Nat King Cole
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Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole (Gottlieb 01511).jpg
Nat King Cole, June 1947
Background information
Nathaniel Adams Coles
Born (1919-03-17)March 17, 1919
Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
Died February 15, 1965(1965-02-15) (aged 45)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
  • Piano
  • vocals

Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17, 1919 - February 15, 1965), known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American jazz pianist and vocalist. He recorded over one hundred songs that became hits on the pop charts. His trio was the model for small jazz ensembles that followed. Cole also acted in films and on television and performed on Broadway. He was the first black man to host an American television series.


Early life

Nathaniel Adams Coles was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 17, 1919.[1] He had three brothers: Eddie (1910-1970), Ike (1927-2001), and Freddy (b. 1931),[2] and a half-sister, Joyce Coles.[3] Each of the Cole brothers pursued careers in music.[3] When Nat King Cole was four years old, the family moved to Chicago, Illinois, where his father, Edward Coles, became a Baptist minister.[4]

Cole learned to play the organ from his mother, Perlina Coles, the church organist.[5] His first performance was "Yes! We Have No Bananas" at the age of four.[6] He began formal lessons at 12,[7] learning jazz, gospel, and classical music on piano "from Johann Sebastian Bach to Sergei Rachmaninoff."[8]

The Cole family moved to the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago,[9] where he attended Wendell Phillips Academy High School,[10] the school Sam Cooke attended a few years later.[11] He participated in Walter Dyett's music program at DuSable High School.[12] He would sneak out of the house to visit clubs, sitting outside to hear Louis Armstrong, Earl Hines, and Jimmie Noone.[13]

Birth of the trio

Portrait of Nat King Cole, Paramount Theater, New York City, November 1946

When he was fifteen, Cole dropped out of high school to pursue a music career. After his brother Eddie, a bassist, came home from touring with Noble Sissle, they formed a sextet and recorded two singles for Decca in 1936 as Eddie Cole's Swingsters. They performed in a revival of the musical Shuffle Along. Nat Cole went on tour with the musical. In 1937, he married Nadine Robinson, who was a member of the cast. After the show ended in Los Angeles, Cole and Nadine settled there while he looked for work. He led a big band, then found work playing piano in nightclubs. When a club owner asked him to form a band, he hired bassist Wesley Prince and guitarist Oscar Moore. They called themselves the King Cole Swingsters after the nursery rhyme in which "Old King Cole was a merry old soul." They changed their name to the King Cole Trio before making radio transcriptions and recording for small labels.[14]

Cole recorded "Sweet Lorraine" in 1940, and it became his first hit.[15] According to legend, his career as a vocalist started when a drunken bar patron demanded that he sing the song. Cole said that this fabricated story sounded good, so he didn't argue with it. In fact there was a customer one night who demanded that he sing, but because it was a song Cole didn't know, he sang "Sweet Lorraine" instead. As people heard Cole's vocal talent, they requested more vocal songs, and he obliged.[16]

Popularity as a vocalist

In 1941 the trio recorded "That Ain't Right" for Decca, followed the next year by "All for You" for Excelsior.[14] They also recorded "I'm Lost", a song written by Otis Rene;, the owner of Excelsior.[17]

I started out to become a jazz pianist; in the meantime I started singing and I sang the way I felt and that's just the way it came out.
-- Nat King Cole, Voice of America interview[18][19]

During the late 1930s the trio recorded radio transcriptions for Capitol.[20] They performed on the radio programs Swing Soiree, Old Gold, The Chesterfield Supper Club, Kraft Music Hall, and The Orson Welles Almanac.[21][22]

Cole appeared in the first Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts in 1944. He was credited on Mercury as "Shorty Nadine", a derivative of his wife's name, because he had an exclusive contract with Capitol[23] since signing with the label the year before. He recorded with Illinois Jacquet and Lester Young.[15]

King Cole Trio Time on NBC with Cole on piano, Oscar Moore on guitar, and Johnny Miller on double bass, 1947

In 1946 the trio broadcast King Cole Trio Time, a fifteen-minute radio program. This was the first radio program to be sponsored by a black musician. Cole began recording and performing pop-oriented material in which he was often accompanied by a string orchestra. His stature as a popular star was cemented during this period by hits such as "All for You" (1943), "The Christmas Song" (1947),[24] "(Get Your Kicks on) Route 66","(I Love You) For Sentimental Reasons" (1946), "There! I've Said It Again" (1947), "Nature Boy" (1948), "Frosty The Snowman", "Mona Lisa" (No. 1 song of 1950), "Orange Colored Sky" (1950), "Too Young" (No. 1 song of 1951),[25]

