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United States service members are sworn in as citizens of the United States aboard the USS Midway in 2009

Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.[1] It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities.[2] The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but typically include a promise to obey and uphold that country's laws,[3] taking and subscribing to an oath of allegiance, and may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.

The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created many stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state. In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the relatively few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another (expatriates), many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people. This included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century. Also included were the mostly aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, and then the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were often considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation. Their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land.

Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants. For economic, political, humanitarian and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national - jus matrimonii - or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations. Example include Spain under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government, and Italy under Silvio Berlusconi's government.

Laws by country


The Australian Citizenship Act 1973 ended the preferential treatment for British subjects from 1 December 1973.[4] People who became permanent residents from 1 July 2007 must have been lawfully resident in Australia for four years before applying for citizenship by conferral.[5] Those who were present in Australia as permanent residents before 1 July 2007 remain subject to the previous residence requirement (in force since 1984, e.g. resident for 2 years).

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China gives citizenship to people with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country also gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason.[6] In practice, few people gain Chinese citizenship; as of 2010, China had only 1,448 naturalised Chinese in total.[7]

The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, and to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must also submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, and four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may also require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application".[8]


People who fulfil all of the following criteria can obtain French citizenship through naturalisation:[9]

  • At least 5 years' residence, although reduced to the following minimum periods in certain situations:
    • 2 years:
      • Successfully completed 2 years of studies with a view to obtaining a degree or diploma at a French higher educational institution;
      • Made an exceptional contribution to France's standing and influence in the arts, science, sport, culture, academia, entrepreneurship, etc.
    • No minimum residence period:
      • Performed military service with the French Army;
      • Served voluntarily in wartime in the French Army or an allied army;
      • Rendered exceptional service to France (requires personal ministerial approval);
      • Attained the official status of a refugee in France;
      • Citizen of a member state of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and have French as their native language or have completed at least 5 years of schooling in a French-speaking educational establishment.
  • Integration into French society, including adhering to the values and principles of the Republic, and having a sufficient knowledge of French history, culture and society;
  • Sufficient spoken command of the French language;
  • No serious criminal convictions, defined as follows:
    • Never been sentenced to more than 6 months' imprisonment (not including suspended sentences) for any crime (unless the applicant has been legally deemed rehabilitated or the sentence has been wiped from their criminal record);
    • Never been convicted of any crime that counters France's fundamental interests (unless the applicant has been legally deemed rehabilitated or the sentence has been wiped from their criminal record);
    • Never been convicted of any act of terrorism (unless the applicant has been legally deemed rehabilitated or the sentence has been wiped from their criminal record).

The fee for naturalisation is EUR55, except in French Guiana, where it is EUR27.50.



People who fulfill all of the following criteria can obtain German citizenship through naturalisation:[10]

  • At least 8 years' residence in Germany with a valid residence permit. This minimum period is reduced for the following:
    • 7 years for people who have successfully completed an official integration course;
    • 3 years for spouses and registered same-sex partners of a German citizen (must have been married or in the registered partnership for at least 2 years at the time of application).
  • Declaring allegiance to the German Constitution;
  • Sufficient command of the German language;
  • No serious criminal convictions.


The dependent minor children of an applicant for naturalisation may also themselves become naturalised German citizens.

The fee for standard naturalisation is EUR255, while it is EUR51 per dependent minor child naturalised along with their parent. The fee may be waived in cases of extreme hardship or public interest.

Loss of previous citizenship

People who naturalise as German citizens must usually give up their previous nationality, as German law takes a restrictive approach to multiple citizenship. Exceptions are made for:

  • EU and Swiss citizens, provided that the law of their country of origin does not prohibit the acquisition of another citizenship;
  • Citizens of countries where renouncing one's citizenship is too difficult or humiliating (e.g. Afghanistan), prohibitively expensive (e.g. the United States) or legally impossible (e.g. Argentina).


The Grenadian Government grants citizenship of Grenada for the following reasons:

  • By Birth
    • Any person born in Grenada after 1974 or later acquires Grenadian citizenship at birth. The exception is for children born to diplomat parents.
  • By Descent
    • Children born outside Grenada to a Grenadian-born parent.
  • By Registration
    • Children (over 18) born outside of Grenada to a Grenadian parent.
    • Children (under 18) born outside of Grenada to a Grenadian parent.
    • A person who was born outside of Grenada who is a Grandchild of a Grenadian citizen by birth.
    • A person who is/or has been married to a citizen of Grenada.
    • Citizens of Caribbean Countries may apply for citizenship by registration provided that person has been living in Grenada for 4 years and 2 years as a Permanent Resident (within the four-year period) immediately preceding the date of application.
    • Commonwealth & Irish citizens may apply for citizenship by registration provided that the person has been living in Grenada for 7 years and 2 years as a Permanent Resident (within the seven-year period) immediately preceding the date of application.
  • By Naturalisation
  • An Alien or a British Protected Person may apply for citizenship by naturalisation provided that the person has been living in Grenada for 7 years and 2 years as a Permanent Resident (within the seven-year period) immediately preceding the date of application..


The Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11[11] in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, which has been amended by the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1986, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1992, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003,[12] and Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005.[13] The Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005.[]

Following these reforms, Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory).[]

In 2019, a Citizenship Amendment Act was passed by the Parliament of India. This Act aims at fast tracking citizenship for illegal immigrants who have entered India on or before 31 December 2014 from the neighbouring countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.[14]


The Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons.[15]

  • Automatically
    • Jus sanguinis: for birth;
    • If an Italian citizen recognizes, at a time after birth, a minor child;
    • For adoption;
    • To obtain or re-obtain from a parent.
  • Following declaration
    • By descent;
    • Jus soli: by birth or descent in Italy;
  • By marriage or naturalization
    • By marriage: the foreign or stateless spouse of an Italian citizen may acquire Italian citizenship after two years of legal residence in Italy or, if residing abroad, after three years from the date of marriage;
    • By naturalization: the foreigner can apply for Italian citizenship after ten years of legal residence in Italy, reduced to five years for those who have been recognized as stateless or refugee and four years for citizens of countries of the European Community.


Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006 (UU No. 12 Tahun 2006). The Indonesian nationality law is based on jus sanguinis and jus soli. The Indonesian nationality law does not recognize dual citizenship except for people under the age of 18 (single citizenship principle). After reaching 18 years of age individuals are forced to choose one citizenship (limited double citizenship principle).[16]

A foreign citizen can apply to become an Indonesian citizen with the following requirements:

  • Age 18 or older, or married
  • Resided in Indonesia for a minimum of 5 consecutive years or 10 non-consecutive years
  • Physically and mentally healthy
  • Ability to speak Indonesian and acknowledge Pancasila and Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945
  • Never convicted of a crime for which the punishment is imprisonment for one year or more
  • If having Indonesian citizenship will not give the person dual citizenship
  • Employed or have fixed income
  • Pay citizenship fee

Any application for citizenship is granted by the President of Indonesia.


Israel's Declaration of Independence was made on 14 May 1948, the day before the British Mandate was due to expire as a result of the United Nations Partition Plan.[17] The Israeli parliament created two laws regarding immigration, citizenship and naturalization: the Law of Return and the Israeli citizenship law.[18] The Law of Return, enacted on July 15, 1950, gives Jews living anywhere in the world the right to immigrate to Israel. This right to immigrate did not and still does not grant citizenship. In fact, for four years after Israel gained independence, there were no Israeli citizens.[18]

On July 14, 1952, the Israeli parliament enacted the Israeli Nationality Law.[18] The Nationality Law naturalized all citizens of Mandated Palestine, the inhabitants of Israel on July 15, 1952, and those who had legally resided in Israel between May 14, 1948, and July 14, 1952. The law further clarified that naturalization was available to immigrants who had arrived before Israel's creation, immigrants who arrived after statehood was granted, and those who did not come to Israel as immigrants but have since expressed desire to settle in Israel, with restriction. Naturalization applicants must also meet the following requirements: be over 18 years of age, have resided in Israel for three out of the five preceding years, have settled or intend to settle permanently in Israel, have some knowledge of Hebrew, and have renounced prior nationality or demonstrated ability to renounce nationality after becoming a citizen of Israel.[18]

Because of Israel's relatively new and culturally mixed identity, Israel does not grant citizenship to people born on Israeli soil. Instead, the government chose to enact a jus sanguinis system, with the naturalization restrictions listed above. There is currently no legislation on second-generation immigrants (those born in Israel to immigrant parents). Furthermore, foreign spouses can apply for citizenship through the Minister of the Interior, but have a variety of restrictions and are not guaranteed citizenship.[19]


People who fulfil all of the following criteria can obtain Luxembourg citizenship through naturalisation:[20]

  • At least 18 years old.
  • At least 5 years of legal residence in Luxembourg, including an uninterrupted period of one year immediately before applying for citizenship.
  • Passing a Luxembourgish language exam.
  • Taking a course on "Living together in the Grand Duchy" and passing the associated examination.
  • Never having been handed an immediate custodial sentence of 12 months or more or a suspended custodial sentence of 24 months or more, in any country.


Naturalisation in Malaysia is guided by the 1964 Malaysian Constitution. According to the law, those who want to be the country citizen should live in the country for a period of 10-12 years. The would-be-citizens are required to speak the Malay language as well submitting the identity cards of two Malaysians who recommend the applicant for citizenship.[21] As the Government of Malaysia does not recognise dual citizenship, those who seek naturalisation are needed to reside permanently in the country and renouncing their former country citizenship.[22]

The requirements are as follows:[23]

  • The applicant shall appear before the Registrar of Citizenship when submitting the application.
  • The applicant must be aged 21 years and above on the date of the application.
  • The applicant has resided in the federation for a period of not less than 10 years in a period of 12 years, including the 12 months immediately preceding the date of application.
  • The applicant intends to reside permanently in the federation.
  • The applicant is of good character.
  • The applicant has adequate knowledge of the Malay language.
  • The applicant must be sponsored by two referees who are citizens aged 21 years and above and who are not relatives, not hired people, and not advocates or solicitors to the applicant.
  • Form C must be completed and submitted together with copies of the necessary documents.

The Article 16 of 1957 Malaysian Constitution also stated a similar condition previously.[24]


Commonwealth Act No. 473, the Revised Naturalization Law, approved June 17, 1939, provided that people having certain specified qualifications may become a citizen of the Philippines by naturalization.[25] Republic Act No. 9139, approved June 8, 2001, provided that aliens under the age of 18 who were born in the Philippines, who have resided in the Philippines since birth, and who possess other specified qualifications may be granted Philippines citizenship by administrative proceeding subject to certain requirements.[26][27]


Naturalization in Russia is guided by articles 13 and 14 of the federal law "About Citizenship of Russian Federation" passed on May 31, 2002. Citizenship of Russia can be obtained in general or simplified order. To become a citizen in general order, one must be 18 years of age or older, continuously live in Russia as a permanent resident for at least five years (this term is limited to one year for valued specialists, political asylum seekers and refugees), have legal means of existence, promise to obey the laws and Constitution of Russia and be fluent in the Russian language.

