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Nagarjuna at Samye Ling Monastery.JPG
Golden statue of N?g?rjuna at Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland.
Bornc. 150 CE
Diedc. 250 CE
OccupationBuddhist teacher, monk and philosopher
Known forCredited with founding the Madhyamaka school of Mah?y?na Buddhism

N?g?rjuna (c. 150 - c. 250 CE), (Tibetan: mGon-po kLu-grub) is widely considered one of the most important Buddhist philosophers.[2] Along with his disciple ?ryadeva, he is considered the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mah?y?na Buddhism.[2] N?g?rjuna is also credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajñ?p?ramit? s?tras and, by some sources, with having revealed these scriptures to the world after recovering them from the n?gas. He is traditionally thought to have written many treatises on rasayana, as well as serving a term as the head of N?land?.[3]


Very little is reliably known of the life of N?g?rjuna, since the surviving accounts were written in Chinese[4] and Tibetan centuries after his death. According to some accounts, N?g?rjuna was originally from South India.[1][5] Some scholars believe that N?g?rjuna was an advisor to a king of the Satavahana dynasty.[1] Archaeological evidence at Amar?vat? indicates that if this is true, the king may have been Yajña ?r? takar?i, who ruled between 167 and 196 CE. On the basis of this association, N?g?rjuna is conventionally placed at around 150-250 CE.[1]

According to a 4th/5th-century biography translated by Kum?raj?va, N?g?rjuna was born into a Brahmin family[6] in Vidarbha[7][8][9] (a region of Maharashtra) and later became a Buddhist.

Some sources claim that in his later years, N?g?rjuna lived on the mountain of ?r?parvata near the city that would later be called N?g?rjunakoa ("Hill of N?g?rjuna").[10] The ruins of N?g?rjunakoa are located in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. The Caitika and Bahu?rut?ya nik?yas are known to have had monasteries in N?g?rjunakoa.[10] The archaeological finds at Nagarjunakonda have not resulted in any evidence that the site was associated with Nagarjuna. The name "Nagarjunakonda" dates from the medieval period, and the 3rd-4th century inscriptions found at the site make it clear that it was known as "Vijayapuri" in the ancient period.[11]


There exist a number of influential texts attributed to N?g?rjuna though, as there are many pseudepigrapha attributed to him, lively controversy exists over which are his authentic works.


The M?lamadhyamakak?rik? is N?g?rjuna's best-known work. It is "not only a grand commentary on the Buddha's discourse to Kaccayana,[12] the only discourse cited by name, but also a detailed and careful analysis of most of the important discourses included in the Nikayas and the agamas, especially those of the Atthakavagga of the Sutta-nipata.[13]

Utilizing the Buddha's theory of "dependent arising" (pratitya-samutpada), Nagarjuna demonstrated the futility of [...] metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as "middle way" (madhyama pratipad). It is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas.[14]

In the M?lamadhyamakak?rik?, "[A]ll experienced phenomena are empty (sunya). This did not mean that they are not experienced and, therefore, non-existent; only that they are devoid of a permanent and eternal substance (svabhava) because, like a dream, they are mere projections of human consciousness. Since these imaginary fictions are experienced, they are not mere names (prajnapti)."[14]

Major attributed works

According to David Seyfort Ruegg, the Madhyamakasastrastuti attributed to Candrakirti (c. 600 - c. 650) refers to eight texts by Nagarjuna:

the (Madhyamaka)karikas, the Yuktisastika, the Sunyatasaptati, the Vigrahavyavartani, the Vidala (i.e. Vaidalyasutra/Vaidalyaprakarana), the Ratnavali, the Sutrasamuccaya, and Samstutis (Hymns). This list covers not only much less than the grand total of works ascribed to Nagarjuna in the Chinese and Tibetan collections, but it does not even include all such works that Candrakirti has himself cited in his writings.[15]

According to one view, that of Christian Lindtner, the works definitely written by N?g?rjuna are:[16]

