain "a special character or special historical or aesthetic interest or value as part of the development, heritage, or cultural characteristics of the City, state, or nation".[18]
  • Interior landmark: The interiors of structures, which fit the individual landmark criteria and are "customarily open or accessible to the public".[18]
  • Scenic landmark: Sites owned by the city, which fit the individual landmark criteria and are "parks or other landscape features".[18]
  • Historic districts: Regions with buildings that fit the individual landmark criteria and contain "architectural and historical significance". Landmark districts must also be geographically cohesive with a "coherent streetscape" and a "sense of place".[18]

History

Context

Andrew Carnegie Mansion
Before the LPC was founded, buildings such as the Andrew Carnegie Mansion were preserved largely based on individual or group advocacy.

The preservation movement in New York City dates to at least 1831, when the New York Evening Post expressed its opposition to the demolition of a 17th-century house on Pearl Street in Lower Manhattan.[19][20] Before the LPC's creation, buildings and structures were preserved mainly through advocacy, either from individuals or from groups.[21] Numerous residences were saved this way, including the Andrew Carnegie Mansion, Percy R. Pyne House, and Oliver D. Filley House, all of which ultimately became individual landmarks after the LPC's formation.[21] Other structures such as the Van Cortlandt House, Morris-Jumel Mansion, Edgar Allan Poe Cottage, and Dyckman House were preserved as historic house museums during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[22] Advocates also led efforts to preserve cultural sites such as Carnegie Hall, which in the late 1950s was slated for replacement with an office tower.[23][24] However, early preservation movements often focused on preserving Colonial-style houses, while paying relatively little attention to other architectural styles or building types.[25]

There was generally little support for the preservation movement until World War II.[20] Structures such as the City Hall Post Office and Courthouse, Madison Square Presbyterian Church (1906), and Madison Square Garden (1890) were demolished if they had fallen out of architectural favor.[26] Others, such as St. John's Chapel, were destroyed in spite of support for preservation.[20][27] By the 1950s, there was growing support for preservation of architecturally significant structures. For example, a 1954 study found approximately two hundred structures that could potentially be preserved.[28][29] At the same time, older structures, especially those constructed before World War I, were being perceived as an impediment to development.[30] The demolition of Pennsylvania Station between 1963 and 1966, in spite of widespread outcry,[31][32] is cited as a catalyst for the architectural preservation movement in the United States, particularly in New York City.[33][34]

Creation

The Mayor's Committee for the Preservation of Structures of Historic and Esthetic Importance was formed in mid-1961 by mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr.[11][35] This committee had dissolved by early 1962.[36] Wagner formed the Landmarks Preservation Commission on April 21, 1962, with twelve unsalaried members.[11][37][38] Soon afterward, the LPC began designating buildings as landmarks.[38] That July, Wagner issued an executive order that compelled municipal agencies to notify the LPC of any "proposed public improvements".[39]

The early version of the LPC initially held little power over enforcement,[11][40] and failed to avert Pennsylvania Station's demolition.[41] As a result, in April 1964, LPC member Geoffrey Platt drafted a New York City Landmarks Law.[42] Outcry over the proposed destruction of the Brokaw Mansion on Manhattan's Upper East Side, identified by the LPC as a possible landmark, inspired Wagner to send the legislation to the New York City Council in mid-1964.[7][42][43] The law, introduced in the City Council that October, would significantly increase the LPC's powers.[44] The City Council cited concerns that "the City has been and is undergoing the loss and destruction of its architectural heritage at an alarming rate, especially so in the last 8-10 years".[11][45] Several changes to the Landmarks Law were made by the City Council committee that was reviewing the legislation; for example, the committee removed a clause mandating a 400-foot (120 m) protective zone around proposed landmarks.[42][46] The bill passed the City Council on April 7, 1965,[47] and was signed into law by Wagner on April 20.[5][48]

The Astor Library was discussed during the commission's first public hearing in 1965.