There is also a possibility to naturalize in a simplified order, in which certain requirements will be waived. Eligible for that are people, at least one parent of whom is a Russian citizen living on Russian territory; people, who lived on the territories of the former Soviet republics but never obtained citizenships of those nations after they gained independence; people, who were born on the territory of RSFSR and formerly held Soviet citizenship; people married to Russian citizens for at least 3 years; people, who served in Russian Armed Forces under contract for at least 3 years; parents of mentally incapacitated children over 18 who are Russian citizens; participants of the State Program for Assisting Compatriots Residing Abroad; and some other categories.[28]

South Africa

Chapter 2 of the South African Citizenship Act, enacted on October 6, 1995, defines who is considered a naturalized citizen at the time of the act and also outlines the naturalization process for future immigrants.[29]

Any person who immediately prior to the commencement of the act had been a South African citizen via naturalization, had been deemed to be a South African citizen by registration, or had been a citizen via naturalization of any of the former states now composing South Africa is now considered to be a naturalized citizen of South Africa.

Those wishing to apply for naturalization in the future must apply to the Minister of Home Affairs and must meet a slew of requirements. First, naturalization applicants must be over the age of 18 and must have been a permanent resident of South Africa for five years prior to application (prior to 2010, the permanent residence requirement was one year prior to application and for four out of the eight years prior to application).[30] Applicants must also demonstrate good character and knowledge of the basic responsibilities and privileges of a South African citizen. The ability to communicate in one of the official languages of South Africa is also required. Applicants must show the intention to reside in South Africa after naturalization, and they are required to make a declaration of allegiance. The Constitution of South Africa states that national legislation must provide for the acquisition, loss and restoration of citizenship.[31]

Being a naturalized South African citizen is a privilege, not a right. Even after meeting all the requirements and going through the naturalization process, the minister holds the right to deny citizenship.[32] Foreign spouses of South African citizens can apply for naturalization after two years of marriage, but is subject to potential denial of the minister. The minister can also grant citizenship to minors, if their parent applies for them.

The minister also holds the power to revoke naturalization at any time for specific reasons listed in the Act. Reasons for revoking the naturalization certificate include marrying someone who is a citizen of another country and holding citizenship in another country, or applying for citizenship of another country without prior authorization for retention of citizenship. If a permanent resident is denied naturalization, he or she must wait at least one year before reapplying.

United Kingdom

There has always been a distinction in the law of England and Wales between the subjects of the monarch and aliens: the monarch's subjects owed the monarch allegiance, and included those born in his or her dominions (natural-born subjects) and those who later gave him or her their allegiance (naturalised subjects). Today, the requirements for naturalisation as a citizen of the United Kingdom depend on whether or not one is the spouse or civil partner of a citizen. An applicant who is a spouse or civil partner of a British citizen must:[33][verification needed]

  • hold indefinite leave to remain in the UK (or an equivalent such as Right of Abode or Irish citizenship)
  • have lived legally in the UK for three years
  • been outside of the UK no more than 90 days during the one-year period prior to filing the application.
  • show sufficient knowledge of life in the UK, either by passing the Life in the United Kingdom test or by attending combined English language and citizenship classes. Proof of this must be supplied with one's application for naturalisation. Those aged 65 or over may be able to claim exemption.
  • meet specified English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic language competence standards.

For those not married to or in a civil partnership with a British citizen, the requirements are:

  • Five years legal residence in the UK
  • Indefinite leave to remain or "equivalent" for this purpose (see above) must have been held for 12 months
  • the applicant must intend to continue to live in the UK or work overseas for the UK government or a British corporation or association
  • the same "good character" standards apply as for those married to British citizens
  • the same language and knowledge of life in the UK standards apply as for those married to British citizens.

United States

"The sole authority to naturalize persons as citizens of the United States is conferred upon the Attorney General."[34] In particular cases, however, federal judges may enjoin the Attorney General to confer US nationality upon a person.[1][3] The term "Attorney General" in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) includes any immigration judge or member of the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA).

The INA states the following:

No person, except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, shall be naturalized unless such applicant, (1) immediately preceding the date of filing his application for naturalization has resided continuously, after being lawfully admitted for permanent residence, within the United States for at least five years and during the five years immediately preceding the date of filing his application has been physically present therein for periods totaling at least half of that time, and who has resided within the State or within the district of the Service in the United States in which the applicant filed the application for at least three months, (2) has resided continuously within the United States from the date of the application up to the time of admission to citizenship, and (3) during all the periods referred to in this subsection has been and still is a person of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States.[2]

A man taking the required citizenship oath of allegiance in front of US government officials in New York City (1910).
New citizens at a naturalization ceremony at Kennedy Space Center in Florida (2010).

The Naturalization Act of 1795 set the initial rules on naturalization: "free, White persons" who had been resident for five years or more.[35] An 1862 law allowed honorably discharged Army veterans of any war to petition for naturalization after only one year of residence in the United States.[36] An 1894 law extended the same privilege to honorably discharged five-year veterans of the Navy or Marine Corps. Laws enacted in 1919, 1926, 1940, and 1952 continued preferential treatment provisions for veterans.[37]

Following the Spanish-American War in 1898, Philippine citizens were classified as US nationals, and the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act granted US citizenship to natives of Puerto Rico. But the 1934 Tydings-McDuffie Act reclassified Filipinos as aliens, and set a quota of 50 immigrants per year, and otherwise applying the Immigration Act of 1924 to them.