On November 5, 1956, The Nat 'King' Cole Show debuted on NBC. The variety program was one of the first hosted by an African American,[26] The program started at a length of fifteen-minutes but was increased to a half-hour in July 1957. Rheingold Beer was a regional sponsor, but a national sponsor was never found. The show was in trouble financially despite efforts by NBC, Harry Belafonte, Tony Bennett, Ella Fitzgerald, Eartha Kitt, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, and Mel Torme;.[27] Cole decided to end the program. The last episode aired on December 17, 1957.[28] Commenting on the lack of sponsorship, Cole said shortly after its demise, "Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark."[29][30]

Throughout the 1950s, Cole continued to record hits that sold millions throughout the world, such as "Smile", "Pretend", "A Blossom Fell", and "If I May". His pop hits were collaborations with Nelson Riddle,[18]Gordon Jenkins, and Ralph Carmichael. Riddle arranged several of Cole's 1950s albums, including Nat King Cole Sings for Two in Love (1953), his first 10-inch LP. In 1955, "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" reached number 7 on the Billboard chart. Love Is the Thing went to number one in April 1957 remained his only number one album.

In 1959 he received a Grammy Award for Best Performance By a "Top 40" Artist for "Midnight Flyer".[31]

Capitol Records Building, known as "The House That Nat Built"

In 1958 Cole went to Havana, Cuba, to record Cole Espaol, an album sung entirely in Spanish. It was so popular in Latin America and the U.S. that it was followed by two more Spanish-language albums: A Mis Amigos (1959) and More Cole Espaol (1962).

After the change in musical tastes, Cole's ballads appealed little to young listeners, despite a successful attempt at rock and roll with "Send for Me",[18] which peaked at number 6 on the pop chart. Like Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, and Tony Bennett, he found that the pop chart had been taken over by youth-oriented acts.

In 1960, Cole's longtime collaborator Nelson Riddle left Capitol to join Reprise Records, which was started by Frank Sinatra. Riddle and Cole recorded one final hit album, Wild Is Love, with lyrics by Ray Rasch and Dotty Wayne. Cole later retooled the concept album into an Off-Broadway show, I'm with You.

Nevertheless, Cole recorded some hit singles during the 1960s, including "Let There Be Love" with George Shearing in 1961, the country-flavored hit "Ramblin' Rose" in August 1962, "Dear Lonely Hearts", "That Sunday, That Summer" and "Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer"[18] (his final top-ten hit, reaching number 6 on the Pop chart). He performed in many short films, sitcoms, and television shows and played W. C. Handy in the film St. Louis Blues (1958). He also appeared in The Nat King Cole Story, China Gate, and The Blue Gardenia (1953).

In January 1964, Cole made one of his final television appearances, on The Jack Benny Program. He was introduced as "the best friend a song ever had" and sang "When I Fall in Love". Cat Ballou (1965), his final film, was released several months after his death.

Earlier on, Cole's shift to traditional pop led some jazz critics and fans to accuse him of selling out, but he never abandoned his jazz roots; as late as 1956 he recorded an all-jazz album, After Midnight, and many of his albums after this are fundamentally jazz-based, being scored for big band without strings, although the arrangements focus primarily on the vocal rather than instrumental leads.

Cole had one of his last major hits in 1963, two years before his death, with "Those Lazy-Hazy-Crazy Days of Summer", which reached number 6 on the Pop chart. "Unforgettable" was made famous again in 1991 by Cole's daughter Natalie when modern recording technology was used to reunite father and daughter in a duet. The duet version rose to the top of the pop charts, almost forty years after its original popularity.[32]

Personal life

Around the time Cole launched his singing career, he entered into Freemasonry. He was raised in January 1944 in the Thomas Waller Lodge No. 49 in California. The lodge was named after fellow Prince Hall mason and jazz musician Fats Waller.[33] Cole was "an avid baseball fan", particularly of Hank Aaron. In 1968, Nelson Riddle related an incident from some years earlier and told of music studio engineers, searching for a source of noise, finding Cole listening to a game on a transistor radio.[18]