The first eleven commissioners to take office under the Landmarks Law were sworn in during June 1965.[49] Platt was the first chairman, serving until 1968.[50] The LPC's first public hearing occurred in September 1965, and the first twenty landmarks were designated the next month.[51] The Wyckoff House in Brooklyn was the first landmark numerically,[11][52] and was designated simultaneously with structures such as the Astor Library,[53] the Brooklyn Navy Yard's Commandant's House, the Bowling Green U.S. Custom House, and six buildings at Sailors' Snug Harbor.[51] The first landmark district, the Brooklyn Heights Historic District, was designated in November 1965.[11] Within its first year, the LPC designated 37 landmarks in addition to the Brooklyn Heights Historic District. The LPC's earliest landmarks were mainly selected based on their architecture, and were largely either government buildings, institutions, or structures whose preservation was unlikely to be controversial.[8] As a result, several prominent buildings were destroyed in the first several years of the LPC's existence, such as the Singer Building and the New York Tribune Building. Other structures, such as the Villard Houses and Squadron A Armory, were saved only partially.[54]

Changes

The LPC was headquartered in the Mutual Reserve Building from 1967 to 1980,[55] and in the Old New York Evening Post Building from 1980 to 1987.[56] The original legislation enabled the LPC to designate landmarks for eighteen months after the law became effective, followed by alternating cycles of three-year hiatuses and six-month "designating periods".[5][42][57] In 1973, mayor John Lindsay signed legislation that allowed the LPC to consider landmarks on a rolling basis, as well as introduced new scenic and interior landmark designations.[42][58][59]

In its first twenty-five years, the LPC designated 856 individual landmarks, 79 interior landmarks, and 9 scenic landmarks, while declaring 52 neighborhoods with more than 15,000 buildings as historic districts.[60] In 1989, when the LPC and its process was under review following a panel created by mayor Edward Koch in 1985,[61] a decision was made to change the process by which buildings are declared to be landmarks[62] due to some perceived issues with the manner by which the LPC operates[60] as well as the realization that the destruction feared when the LPC was formed was no longer imminent.[61] By 1990, the LPC was cited by David Dinkins as having preserved New York City's municipal identity and enhanced the market perception of a number of neighborhoods. This success is believed to be due, in part, to the general acceptance of the LPC by the city's developers.[2] By 2016, the LPC had designated 1,355 individual landmarks, 117 interior landmarks, 138 historic districts, and 10 scenic landmarks.[11]

Prominent court decisions

One of the most prominent decisions in which the LPC was involved was the preservation of the Grand Central Terminal with the assistance of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.[63] In 1978, the United States Supreme Court upheld the law in Penn Central Transportation Co., et al. v. New York City, et al., stopping the Penn Central Railroad from altering the structure and placing a large office tower above it.[64] This success is often cited as significant due to the LPC's origins following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station, referred to by some as architectural vandalism.[60]

In 1989, the LPC designated the Ladies' Mile Historic District.[65] The next year marked the first time in the LPC's history that a proposed landmark, the Guggenheim Museum (one of the youngest declared landmarks), received a unanimous vote by the LPC members.[6] The vast majority of the LPC's actions are not unanimous by the LPC members or the community with a number of cases including: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, Bryant Park and a number of Broadway theatres resulting in challenges.[66] One of the most controversial properties was 2 Columbus Circle, which remained at the center of a discussion over its future for a number of years.[67]

Cultural landmarks, such as Greenwich Village's Stonewall Inn, are recognized as well not for their architecture, but rather for their location in a designated historic district.[68]

In a heatedly discussed decision on August 3, 2010, the LPC unanimously declined to grant landmark status to a building on Park Place in Manhattan, and thus did not block the construction of Cordoba House.[69]

South Street Seaport and "New Market Building"

An LPC-designated historic district for the South Street Seaport has been active since 1977 and was extended on July 11, 1989.[70] After the Fulton Fish Market relocated to the Bronx in 2005, community members, with leadership from organizer Robert Lavalva,[71] developed the "New Amsterdam Market", a regular gathering with vendors selling regional and "sustainable" foodstuffs outside the old Fish Market buildings. The group's chartered organization planned eventually to attempt to reconstitute the "New Market Building", a 1939 structure with an Art Deco façade[72] and that was owned by the city, into a permanent food market. However, a real estate company, the Howard Hughes Corporation, possessed a lease for large parts of the Seaport area and desired to redevelop it, generating fears among locals that the New Market Building would be altered or destroyed.[72] The corporation has offered to provide a more modest food market (at 10,000 sq ft (930 m2)) into their development plans, but market organizers have not been satisfied as they believe this proposal is not guaranteed or large enough, and would still not ensure the protection of the historic building.[73]

