Neofolk, also known as apocalyptic folk or dark folk, is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1980s as an outgrowth of post-punk and post-industrial music, blending acoustic instruments such as guitar and snare drum with elements of industrial music. Neofolk may either be solely acoustic or combine acoustic folk instrumentation with various other sounds.
The term "neofolk" originates in the 1980s to describe music influenced by musicians such as Douglas Pearce (Death In June), Tony Wakeford (Sol Invictus) and David Tibet (Current 93).
Anglo-American folk music with similar sounds and themes to neofolk existed as far back as the 1960s. Musicians such as Nico, Shirley Collins, Leonard Cohen, Scott Walker, Strawbs, The Velvet Underground, Love and Comus could be considered harbingers of the sound that later influenced the neofolk artists. Also the later explorations of The Velvet Underground's band members, specifically those of Lou Reed, have been called a major influence to what later became neofolk.
A majority of artists within the neofolk genre focus on archaic, cultural and literary references. Local traditions and indigenous beliefs tend to be portrayed heavily as well as esoteric and historical topics.
Various forms of neopaganism and occultism play a part in the themes touched upon by many modern and original neofolk artists. Runic alphabets, heathen European sites and other means of expressing an interest in the ancient and ancestral occurs often in neofolk music. Aesthetically, references to this subject occur within band names, album artwork, clothing and various other means of artistic expression. This has led to some forefathers of the genre and current artists within the genre attributing it to being an aspect of a broader neopagan revival.
Related terms and styles
As a descriptor, apocalyptic folk predates neofolk and was used by David Tibet to describe the music of his band Current 93 during a period in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Initially, Tibet did not intend to imply connection with the folk music genre; rather, that Current 93 was made by "apocalyptic folk[s]": in other words, apocalyptic people. Tibet and Current 93 did dabble in covers of traditional English folk song and Tibet himself was a great advocate for reclusive English folk singer Shirley Collins.
Other vague terms sometimes used to describe artists of this genre include "dark folk" and "pagan folk". These terms are umbrella terms that also describe various other forms of unrelated music.
Martial industrial or military pop is a genre that shares a lot in common with neofolk and developed very close to it.
- ^ a b Webb, Peter (2007). "Neo-Folk or Postindustrial Music". Exploring the Networked Worlds of Popular Music. Routledge. ISBN 9780415956581.
One milieu to develop out of Punk was the scene that later became known as either apocalyptic folk, postindustrial, or later neo-folk.
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- ^ "I'm very happy about that because I see Death In June as part of a European cultural revival. I'm pleased that the Old Gods are being resurrected, for want of a better word. Old symbols. I feel very pleased that I am a part of that process and that I have had influence. At this stage in the game, so to speak, it's not false modesty to say that I am content with my influence." Powell, Erin. Interview with Douglas Pearce Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine., 2005.
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- ^ "The Apocalyptic Visions of Current 93"
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- ^ Powell, Erin (April 9, 2005). "Interview with Douglas Pearce". Death in June.
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- ^ Schurmann, Martin (April 1, 2006). "Neofolk - mehr als nur eine Musikrichtung" (in German). Archived from the original on January 19, 2010.
- ^ "Rome". Darktronica. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
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- Anton Shekhovtsov, 'Apoliteic music: Neo-Folk, Martial Industrial and "metapolitical fascism"', Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 43, No. 5 (December 2009), pp. 431-457.
- Peter Webb, Exploring the Networked Worlds of Popular Music: Milieu Cultures (New York: Routledge, 2007), ISBN 0-415-95658-7.
- Andreas Diesel und Dieter Gerten, Looking for Europe - Neofolk und Hintergründe (Zeltingen-Rachtig: Index-Verlag, 2005), ISBN 3-936878-02-1.