Marriages and children

Nat and his second wife, Maria, 1951

Cole met his first wife, Nadine Robinson, while they were on tour for the all-black Broadway musical Shuffle Along. He was only 17 when they married. She was the reason he landed in Los Angeles and formed the Nat King Cole trio.[34] This marriage ended in divorce in 1948. On March 28, 1948 (Easter Sunday), just six days after his divorce became final, Cole married the singer Maria Hawkins Ellington (she had sung with the Duke Ellington band but was not related to Duke Ellington). The Coles were married in Harlem's Abyssinian Baptist Church by Adam Clayton Powell Jr. They had five children: Natalie (1950-2015), who had a successful career as a singer; an adopted daughter, Carole (1944-2009, the daughter of Maria's sister), who died of lung cancer at the age of 64; an adopted son, Nat Kelly Cole (1959-1995), who died of AIDS at the age of 36;[35] and twin daughters, Casey and Timolin (born September 26, 1961), whose birth was announced in the "Milestones" column of Time magazine on October 6, 1961 (along with the birth of Melissa Newman). Maria supported him during his final illness and stayed with him until his death. In an interview, she emphasized his musical legacy and the class he exhibited despite his imperfections.[36]

Experiences with racism

In August 1948, Cole purchased a house from Col. Harry Gantz, the former husband of the silent film actress Lois Weber, in the all-white Hancock Park neighborhood of Los Angeles. The Ku Klux Klan, which was active in Los Angeles in the 1950s, responded by placing a burning cross on his front lawn. Members of the property-owners association told Cole they did not want any "undesirables" moving into the neighborhood. Cole responded, "Neither do I. And if I see anybody undesirable coming in here, I'll be the first to complain."[37]

Bust of Nat King Cole in the Hotel Nacional de Cuba

In 1956 Cole was contracted to perform in Cuba. He wanted to stay at the Hotel Nacional de Cuba in Havana but was refused because it operated a color bar. Cole honored his contract, and the concert at the Tropicana was a huge success. During the following year, he returned to Cuba for another concert, singing many songs in Spanish.

In 1956 Cole was assaulted on stage during a concert in Birmingham, Alabama, with the Ted Heath Band while singing the song "Little Girl". Having circulated photographs of Cole with white female fans bearing incendiary boldface captions reading "Cole and His White Women" and "Cole and Your Daughter"[38] three men belonging to the North Alabama Citizens Council assaulted Cole, apparently attempting to kidnap him. The three assailants ran down the aisles of the auditorium towards Cole. Local law enforcement quickly ended the invasion of the stage, but in the ensuing mele;e Cole was toppled from his piano bench and injured his back. He did not finish the concert and never again performed in the southern United States. A fourth member of the group was later arrested. All were tried and convicted.[39]

After being attacked in Birmingham, Cole said, "I can't understand it ... I have not taken part in any protests. Nor have I joined an organization fighting segregation. Why should they attack me?" A native of Alabama, he seemed eager to assure southern whites[] that he accepted the customs and traditions of the region. Cole said he wanted to forget the incident and continued to play for segregated audiences in the south. He said he couldn't change the situation in a day. He contributed money to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and had sued northern hotels that had hired him but refused to serve him. Thurgood Marshall, the chief legal counsel of the NAACP, called him an Uncle Tom and said he should perform with a banjo. Roy Wilkins, executive secretary of the NAACP, wrote him a telegram that said, "You have not been a crusader or engaged in an effort to change the customs or laws of the South. That responsibility, newspapers quote you as saying, you leave to the other guys. That attack upon you clearly indicates that organized bigotry makes no distinction between those who do not actively challenge racial discrimination and those who do. This is a fight which none of us can escape. We invite you to join us in a crusade against racism." [40]

The Chicago Defender said that Cole's performances for all-white audiences were an insult to his race. The New York Amsterdam News said that "thousands of Harlem blacks who have worshiped at the shrine of singer Nat King Cole turned their backs on him this week as the noted crooner turned his back on the NAACP and said that he will continue to play to Jim Crow audiences." To play "Uncle Nat's" discs, wrote a commentator in The American Negro, "would be supporting his 'traitor' ideas and narrow way of thinking". Deeply hurt by the criticism in the black press, Cole was chastened. Emphasizing his opposition to racial segregation "in any form", he agreed to join other entertainers in boycotting segregated venues. He paid $500 to become a lifetime member of the Detroit branch of the NAACP. Until his death in 1965, Cole was an active and visible participant in the civil rights movement, playing an important role in planning the March on Washington in 1963.[40][41][42]