The Magnuson Act repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act. During the 1940s, 100 annual immigrants from British India and the Philippines were allowed. The War Brides Act of 1945 permitted soldiers to bring back their foreign wives and established precedent in naturalization through marriage. The Immigration Act of 1965 finally allowed people from all nations to be given equal access to immigration and naturalization.

Illegal immigration became a major issue in the United States at the end of the 20th century. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, while tightening border controls, also provided the opportunity of naturalization for illegal aliens who had been in the country for at least four years. Today, lawful permanent residents of the United States are eligible to apply for US citizenship after five years,[1] unless they continue to be married to a US citizen, in which case they can apply after only three years of permanent residency.[38]

The Child Citizenship Act of 2000 streamlined the naturalization process for children adopted internationally. A child under age 18 who is adopted by at least one US citizen parent, and is in the custody of the citizen parent(s), is now automatically naturalized once admitted to the United States as an immigrant or when legally adopted in the United States, depending on the visa under which the child was admitted to the United States. The Act also provides that the non-citizen minor child of a newly naturalized US citizen, whether by birth or adoption, also automatically receives US citizenship

Summary by country

The following list is a brief summary of the duration of legal residence before a national of a foreign state, without any cultural, historical, or marriage ties or connections to the state in question, can request citizenship under that state's naturalization laws.