A group of community activists formed the "Save Our Seaport Coalition" to advocate that the New Market Building be incorporated into the historic district set by the Landmarks Preservation Commission, in addition to calling for the protection of public space in the neighborhood and for support for the seaport's museum. This group included the Historic Districts Council, the "Save Our Seaport" community group, the New Amsterdam Market, and the Metropolitan Waterfront Alliance.[74] The "Save Our Seaport" group specifically argued that New Market Building was culturally important for its maintenance of the historic fish market for 66 years, and that it offers a "fine example of WPA Moderne municipal architecture (an increasingly rare form throughout the nation)."[75] They had encouraged others to write letters to the LPC to support formal designation or district protection.[75] However, in 2013, the LPC declined to hold a hearing to consider this landmark designation or to expand the district.[72] Community Board 1 supports protecting and repurposing the New Market Building,[72] and the Municipal Art Society argued in a report that "[it] has both architectural and cultural significance as the last functioning site of the important commercial and shipping hub at South Street Seaport." [76]

Little Syria and Washington Street

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, New York City tour guide Joseph Svehlak and other local historians became concerned that government-encouraged development in Downtown Manhattan would lead to the disappearance of the last physical heritage of the once "low-rise" Lower West Side of Manhattan.[77] Also known as "Little Syria" in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the area between Battery Park and the World Trade Center site, east of West Street and west of Broadway,[78] had been a residential area for the shipping elite of New York in the early 19th century, and turned into a substantial neighborhood of ethnic immigration in the mid-19th century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, centered on Washington Street, the area became well known as Little Syria, hosting immigrants from today's Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine, as well those of many other ethnic groups including Greeks, Armenians, Irish, Slovaks, and Czechs. Due to eminent domain actions associated with the construction of the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel and the World Trade Center,[79] in addition to significant highrise construction in the 1920s and 30s, only a small number of low-rise historic buildings from the earlier eras remain.

In 2003, Svehlak wrote a manifesto arguing for the landmark designation of "a trilogy"[80] of three contiguous buildings on Washington Street, the thoroughfare that was most closely associated with "Little Syria." These consisted of the Downtown Community House – which hosted the Bowling Green Association to serve the neighborhood's immigrants – 109 Washington Street (an 1885 tenement), and the terra-cotta St. George's Syrian Catholic Church. After years of advocacy, in January 2009, the LPC held a hearing about the landmark designation of the Melkite church, which did succeed.[81] However, under Chairman Robert Tierney, the LPC had declined to hold hearings on the Downtown Community House or 109 Washington Street.

Community and preservation groups -- including the "Friends of the Lower West Side" and the "Save Washington Street" group led by St. Francis College student Carl "Antoun" Houck[82] -- have continued, especially, to advocate for a hearing on the Downtown Community House, arguing that its history demonstrates the multi-ethnic heritage of the neighborhood, and that its Colonial Revival architecture intentionally links the immigrants to the foundations of the country,[83] and that preserving the three buildings together would tell a coherent story of an overlooked, but important ethnic neighborhood.[79] In addition to national Arab-American organizations,[84]Manhattan Community Board 1[85] and City Councilperson Margaret Chin[86] have also advocated for the LPC to hold a hearing on the Downtown Community House. According to the Wall Street Journal, however, the LPC argues that "the buildings lack the necessary architectural and historical significance and that better examples of the settlement house movement and tenements exist in other parts of the city."[79] The activists have said they hope that the LPC under the new mayor will be more receptive to preservation in the neighborhood.[85]

Former landmarks

Very rarely, a landmark status granted by the LPC has been revoked. Some have been revoked by vote of the New York City Council or before 1990, the New York City Board of Estimate. Others have been demolished, either through neglect or for development, and revoked by the LPC.[87]