Cole sang at the 1956 Republican National Convention in the Cow Palace, Daly City, California, to show support for President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[43] He sang "That's All There Is to That" and was "greeted with applause."[44] He was also present at the Democratic National Convention in 1960 to support Senator John F. Kennedy. He was among the dozens of entertainers recruited by Frank Sinatra to perform at the Kennedy Inaugural gala in 1961. Cole consulted with President Kennedy and his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, on civil rights.

Illness and death

In September 1964, Cole began to lose weight and he experienced back pain. He was appearing in a touring musical revue, Sights and Sounds and commuting to Los Angeles to film music for Cat Ballou when he became increasingly involved in an extramarital relationship with a 19-year-old Swedish dancer, Gunilla Hutton; Cole's cheating led Maria to contemplate divorce.[45] Cole collapsed with pain after performing at the Sands in Las Vegas. In December, he was working in San Francisco when he was finally persuaded by friends to seek medical help. A malignant tumor in an advanced state of growth on his left lung was observed on a chest X-ray. Cole, who had been a heavy cigarette smoker, had lung cancer and was expected to have only months to live.[46] Against his doctors' wishes, Cole carried on his work and made his final recordings December 1-3 in San Francisco, with an orchestra conducted by Ralph Carmichael. The music was released on the album L-O-V-E shortly before his death.[47]

Cole entered St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica on December 7, and cobalt therapy was started on December 10. Frank Sinatra performed in Cole's place at the grand opening of the new Dorothy Chandler Pavilion of the Los Angeles Music Center on December 12.[48] Cole's condition gradually worsened, but he was released from the hospital over the New Year's period. At home Cole was able to see the hundreds of thousands of cards and letters that had been sent after news of his illness was made public. Cole returned to the hospital in early January. He also sent $5,000 (US$39,453 in 2017 dollars[49]) to Hutton, who later telephoned Maria and implored her to divorce him. Maria confronted her husband, and Cole finally broke off the relationship with Hutton.[50] Cole's illness reconciled him with his wife, and he vowed that if he recovered he would go on television to urge people to stop smoking. On January 25, Cole's entire left lung was surgically removed. His father died of heart problems on February 1.[51] Throughout Cole's illness his publicists promoted the idea that he would soon be well and working, despite the private knowledge of his terminal condition. Billboard magazine reported that "Nat King Cole has successfully come through a serious operation and ... the future looks bright for 'the master' to resume his career again."[52] On Valentine's Day, Cole and his wife briefly left St. John's to drive by the sea. He died at the hospital early in the morning of February 15, 1965, aged 45.[53]

Cole's vault at Forest Lawn Memorial Park

Cole's funeral was held on February 18 at St. James Episcopal Church on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles; 400 people were present, and thousands gathered outside the church. Hundreds of members of the public had filed past the coffin the day before.[54] Notable honorary pallbearers included Robert F. Kennedy, Count Basie, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Johnny Mathis, George Burns, Danny Thomas, Jimmy Durante, Alan Livingston, Frankie Laine, Steve Allen, and Pat Brown (the governor of California). The eulogy was delivered by Jack Benny, who said that "Nat Cole was a man who gave so much and still had so much to give. He gave it in song, in friendship to his fellow man, devotion to his family. He was a star, a tremendous success as an entertainer, an institution. But he was an even greater success as a man, as a husband, as a father, as a friend."[55] Cole's remains were interred in Freedom Mausoleum at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, in Glendale, California.[56]

Posthumous releases

Cole's last album, L-O-V-E, was recorded in early December 1964--just a few days before he entered the hospital for cancer treatment--and was released just before he died. It peaked at number 4 on the Billboard Albums chart in the spring of 1965. A Best Of album was certified a gold record in 1968. His 1957 recording of "When I Fall in Love" reached number 4 in the UK charts in 1987.

In 1983, an archivist for EMI Electrola Records, a subsidiary of EMI Records (Capitol's parent company) in Germany, discovered some unreleased recordings by Cole, including one in Japanese and another in Spanish ("Tu Eres Tan Amable"). Capitol released them later that year as the LP Unreleased.