Country Residence requirement Dual citizenship Notes Main article Ref
 Afghanistan 5 years No Afghan nationality law [39][40]
 Albania 5 years Yes Continuous residence Albanian nationality law [41][42]
 Algeria 7 years Yes Algerian nationality law [43][44]
 Andorra 20 years No Continuous residence as a permanent resident, unless the applicant has spent all of their mandatory education in Andorra in which case 10 years continuous as a permanent residence Andorran nationality law [45][46]
 Angola 10 years Yes Continuous residence Angolan nationality law [47]
 Antigua and Barbuda 7 years Yes Continuous residence; If a person is married to the national of Antigua and Barbuda, that case for continuous residence is 3 years. Antiguan nationality law [48][49]
 Argentina 2 years Yes Continuous residence Argentine nationality law [50]
 Armenia 3 years Yes Armenian nationality law [51][52]
 Australia 4 years Yes Legal residency in Australia, including one year as a permanent resident immediately prior to making an application Australian nationality law [5][53][54]
 Austria 10 years Partial Exceptions for those born in Austria, citizens of another EEA country, refugees or "exceptionally integrated" in which case it is 6 years. Austrian nationality law [55][56]
 Azerbaijan 5 years No A must be a fluent speaker of the Azerbaijani language. May have dual citizenship, but the authorities will not recognize his foreign citizenship.[clarification needed] Azerbaijani nationality law [57]
 Bahamas 10 years No Bahamian nationality law [58][59]
 Bahrain 10 years No Bahraini nationality law [58][59]
 Bangladesh 5 years Partial Bangladeshi nationality law [60][61]
 Barbados 5 years Yes Barbadian nationality law [62][63][64]
 Belarus 7 years Yes Belarusian nationality law [65][66]
 Belgium 5 years Yes Continuous residence Belgian nationality law [67][68]
 Belize 5 years Yes Belizean nationality law [69]
 Benin 10 years Yes Beninise nationality law [70]
 Bhutan 20 years (15 if you have one Bhutanese parent) No Bhutanese nationality law [71][72]
 Bolivia 3 years Yes Uninterrupted residence Bolivian nationality law [73][74]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 years Partial Continuous residence Bosnian nationality law [75][76]
 Botswana 10-12 years No Bostwanan nationality law [77][78]
 Brazil 4-15 years Yes Uninterrupted residence. Brazilian nationality law [79][80]
 Brunei 10 years No Bruneian nationality law [81]
 Bulgaria 5 years Partial Reduced to 3 years if the applicant is married to a Bulgarian national, was born in Bulgaria, or settled in the country before the age of 18. Citizens of the EU, EEA or Switzerland, as well as spouses of Bulgarian nationals, are not required to renounce their existing citizenship. Bulgarian nationality law [82][83]
 Burkina Faso 10 years Yes Burkinabé nationality law [84]
 Burundi 10 years Yes Reduced to 5 years if married to the Burundian national Burundian nationality law [85]
 Cambodia 7 years Yes Cambodian nationality law [86]
 Cameroon 5 years No Cameroonian nationality law [87][88][89]
 Canada 3 years Yes Three out of five years as a permanent resident; time spent as a temporary resident can count as half within the five-year period. Citizenship test also required. Canadian nationality law [90][91]
 Central African Republic 35 years Partial In addition to 35 years of residence, must also have sufficient investments in agriculture or property and have received a national honour; no conditions if 'exceptional services' have been rendered to the state. Nationality law of the Central African Republic [92]
 Chile 5 years Yes Continuous residence Chilean nationality law [93]
 China No citizenship unless you have one parent or relative from China. No Permanent residence in China required, but no specific residency period specified in law. Chinese nationality law [94]
 Colombia 5 years Yes As a permanent resident Colombian nationality law
 Comoros Yes Comoros nationality law [95]
 Congo 10 years No Congolese nationality law [96]
 Costa Rica 7 years Yes Requires proven knowledge of Spanish language and Costa Rica's history, having a way of living, no criminal records and two witnesses. Costa Rican nationality law [97]
 Croatia 8 years Partial Continuous residence; applicant must be a fluent Croatian speaker Croatian nationality law [98][99][100]
 Cuba Yes Foreigners can become naturalized citizens of Cuba since 2019. Cuban nationality law [101]
 Cyprus 7 years Yes or by using the "Naturalization of Investors in Cyprus by Exception", a government run cash-for-passport program. Cypriot nationality law [102][103][104]
 Czech Republic 5 years Yes 5 years as permanent residence, 3 years as permanent resident for EU nationals or 10 years residence. Knows Czech language at least at B1 level. Czech nationality law [105][106]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 5 years No Congolese nationality law [107]
 Denmark 9 years Yes Continuous residence Danish nationality law [108][109]
 Djibouti 10 years No Djiboutian nationality law [110]
 Dominica 5-7 years Yes Dominican nationality law [111]
 Dominican Republic 5 years Partial Dominican nationality law [112]
 East Timor 10 years No East Timorese nationality law [113][114]
 Ecuador 3 years Yes Continuous residence Ecuadorian nationality law [115]
 Egypt 10 years Partial Egyptian nationality law
 El Salvador 5 years Yes Salvadoran nationality law [116]
 Equatorial Guinea 10 years No Nationality law of Equatorial Guinea [117]
 Eritrea 20 years No Eritrean nationality law [118]
 Estonia 8 years No Eight years residence out of which five years as a permanent residence. Estonian nationality law [119][120]
 Eswatini 5 years No Eswatini nationality law [121]
 Ethiopia 1-2 years No Ethiopian nationality law [122]
 Fiji 5 years Yes Five years of lawful residence out of the previous 10 years Fijian nationality law [123]
 Finland 5 years Yes Continuous residence Finnish nationality law [124]
 France 5 years Yes Continuous residency. Two years continuous residency for applicants who have had at least two years of higher education leading to a two-year master's degree or higher in France. No minimum residency requirement for applicants who have served in the French Army, rendered exceptional service to France, and some other cases. French nationality law [125]
 Gabon 10 years No Gabonese nationality law [126]
 Gambia 10 years Yes A person married to the Gambian national is not required to renounce its citizenship. Gambian nationality law [127]
 Georgia 10 years No Lawfully resided in Georgia for the last 10 consecutive years. Knows the official language of Georgia. Knows the history of Georgia and basic principles of law. Georgian nationality law [128]
 Germany 8 years Partial Continuous residence, with a settlement permit required. 7 years for applicants who have successfully completed an official integration course; 3 years for applicants who are married to, or in a registered same-sex partnership with, a German citizen. German nationality law [129]
 Ghana 5 years Yes Ghanaian nationality law [130]
 Greece 7 years Yes Greek nationality law [131][132]
 Grenada 7 years Yes Grenadian nationality law [133]
 Guatemala 10 years Partial Guatemalan nationality law [134]
 Guinea No Guinean nationality law [135]
 Guinea-Bissau 5 years No Nationality law of Guinea-Bissau [136]
 Guyana No Guyanese nationality law [137]
 Haiti 5 years No Haitian nationality law [138]
 Honduras 3 years Partial Honduran nationality law [139]
 Hungary 8 years Yes Continuous residence Hungarian nationality law [140][141]
 Iceland 7 years Yes You also need to take a Icelandic language test. Icelandic nationality law [142]
 India 12 years No 12 months continuous residence immediately before the application, and 11 out of the 14 years before the 12-month period. Indian nationality law [143][144]
 Indonesia 5-10 years No Indonesian nationality law [145]
 Iran 5 years Partial Become 18 years old and 5 years legal residence in Iran. Iranian nationality law [146]
 Iraq 10 years Yes Iraqi nationality law [147][148]
 Ireland 5 years Yes Five years of "ordinary" residence required in the preceding nine years, including a continuous period of 12 months immediately before applying for naturalization. Exceptions exist in law, such as for a person married to an Irish citizen (3 years) or for a person of "Irish descent or associations" (no prescribed period). Irish nationality law [149][150]
 Israel 3 years Yes To naturalize, three years out of the previous five years of residence is required and must have the right to reside in Israel on a permanent basis. However, Jews around the world may obtain Israeli citizenship upon arrival by the Law of Return. Israeli citizenship law [151]
 Italy 10 years Yes The residence has to be continuous. The law provides some cases in which there is a faster access to naturalization: three years if at least one grandparent was/is Italian, four years for EU nationals, five years for refugees or stateless people. Italian nationality law [152]
 Jamaica 5 years Yes Jamaican nationality law [153]
 Japan 5 years No Continuous residence; three years if married to a Japanese national. Japanese nationality law [154]
 Jordan 15 years Yes Jordanian nationality law [155]
 Kazakhstan 5 years No Kazakhstani nationality law [156]
 Kenya 7 years No Kenyan nationality law [157]
 Kiribati No Kiribatian nationality law [158]
 Kuwait 20 No If you are a Arab citizen then, you only need to live in Kuwait for 15 years. You also must speak Arabic. Kuwaiti nationality law [159]
 Kyrgyzstan 5 years Partial continuous residence Kyrgyzstani nationality law [160][161]
 Laos 10 years No Lao nationality law [162]