Landmark name Image Date designated Date removed Location Notes
71 Pearl Street May 17, 1966 1968 Manhattan
135 Bowery June 29, 2011[89] September 16, 2011[90] Manhattan The building was demolished in 2012.[91]
Austin, Nichols and Company Warehouse Austin, Nichols and Co Warehouse from Corlears Hook jeh.jpg September 20, 2005 November 30, 2005[92] Brooklyn
  • Landmark 2163
  • Landmark status failed a New York City Council vote.
Beth Hamedrash Hagodol Beth Hamedrash Hagodol WTM sheila 0015 crop.jpg February 28, 1967 Manhattan
  • Landmark 0637
  • The building was destroyed by fire in 2017.[93]
Cathedral of St. John the Divine StJohnTheDivineWilliamPorto.jpg June 17, 2003 October 25, 2003[94] Manhattan
Dvorak House, 327 East 17th Street February 1991[96] June 1991 Manhattan
  • Landmark status failed a New York City Council vote.
  • The building was demolished.[97]
First Avenue Estate City-suburban-district.jpg April 24, 1990[98] August 16, 1990[9] Manhattan
Grace Episcopal Memorial Hall Grace Episcopal Church graveyard Jamaica, Queens jeh.jpg October 26, 2010[100] January 18, 2011[101] Queens
  • Landmark 2394
  • Landmark status failed a New York City Council vote.
Jamaica Savings Bank, 161-02 Jamaica Avenue Old Jamaica Savings Bank Building; Full View.JPG May 5, 1992[102] 1992 Queens
  • Landmark 1800
  • Landmark status failed a New York City Council vote.
  • Re-designated 2008 as landmark 2109
Jamaica Savings Bank, 89-01 Queens Boulevard Queens Blvd and 56th Ave Jul 2020 02.jpg June 28, 2005[98] October 20, 2005[103] Queens
  • Landmark 2173
  • Landmark status failed a New York City Council vote.
Jerome Mansion Jerome Mansion crop.jpg November 21, 1965[88] June 23, 1966[104] Manhattan
Lakeman-Cortelyou-Taylor House December 13, 2016[106] March 2017 Staten Island Landmark 2444
New Brighton Village Hall 1965 December 12, 2006[107] Staten Island
  • Landmark 0028
  • The building was torn down in 2004 due to extreme neglect.[88]
Public School 31 July 15, 1986 December 10, 2019[108] Bronx
  • Landmark 1435
  • The building was demolished in 2014 due to extreme neglect.[109]
Samuel H. & Mary T. Booth House November 28, 2017[110] March 12, 2018[98] Bronx Landmark 2488
Stafford "Osborn" House November 28, 2017[110] March 12, 2018[98] Bronx Landmark 2479
Steinway Historic District November 28, 1974[98] January 23, 1975[111] Queens