In 1991, Mosaic Records released The Complete Capitol Records Recordings of the Nat King Cole Trio, a compilation of 349 songs available as an 18-CD or a 27-LP set. In 2008 it was re-released in digital-download format through services like iTunes and Amazon Music.

Also in 1991, Natalie Cole recorded a new vocal track that was mixed with her father's 1961 stereo re-recording of his 1951 hit "Unforgettable" for a tribute album of the same title. The song and album won seven Grammy awards in 1992 for Best Album and Best Song.


Cole was inducted into the Alabama Music Hall of Fame and the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame. He was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1990. He was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame in 2007. A United States postage stamp with Cole's likeness was issued in 1994. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000 and the Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2013.[57]

Cole's success at Capitol Records, for which he recorded more than 150 singles that reached the Billboard Pop, R&B, and Country charts, has yet to be matched by any Capitol artist.[58] His records sold 50 million copies during his career.[59] His recording of "The Christmas Song" still receives airplay every holiday season, even hitting the Billboard Top 40 in December 2017.[60]Child actor Cole Sprouse was named after him.[61][62]


His hit singles include "Straighten Up and Fly Right" 1944 #8, "The Christmas Song" 1946/1962 #?/#65, "Nature Boy" 1948 #1, "Mona Lisa 1950 #1, "Frosty, The Snowman" 1950 #9, "Too Young" 1951 #1, "Unforgettable" 1951 #12, "Somewhere Along the Way" 1952 #8, "Answer Me, My Love" 1954 #6, "A Blossom Fell" 1955 #2, "If I May" 1955 #8, "Send for Me" 1957 #6, "Looking Back" 1958 #5, "Ramblin' Rose" 1962 #2, "Those Lazy, Hazy, Crazy Days of Summer" 1963 #6, "Unforgettable" 1991 (with daughter Natalie)


Year Title Role Notes
1941 Citizen Kane Pianist in "El Rancho" Uncredited
1943 Here Comes Elmer Himself
1943 Pistol Packin' Mama As part of the King Cole Trio Uncredited
1944 Pin Up Girl Canteen pianist Uncredited
1944 Stars on Parade As part of the King Cole Trio
1944 Swing in the Saddle As part of the King Cole Trio Uncredited
1944 See My Lawyer Specialty act As part of the King Cole Trio
1944 Is You Is, or Is You Ain't My Baby? Himself Short subject
1945 Frim Fram Sauce Himself Short subject
1946 Breakfast in Hollywood As part of the King Cole Trio
1946 Errand Boy for Rhythm Himself Short subject
1946 Come to Baby Do Himself Short subject
1948 Killer Diller Himself As part of the King Cole Trio
1949 Make Believe Ballroom Himself As part of the King Cole Trio
1950 King Cole Trio & Benny Carter Orchestra Himself Short subject
1951 You Call It Madness Himself Short subject
1951 When I Fall in Love Himself Short subject
1951 The Trouble with Me Is You Himself Short subject
1951 Sweet Lorraine Himself Short subject
1951 Route 66 Himself Short subject
1951 Nature Boy Himself Short subject
1951 Mona Lisa Himself Short subject
1951 Home Himself Short subject
1951 For Sentimental Reasons Himself Short subject
1951 Calypso Blues Himself Short subject
1952 Nat "King" Cole and Joe Adams Orchestra Himself Short subject
1953 The Blue Gardenia Himself
1953 Small Town Girl Himself
1953 Nat "King" Cole and Russ Morgan and His Orchestra Himself Short subject
1955 Kiss Me Deadly Singer Voice
1955 Rhythm and Blues Revue Himself Documentary
1955 Rock 'n' Roll Revue Himself Short subject
1955 The Nat 'King' Cole Musical Story Himself Short subject
1955 Rhythm and Blues Revue Himself Documentary
1956 The Scarlet Hour Nightclub vocalist
1956 Basin Street Revue Himself
1957 Istanbul Danny Rice
1957 China Gate Goldie
1958 St. Louis Blues W. C. Handy
1959 Night of the Quarter Moon Cy Robbin A.k.a. The Color of Her Skin
1959 Premier Khrushchev in the USA Himself Documentary
1960 Schlager-Raketen Snger, Himself
1960 Academy Award Songs Himself TV movie
1960 Special Gala to Support Kennedy Campaign Himself TV movie
1961 Main Event Himself TV movie
1963 An Evening with Nat King Cole Himself TV movie
1964 Freedom Spectacular Himself TV movie
1965 Cat Ballou Shouter Released posthumously, (final film role)
1989 Benny Carter: Symphony in Riffs Himself Documentary