 Latvia 10 years Partial Latvian nationality law [163]
 Lebanon Yes Lebanese nationality law [164]
 Lesotho No Lesotho nationality law [165]
 Liberia 2 years No Liberian law allows members of other races to hold permanent residency status Liberian nationality law [166][167]
 Libya 10 years No Libyan nationality law [168]
 Liechtenstein 10 years Partial Years spent in Liechtenstein under the age 20 count double Liechtenstein nationality law [169][170]
 Lithuania 10 years No Continuous residence as a permanent resident; seven years if married to a Lithuanian national. Lithuanian nationality law [171][172]
 Luxembourg 5 years Yes Twelve months' continuous residence prior to applying for naturalization; three years' residence if married to a Luxembourgish citizen. The applicant must pass the Luxembourgish language examinations or have had at least 7 years of education in a Luxembourgish school. [173][174]
 Madagascar No Malagasy nationality law [175]
 Malawi 7 years No Five years for a person who is of an African race or has Commonwealth or Malawian ties Malawian nationality law [176]
 Malaysia 12 years No Malaysian nationality law [177]
 Maldives 12 years Yes continuous residence Maldavian nationality law [178]
 Mali 5 years Yes Malian nationality law [179]
 Malta 5 years Yes Or a government run cash-for-passport program. Maltese nationality law [180][181]
 Mauritania 5 years No Mauritanian nationality law [182]
 Mauritius 5 years Yes Nationality law of Mauritius [183]
 Mexico 5 years Yes You also going to take a test on Mexican history, culture and Spanish language. Mexican nationality law [184]
 Moldova 10 years Yes Eight years for stateless citizens or recognized refugees Moldovan nationality law [185]
 Monaco 10 years No Continuous residence Monégasque nationality law [186][187]
 Mongolia No Mongolian nationality law [188]
 Montenegro 10 year Partial Montenegrin nationality law [189][190]
 Morocco 5 years Yes continuous residence Moroccan nationality law [191]
 Mozambique 5 years No Mozambican nationality law [192]
 Myanmar N/A No Foreigners cannot become naturalized citizens of Myanmar Myanmar nationality law [193]
 Namibia 5 years No Namibian nationality law [194]
   Nepal 15 years No Nepali nationality law [195]
 Netherlands 5 years Partial Continuous residence, with a "non-temporary" residence permit required for naturalization. Multiple citizenship allowed in limited cases and generally with permission required. Dutch nationality law [196][a][198]
 New Zealand 5 years Yes Continuous residence New Zealand nationality law [199][200]
 Nicaragua Partial Nicaraguan nationality law [201][202]
 Niger No Nigerien nationality law [203]
 Nigeria 15 years Yes continuous residence Nigerian nationality law [204]
 North Korea N/A No North Korean nationality law
 North Macedonia 8 years Yes Continuous residence Macedonian nationality law [205][206]
 Norway 7 years Yes Seven years out of the previous 10 (with out-of-realm vacations of up to two months per year) as a permanent resident immediately before the application Norwegian nationality law [207][208]
 Oman 20 years No Omani nationality law [209]
 Pakistan Partial Pakistani nationality law [210]
 Palau N/A No Foreigners cannot become naturalized citizens of Palau Palauan nationality law [211][212]
 Panama 5 years No continuous residence Panamanian nationality law [213]
 Papua New Guinea 8 years No Nationality law of Papua New Guinea [214]
 Paraguay 3 years Partial Paraguayan nationality law [215][216]
 Peru 2 years Yes Continuous residence. You also required to take a test on Peru's history, culture and the Spanish language. Peruvian nationality law [217]
 Philippines 5-10 years Yes Continuous residence Philippine nationality law [25][218]
 Poland 10 years Yes Ten years residence or three years permanent residence Polish nationality law [219]
 Portugal 5 years Yes Continuous residence Portuguese nationality law [220]
 Qatar 25 years No Qatari nationality law [221]
 Romania 8 years Yes Romanian nationality law [222][223]
 Russia 5 years Yes Continuous residence. Three years if married to a Russian citizen. One year for valued specialists and refugees. Russian nationality law [224][225]
 Rwanda 10 years No Rwandan nationality law [226][227]
 Samoa 5 years Yes Samoan nationality law [228][229]
 San Marino 30 years No Fifteen years for foreigners married to a citizen of San Marino San Marino nationality law [230]
 São Tomé and Príncipe 5 years No Nationality law of São Tomé & Príncipe [231]
 Saudi Arabia 10 years Partial You need to be of good character, fluent in Arabic and working in a profession that is in demand will all help your cause. Saudi Arabian nationality law [232]
 Senegal 5 years No Senegalese nationality law [233]
 Serbia 3 years Yes Continuous residence Serbian nationality law [234][235]
 Seychelles 10 years No Seychelles only recognizes dual citizenship in specific cases concerning to native born citizens of Seychelles who later obtain another citizenship for domestic or economic convenience (such as to work abroad) or involuntarily through marriage to a foreign citizen. Seychellois nationality law [236]
 Sierra Leone 5 years No Nationality law of Sierra Leone [237]
 Singapore 2 years No Two years of permanent residence required for registration. Singaporean nationality law [238][239]
 Slovakia 8 years Partial Slovak nationality law [240]
 Slovenia 10 years Partial Ten years residence; five years continuous before the application. Three years for spouses of Slovenian citizens. Slovenian nationality law [241][242]
 Solomon Islands 7 years No Nationality law of Solomon Islands [243]
 Somalia 7 years No Somalian nationality law [244]
 South Africa 5 years Yes Continuous residence South African nationality law [245][246]
 South Korea 5 years Partial Three years continuous if married to a South Korean national. Males are required to do military service. South Korean nationality law [247][248]
 South Sudan Yes South Sudanese nationality law [249]
 Spain 10 years Partial Two to five years for nationals of Portugal or Iberoamerican countries. Also, the applicant must be fluent in Spanish. Spanish nationality law [250][251][252][253]
 Sri Lanka 5 years Partial Sri Lankan nationality law [254]
 St. Kitts and Nevis 15 years Yes Nationality law of St. Kitts and Nevis [255]
 St. Lucia Yes Nationality law of St. Lucia [256]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 7 years Yes Nationality law of Vincent and the Grenadines [257]
 Sudan Yes Sudanese nationality law [258]
 Suriname 5 years No Surinamese nationality law [259][260]
 Sweden 5 years Yes Four years continuous for stateless people and refugees Swedish nationality law [261][262]
  Switzerland 10 years Yes C Permit (for foreigners) required to start naturalization procedure. C permit itself normally requires at least 10 years of residence, depending on nationality. The years between the age of eight and eighteen count double, while a minimum of six years' residence is required. Swiss nationality law [263]
 Syria 5 years Yes Syrian nationality law [264]
 Taiwan 5 years Partial Nationality law of the Republic of China
 Tajikistan 5 years Partial Tajikistani nationality law [265]
 Tanzania 5 years No Tanzanian nationality law [266]
 Thailand 5 years Partial Continuous residence; applicant must have knowledge of the Thai language. Residence and language requirements are waived for spouses and children of Thai citizens. Thai nationality law [267]
 Togo 5 years Yes Togolese nationality law [268]
 Tonga 5 years No Tongan nationality law [269]
 Trinidad and Tobago 7 years Yes Trinidadnian nationality law [270]
 Tunisia 5 years Yes Continuous residence; applicant must be a fluent speaker of the Arabic language. Tunisian nationality law [271]
 Turkey 5 years Yes Continuous residence; applicant must be a fluent speaker of the Turkish language. Turkish nationality law [272][273]
 Turkmenistan 7 years Yes Turkmen nationality law [274]
 Uganda 20 years Yes The law prohibits any citizen with a third nationality to become a citizen of Uganda Ugandan nationality law [274][275]
 Ukraine 5 years No Ukrainian nationality law [276]
 United Arab Emirates 30 years Partial 7 years for citizens of Arab descent. 3 years for citizens of Qatar, Oman, and Bahrain. Multiple nationality allowed only in limited, exceptional cases since 2021. Emirati nationality law [277][278]
 United Kingdom 5 years Yes Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizens must have indefinite leave to remain for 12 months before applying for naturalisation. Residency requirement for ILR is generally 5 years. British nationality law [279]
 United States 5 years Yes Five years of continuous lawful permanent residence. Must have been physically present in the US for at least 30 of the 60 months preceding the application; ineligible if absent for a continuous period of 6 months or more during these 60 months. 3 years for spouses of US citizens United States nationality law [280]
 Uruguay 5 years Yes Three years if the applicant has a Uruguayan family member. Uruguayan nationality law [281]
 Uzbekistan 5 years No Uzbek nationality law [282]
 Vanuatu 10 years No Nationality law of Vanuatu [283]
 Venezuela 10 years Yes Natural-born citizens of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Latin American, or Caribbean country and have been legally living in Venezuela for 5 continuous years. Venezuelan nationality law [284]
 Vietnam 5 years No Vietnamese nationality law [285]
 Yemen 5 years No Yemeni nationality law [286]
 Zambia 5 years No Zambian nationality law [287]
 Zimbabwe 5 years Yes Zimbabwean nationality law [288]