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "About LPC". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (April 29, 1990). "Change on the Horizon for Landmarks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  3. ^ "Apply for a Permit". Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2014.
  4. ^ Tarquinio, Alex (October 3, 2007). "New Buildings That Embrace the Old". The New York Times.
  5. ^ a b c d e Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1120.
  6. ^ a b Staff (August 19, 1990). "Guggenheim Museum Is Designated a Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  7. ^ a b Wood 2008, p. 352.
  8. ^ a b Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1121.
  9. ^ a b Purdum, Todd S. (August 16, 1990). "On Estimate Board's Agenda, Last Item Is Its Own Demise". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 5, 1987). "5 More Broadway Theaters Classified as Landmarks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission". NYPAP. April 19, 1965. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "About LPC - LPC". www1.nyc.gov. Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Departments". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ "Archaeology". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ "Environmental Review". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2020.
  16. ^ "Historic Preservation Grant Program". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ "Landmark Designation". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d "Landmark Types and Criteria". New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Government of New York City. Retrieved 2019.
  19. ^ Diamonstein-Spielvogel 2011, p. 9.
  20. ^ a b c Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1091.
  21. ^ a b Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1110.
  22. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1092.
  23. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 1112–1113.
  24. ^ "How to Deflect a Wrecking Ball with a Violin". WNYC. November 6, 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  25. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1093.
  26. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 1091–1092.
  27. ^ "St. John's Chapel Razed". The New York Times. October 6, 1918. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1094.
  29. ^ "City's Landmarks Subject of Study; Art Societies Find About 200 Pre-world War I Buildings Are Worthy of Preservation". The New York Times. January 24, 1954. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 1094–11109.
  31. ^ Rasmussen, Frederick N. (April 21, 2007). "From the Gilded Age, a monument to transit". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  32. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 1115.
  33. ^ Muschamp, Herbert (June 20, 1993). "Architecture View; In This Dream Station Future and Past Collide". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Laying the Preservation Framework: 1960-1980". Cultural Landscapes (U.S. National Park Service). April 24, 1962. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ "Mayor Appoints 13 To Help Preserve Historic Buildings". The New York Times. July 12, 1961. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  36. ^ "Whitman Group to Hold Ceremony Honoring Poet". Brooklyn Heights Press. March 8, 1962. p. 8. Retrieved 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  37. ^ "12 Will Tag Sites For Preservation". New York Daily News. April 22, 1962. p. 206. Retrieved 2020 – via newspapers.com open access.
  38. ^ a b Wood 2008, p. 326.
  39. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (July 1, 1962). "City Asks to Save Landmarks; Names Scholar to New Agency; Van Derpool of Columbia Is Given Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  40. ^ Wood 2008, p. 333.
  41. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. (November 1, 1963). "2 City Landmarks Feared in Danger; Bank and Oldest House May Go Way of Penn Station Penn Station Loss Regretted Street or Landmark?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  42. ^ a b c d e "New York City Landmarks Law". NYPAP. May 7, 1964. Retrieved 2020.
  43. ^ "Bill Would Save City Landmarks; Commission Would Pass on Alteration Plans". The New York Times. September 23, 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  44. ^ "City Council Gets Landmarks Bill; Preservation of Historical Places in City Is Aim". The New York Times. October 7, 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  45. ^ Wood 2008, p. 362.
  46. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. (March 24, 1965). "Landmarks Bill Goes to Council; Protective Zone Is Cut, but Architecture Rules Stay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ "Bill on Landmarks Approved by Council". The New York Times. April 7, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. (April 20, 1965). "Landmarks Bill Signed by Mayor; Wagner Approves It Despite Protests of Realty Men". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "Mayor Inducts 11 Members Of Landmark Commission". The New York Times. June 30, 1965. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ Pace, Eric (July 15, 1985). "Geoffrey Platt Is Dead at 79; Led City Preservation Move". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  51. ^ a b Fowle, Farnsworth (October 18, 1965). "First Official Landmarks of City Designated; 20 Sites Listed -- Each to Get Year's Grace". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  52. ^ Byles, Jeff (March 19, 2006). "Amid the Facades, Furrowed Brows". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ Gilbert, Frank B. (November 13, 1991). "Papp Proved that Landmarks Law Works (letter to the editor)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  54. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 1121–1129.
  55. ^ Colvin, Jill (December 21, 2011). "Former Home of Macy's and Mutual Reserve Building Become City Landmarks". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  56. ^ Diamonstein-Spielvogel 2011, p. 283.
  57. ^ "Landmarks Get City Protection: Right to Save Architectural Heritage Recognized as Government Function". The New York Times. April 11, 1965. p. R1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020 – via ProQuest.
  58. ^ "Metropolitan Briefs; Lindsay Signs Landmarks Bill". The New York Times. December 18, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  59. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 1120–1121.
  60. ^ a b c Goldberger, Paul (April 15, 1990). "Architecture View; A Commission that has Itself Become a Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  61. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (December 27, 1987). "Advisory Group to Determine Future of Landmarks Board". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  62. ^ Dunlap, David W. (February 6, 1989). "Panel Urges Deadlines for Votes on Landmarks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  63. ^ Meistersinger, Toby von (March 7, 2008). "Some Grand Central Terminal Secrets Revealed". Gothamist. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  64. ^ Goldberger, Paul (June 4, 1977). "Office Tower Above Grand Central Barred by State Court of Appeals". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  65. ^ Staff. (May 7, 1989) "Ladies' Mile District Wins Landmark Status," The New York Times
  66. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 11, 1988). "Chairman Plans to Leave Panel on Landmarks". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  67. ^ Weiner, Alan S. (October 13, 2003). "The Building That Isn't There". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved 2008.
  68. ^ Dunlap, David W. (June 26, 1999). "Stonewall, Gay Bar That Made History, Is Made a Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
  69. ^ Hernandez, Javier C. (August 3, 2010). "Mosque Near Ground Zero Clears Key Hurdle". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  70. ^ Historic Districts Council. "South Street Seaport." Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  71. ^ Hanania, Joseph. (January 24, 2014) "Duel at the Old Fulton Fish Market" The New York Times Retrieved: August 12, 2014.
  72. ^ a b c d Kreuzer, Terese Loeb (September 12, 2013) "City says no to landmarking Seaport building, leaving door open to demolition" Downtown Express. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  73. ^ Reynolds, Aline. (March 20, 2013) "Food Market For Seaport In Last-Minute Deal Over Pier 17" Tribeca Tribune. Retrieved: August 12, 2014.
  74. ^ Garfinkel, Molly (ndg) "New Market Building is Place Matters building of the month!". Historic Districts Council. Retrieved: August 12, 2014
  75. ^ a b Save Our Seaport. "Support Seaport Landmark Preservation" Retrieved: August 12, 2014.
  76. ^ Municipal Art Society (2008) "Fulton Fish Market: New Market Building" Retrieved: August 12, 2014.
  77. ^ Wilensky-Lanford, Brook. (June 3, 2013) "Discovering 'Little Syria' -- New York's Long-Lost Arab Neighborhood" Religion Dispatches Retrieved August 10, 2014.
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Bibliography

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