Partial television credits

Year Title Role Notes
1950 The Ed Sullivan Show Himself 14 episodes
1951-1952 Texaco Star Theatre Himself 3 episodes
1952-1955 The Jackie Gleason Show Himself 2 episodes
1953 The Red Skelton Show Himself Episode #2.20
1953-1961 What's My Line? "Mystery guest" 2 episodes
1954-1955 The Colgate Comedy Hour Himself 4 episodes
1955 Ford Star Jubilee Himself 2 episodes
1956-1957 The Nat King Cole Show Host 42 episodes
1957-1960 The Dinah Shore Chevy Show Himself 2 episodes
1958 The Patti Page Show Himself Episode #1.5
1959 The Perry Como Show Himself Episode: January 17, 1959
1959 The George Gobel Show Himself Episode #5.10
1960 The Steve Allen Show Himself Episode #5.21
1960 This Is Your Life Himself Episode: "Nat King Cole"
1961-1964 The Garry Moore Show Himself 4 episodes
1962-1964 The Jack Paar Program Himself 4 episodes
1963 An Evening with Nat King Cole Himself BBC Television special
1963 The Danny Kaye Show Himself Episode #1.14
1964 The Jack Benny Program Nat Episode: "Nat King Cole, Guest"

See also


  1. ^ [1] Archived February 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "NPR's Jazz Profiles: Freddy Cole". Retrieved . 
  3. ^ a b "How I got the jazz gene: seven artists reveal their roots". Retrieved . 
  4. ^ "The Pittsburgh Courier from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on February 13, 1965 Page 2". Retrieved . 
  5. ^ Hornsby Jr., Alton (23 August 2011). Black America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 12-. ISBN 978-0-313-34112-0. 
  6. ^ "From the Archives: Nat 'King' Cole dies of cancer at 45". Los Angeles Times. 1965-02-16. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ SPIN Media (June 1990). SPIN. SPIN Media LLC. pp. 1-. 
  8. ^ Ruuth, Marianne (1992). Nat King Cole. Holloway House Publishing. pp. 32-. ISBN 978-0-87067-593-5. 
  9. ^ Brewer Jr., John M. (20 June 2007). Pittsburgh Jazz. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 37-. ISBN 978-1-4396-3464-6. 
  10. ^ "Phillips High School is cradle of history". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ "Tracing the Highs and Tragic End of Sam Cooke". NPR. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Bonner, Wilma F. (1 January 2011). The Sumner Story: Capturing Our History Preserving Our Legacy. Morgan James Publishing. pp. 162-. ISBN 978-1-60037-782-2. 
  13. ^ "Nat "King" Cole Is Born". History Channel. 2016-06-20. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ a b Ruhlmann, William. "Nat King Cole". AllMusic. Retrieved 2018. 
  15. ^ a b Yanow, Scott (2000). Swing. San Francisco: Miller Freeman. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-87930-600-7. 
  16. ^ Cole, Maria (September 1971). Nat King Cole: An Intimate Biography. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0688021535. 
  17. ^ "Buck-Five Disk of Indies Seen Different Ways". Billboard. September 1, 1945. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
  18. ^ a b c d e Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 22 - Smack Dab in the Middle on Route 66: A Skinny Dip in the Easy Listening Mainstream. [Part 1]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries. 
  19. ^ "Search | University of North Texas Libraries". Retrieved . 
  20. ^ "Capitol Transcriptions ad" (PDF). Broadcasting. June 28, 1948. Retrieved 2014. 
  21. ^ "Radio Almanac". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Orson Welles Almanac -- Part 1". Internet Archive. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ Holmes, Roy; Windisch, Simon. "Nat King Cole Biography". Retrieved . 
  24. ^ Cole recorded "The Christmas Song" four times -- on June 14, 1946, with the Nat King Cole Trio; on August 19, 1946, with an added string section; on August 24, 1953; and in 1961 for the double album The Nat King Cole Story. The final version, recorded in stereo, is the one most often heard today.
  25. ^ "''Billboard'' website". Retrieved . 
  26. ^ Chilton, Karen (October 15, 2009). "Hazel Scott's Lifetime of High Notes". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2016. ...the first black performer to host her own nationally syndicated television show... 
  27. ^ Shulman, Arthur; Youman, Roger (1966). "Chapter 3: The Sounds of Music". How Sweet It Was. Television: A Pictorial Commentary. Bonanza Books, Crown Publishers.  (unpaginated).