Mass naturalizations

A few rare mass naturalization processes have been implemented by nation states. In 1891, Brazil granted naturalization to all aliens living in the country.[289] In 1922, Greece massively naturalized all the Greek refugees coming from Turkey. The second massive naturalization process was in favor of Armenian refugees coming from Turkey, who went to Syria, Lebanon or other former Ottoman countries. Reciprocally, Turkey massively naturalized the refugees of Turkish descent or other ethnic backgrounds in Muslim creed from these countries during a redemption process.

Canada instituted a mass naturalization by Act of Parliament with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act 1946.

After annexation of the territories east of the Curzon line by the Soviet Union in 1945, Soviets naturalized en masse all the inhabitants of those territories--including ethnic Poles, as well as its other citizens who had been deported into the Soviet Union, mainly to Kazakhstan. Those people were forcibly naturalized as Soviet citizens.[] Later on, Germany granted to the ethnic German population in Russia and Kazakhstan full citizenship rights. Poland has a limited repatriation program in place.

The most recent massive naturalization case resulted from the Argentine economic crisis in the beginning of the 21st century. Existing or slightly updated right of return laws in Spain and Italy allowed many of their diasporic descendants to obtain--in many cases to regain--naturalization in virtue of jus sanguinis, as in the Greek case. Hence, many Argentines acquired European nationality.

Since the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution grants citizenship only to those "born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof", and the original United States Constitution only grants Congress the power of naturalization, it could be argued that all acts of Congress that expand the right of citizenship are cases of mass naturalization. This includes the acts that extended U.S. citizenship to citizens of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, as well as the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 which made all Native Americans citizens (most of them were previously excluded under the "jurisdiction" clause of the 14th Amendment).

In the eastern Malaysian state of Sabah, mass naturalisation also happened during the administration of United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) and Sabah People's United Front (BERJAYA's) Muslim-dominated political parties to increase the Muslim population in the territory by naturalising immigrants and refugees from the mainly-Muslim dominated areas of Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago of the Philippines and Sulawesi of Indonesia.[290][291][292]

In occupied territories

The mass naturalization of native people in occupied territories is illegal under the laws of war (Hague and Geneva Conventions). However, there have been many instances of such illegal mass naturalizations in the 20th century.[]

See also


  1. ^ The Netherlands requires that naturalized citizens renounce other citizenships, and may revoke Dutch citizenship on failure to accomplish this.[197]


