Nasal Palatal Approximant
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Nasal Palatal Approximant
Nasal palatal approximant

The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j?⟩, that is, a j with a tilde. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j~, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨?⟩.

The nasal palatal approximant is sometimes called a nasal yod; [j?] and [w?] may be called nasal glides.


Features of the nasal palatal approximant:


[j?], written ny, is a common realization of /j/ before nasal vowels in many languages of West Africa that do not have a phonemic distinction between voiced nasal and oral stops, such as Ewe and Bini.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Hindustani[1] ? / sanyama [s?j?j?m] 'patience'

Allophone of before . See Hindustani phonology

Kaingang[2] [j] 'brave' Possible word-initial realization of /j/ before a nasal vowel.[3]
Lombard bisògn de [bi'z?j? d?e] 'need for (sth)'

Allophone of before a consonant. See Lombard phonology

Polish[4] pa?stwo ['pãj?stf?] 'state, country'

Allophone of in coda position or before fricatives. See Polish phonology

Portuguese Brazilian[5] sonho ['sõj] 'dream' Allophone of between vowels, nasalizes the preceding vowel. Language's original /?/ sound.[6][7] See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects[8] es [kj?s] 'dogs' Allophone of after nasal vowels.
Some dialects[6] me ame! ['mjmi] 'love me!' Non-syllabic allophone of between nasal sounds.
Shipibo[9] [example needed] Allophone of /j/ after nasal vowels.[9]

See also



  • Canepari, Luciano (2005), "Hindi", A Handbook of Pronunciation, Lincom Europa, p. 335
  • Gussman, Edmund (2007), The Phonology of Polish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-926747-7
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675-685
  • Mattos e Silva, Rosa (1991), O Português arcaico - fonologia, Contexto
  • Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09155-7
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281-285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
  • Vigário, Marina (2003), The Prosodic Word in European Portuguese, De Gruyter Mouton, ISBN 978-3-11-017713-8

Further reading

  • Shosted; Hualde (2010), (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory volume 315) Romance Linguistics 2009: Selected Papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Tucson, Arizona, March 2009, John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 43-61, ISBN 978-90-272-4833-6

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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