  28. ^ Gourse, Leslie (1991). Unforgettable : the life and mystique of Nat King Cole. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 185. The network supported this show from the beginning. From Mr. Sarnoff on down, they tried to sell it to agencies. They could have dropped it after the first thirteen weeks. Shows that made more money than mine were dropped. They offered me a new time at 7:00 p.m. on Saturdays on a cooperative basis, but I decided not to take it. I feel played out. 
  29. ^ [2] Archived November 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ "Study: Ad Agencies Exhibit 'Pervasive Racial Discrimination' | News". 2009-01-08. Retrieved . 
  31. ^ "Grammy Awards 1959". Grammy. 
  32. ^ Teachout, Terry (1992). "Nat King Cole". The American Scholar. 26. Retrieved 2014. 
  33. ^ "Famous Masons". Pinal Lodge No. 30. Archived from the original on 2011-12-24. 
  34. ^ "Nat King Cole -- Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved . 
  35. ^ "TCM". TCM. Retrieved . 
  36. ^ "Gale:Free Resources:Black History:Biographies: Nat King Cole". Gale. Retrieved . 
  37. ^ Levinson, Peter J. (2005). September in the Rain: The Life of Nelson Riddle. Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 89-. ISBN 978-1-58979-163-3. Retrieved . 
  38. ^ Burford, Mark (2012). "Sam Cooke as Pop Album Artist". Journal of the American Musicological Society. doi:10.1525/jams.2012.65.1.113. Retrieved 2016. 
  39. ^ Eyewitness account published in the Birmingham News. Felts, Jim. Letter to the editor. December 15, 2007.
  40. ^ a b Altschuler, Glenn C. (2003). All Shook Up: How Rock 'n' Roll Changed America. Oxford University Press.
  41. ^ James Gilbert, James (1986). A Cycle of Outrage: America's Reaction to the Juvenile Delinquent in the 1950s. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 9.
  42. ^ Sussman, Warren, with the assistance of Edward Griffin (1989). "Did Success Spoil the United States? Dual Representations in Postwar America". In May, Larry, ed. Recasting America: Culture and Politics in the Age of the Cold War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226511758
  43. ^ "It's All Right to Still Like Ike: History: Once Painted as a 'Distanced' President, Dwight Eisenhower Now is Heralded for his Strong Sense of Service". 1990-10-16. Retrieved . 
  44. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Republican National Convention, August 20-23, 1956, p. 327.
  45. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 338.
  46. ^ "Tobacco Victim Nat King Cole". Retrieved . 
  47. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 342.
  48. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 347.
  49. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2018. 
  50. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 350.
  51. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 355.
  52. ^ "Blues News". Billboard. 1965-02-06. p. 28. Retrieved . 
  53. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 356.
  54. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 358.
  55. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 359.
  56. ^ Epstein 1999, p. 360.
  57. ^ "Special Awards - Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame". Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame. 2013. Retrieved . 
  58. ^ "Documentary Profiles Nat 'King' Cole". ProQuest. 4 May 2006. Retrieved 2016. 
  59. ^ "Remembering The Legendary Nat King Cole". ProQuest. 23 February 2000. Retrieved 2016. 
  60. ^ "Holiday Airplay". Billboard. January 10, 2015. 
  61. ^ James Brady (August 19, 2007). "In Step with Dylan & Cole Sprouse". Parade Magazine: 22. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  62. ^ Popstar (June 2006). "Dylan & Cole take over the world!: House of Sprouse!". Popstar Special!: 90. 

Further reading

  • Epstein, Daniel Mark (1999). Nat King Cole. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 0-374-21912-5. 
  • Bill Dobbins and Richard Wang. "Cole, Nat 'King'." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 28 Sep. 2016.
  • Pelote, Vincent. "Book Reviews: "Unforgettable: The Life and Mystique of Nat King Cole," by Leslie Gourse." Notes - Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association, vol. 49, no. 3, 1993., pp. 1073-1074,

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