  1. ^ a b c 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(23) ("The term 'naturalization' means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever."); 8 U.S.C. § 1436 ("A person not a citizen who owes permanent allegiance to the United States, and who is otherwise qualified, may, if he becomes a resident of any State, be naturalized upon compliance with the applicable requirements of this subchapter....") (emphasis added).
  2. ^ a b 8 U.S.C. § 1427(a) ("Requirements of naturalization"); see also 8 U.S.C. § 1429 ("Prerequisite to naturalization; burden of proof"); 8 U.S.C. § 1452 ("Certificates of citizenship or U.S. non-citizen national status; procedure"); 8 U.S.C. § 1503 ("Denial of rights and privileges as national").
  3. ^ a b "Justice Department Seeks to Revoke Citizenship of Convicted Felons Who Conspired to Defraud U.S. Export-Import Bank of More Than $24 Million". Office of Public Affairs. U.S. Dept. of Justice (DOJ). May 8, 2018. Retrieved . See also, generally United States v. Lefsih, 867 F.3d 459 (4th Cir. 2017); Saliba v. Att'y Gen., 828 F.3d 182 (3d Cir. 2016); Al-Sharif v. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, 734 F.3d 207 (3d Cir. 2013); In re Petition of Haniatakis, 376 F.2d 728 (3d Cir. 1967).
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  212. ^
  213. ^ "Panama". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  214. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  215. ^ "Institucional - Dirección General de Migraciones".
  216. ^ "Paraguay". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  217. ^ "Peru". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  218. ^ "Philippines". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  219. ^ "Poland". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  220. ^ Lei Orgânica 2/2018, a statue from July 5, 2018.
  221. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  222. ^ "Romanian Citizenship · Romanian Passport".
  223. ^ Citizenship, Dual. "Romania". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  224. ^ "?".
  225. ^ "Russia". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  226. ^ "Citizenship - The Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda - USA". Retrieved .
  227. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  228. ^ "Samoa Immigration > Citizenship Services". Archived from the original on 2012-09-28. Retrieved .
  229. ^ Pacific, Loop (2017-03-31). "Samoa among eight countries allowed dual citizenship in PNG". Loop Samoa. Retrieved .
  230. ^ "San Marino Citizenship - Government". Retrieved .
  231. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  232. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  233. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  234. ^ "Dr?avljanstvo".
  235. ^ "Serbia". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  236. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  237. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  238. ^ "Singapore". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  239. ^ "Part X of Constitution of the Republic of Singapore - Singapore Statutes Online". Retrieved .
  240. ^ "Slovakia". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  241. ^ "Council of Europe".
  242. ^ "Slovenia". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  243. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  244. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Law No. 28 of 22 December 1962 - Somali Citizenship". Refworld. Retrieved .
  245. ^ "Department of Home Affairs -- Citizenship". Department of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Applications for naturalisation may only be received by the office if the applicant has been on a Permanent Residence Permit for a period of five (5) years from the date of obtaining Permanent Residence (PR) in the Republic of South Africa. No application may be received by the office if the applicant has less than the prescribed five (5) year period.
  246. ^ "South Africa". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  247. ^ Nationality Law, Ministry of Government Legislation
  248. ^ "South Korea". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  249. ^ "Certificate Application Form -". Retrieved .
  250. ^ "Pages - Spanish Nationality".
  251. ^ "Ministerio de Justicia".
  252. ^ Ute Müller: "Reiche Ausländer kaufen maßgeschneiderte Pässe für Europa" from 13. January 2019
  253. ^ "Spain". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  254. ^ "Sri Lanka". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  255. ^ "St. Kitts and Nevis". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  256. ^ "Saint Lucia". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  257. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  258. ^ "Sudan". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  259. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Suriname: Law on Nationality and Residence, State Ordinance of 24 November 1975 for the Regulation of the Surinamese Nationality and Residence in Suriname (last amended 1983)". Refworld. Retrieved .
  260. ^ "Your guide to living in SURINAME". Where Can I Live. Retrieved .
  261. ^ You must have been living in Sweden for a certain period Archived 2011-01-07 at the Wayback Machine, Migrationsverket
  262. ^ "Sweden". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  263. ^ Regular naturalisation, Swiss Confederation
  264. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  265. ^ "Tajikistan". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  266. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  267. ^ ""Nationality Act, B.E. 2508" (PDF). Royal Government Gazette Vol. 129, Chapter 28. March 21, 2012. Sections 10-12.
  268. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  269. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  270. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  271. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  272. ^ Turkish Nationality Archived 2017-09-09 at the Wayback Machine, Nüfus Müdürlü?ü, My
  273. ^ "Turkey". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  274. ^ a b "Turkmenistan". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  275. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  276. ^ "Ukraine". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  277. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  278. ^
  279. ^ "United Kingdom". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  280. ^ "United States". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  281. ^ "Uruguay". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  282. ^ "Uzbekistan". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  283. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  284. ^ "Venezuela". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  285. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  286. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  287. ^ Retrieved . Missing or empty |title= (help)
  288. ^ "Zimbabwe". Dual Citizenship. Retrieved .
  289. ^ Constituição Da República Dos EstadosUnidos Do Brasil (De 24 De Fevereiro De 1891) Archived 2013-08-04 at the Wayback Machine, Presidência da República - Casa Civil, art. 69
  290. ^ Sadiq, Kamal (2 December 2008). Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press. pp. 49-178. ISBN 978-0-19-970780-5.
  291. ^ Nigel (16 August 2013). "Mustapha Bertanggungjawab Ubah Demografi Sabah". Sabah State Government (in Malay). Kudat Town Board. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  292. ^ Hazis, Faisal H. (2015). "Patronage, Power and Prowess: Barisan Nasional's Equilibrium Dominance in East Malaysia" (PDF). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Universiti Sains Malaysia. pp. 15/24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2016. Retrieved 2016.

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