  • M?lamadhyamaka-k?rik? (Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way), available in three Sanskrit manuscripts and numerous translations.[17]
  • nyat?saptati (Seventy Verses on Emptiness), accompanied by a prose commentary ascribed to Nagarjuna himself.
  • Vigrahavy?vartan? (The End of Disputes)
  • Vaidalyaprakara?a (Pulverizing the Categories), a prose work critiquing the categories used by Indian Nyaya philosophy.
  • Vyavah?rasiddhi (Proof of Convention)
  • Yukti?ika (Sixty Verses on Reasoning)
  • Catu?stava (Four Hymns): Lok?t?ta-stava (Hymn to transcendence), Niraupamya-stava (to the Peerless), Acintya-stava (to the Inconceivable), and Param?rtha-stava (to Ultimate Truth).[18]
  • Ratn?val? (Precious Garland), subtitled (rajaparikatha), a discourse addressed to an Indian king (possibly a Satavahana monarch).[19]
  • Prat?tyasamutp?dah?dayak?rika (Verses on the heart of Dependent Arising), along with a short commentary (Vy?khy?na).
  • S?trasamuccaya, an anthology of various sutra passages.
  • Bodhicittavivara?a (Exposition of the awakening mind)
  • Suh?llekha (Letter to a Good Friend)
  • Bodhisa?bh?rastra (Requisites of awakening), a work the path of the Bodhisattva and paramitas, it is quoted by Candrakirti in his commentary on Aryadeva's four hundred. Now only extant in Chinese translation (Taisho 1660).[20]

The Tibetan historian Buston considers the first six to be the main treatises of N?g?rjuna (this is called the "yukti corpus", rigs chogs), while according to T?ran?tha only the first five are the works of N?g?rjuna. TRV Murti considers Ratnaavali, Pratitya Samutpaada Hridaya and Sutra Samuccaya to be works of N?g?rjuna as the first two are quoted profusely by Chandrakirti and the third by Shantideva.[21]

Other attributed works

In addition to works mentioned above, several others are attributed to N?g?rjuna. There is an ongoing, lively controversy over which of those works are authentic. Contemporary research suggest that some these works belong to a significantly later period, either to late 8th or early 9th century CE, and hence can not be authentic works of N?g?rjuna. Several works considered important in esoteric Buddhism are attributed to N?g?rjuna and his disciples by traditional historians like T?ran?tha from 17th century Tibet. These historians try to account for chronological difficulties with various theories. For example, apropagation of later writings via mystical revelation. For a useful summary of this tradition, see Wedemeyer 2007.

According to Ruegg, "three collections of stanzas on the virtues of intelligence and moral conduct ascribed to Nagarjuna are extant in Tibetan translation": Prajñasatakaprakarana, Nitisastra-Jantuposanabindu and Niti-sastra-Prajñadanda.[22]

Other works are extant only in Chinese, one of these is the Shih-erh-men-lun or 'Twelve-topic treatise' (*Dvadasanikaya or *Dvadasamukha-sastra); one of the three basic treatises of the Sanlun school (East Asian Madhyamaka).[23]

Lindtner considers that the Mah?prajñ?p?ramit?upade?a (Ta-chih-tu-lun, Taisho 1509, "Commentary on the great prajñaparamita") which has been influential in Chinese Buddhism, is not a genuine work of N?g?rjuna. This work is also only attested in a Chinese translation by Kum?raj?va and is unknown in the Tibetan and Indian traditions.[24] There is much discussion as to whether this is a work of N?g?rjuna, or someone else. Étienne Lamotte, who translated one third of the work into French, felt that it was the work of a North Indian bhik?u of the Sarv?stiv?da school who later became a convert to the Mahayana. The Chinese scholar-monk Yin Shun felt that it was the work of a South Indian and that N?g?rjuna was quite possibly the author. These two views are not necessarily in opposition and a South Indian N?g?rjuna could well have studied the northern Sarv?stiv?da. Neither of the two felt that it was composed by Kum?raj?va, which others have suggested.

Other attributed works include:[25]

  • Bhavasamkranti
  • Dharmadhatustava (Hymn to the Dharmadhatu), uncertain authorship, according to Ruegg, it shows traces of later Mahayana and Tantrik thought.
  • Salistambakarikas
  • A commentary on the Dashabhumikasutra.
  • Mahayanavimsika (uncertain authorship as per Ruegg)
  • *Ekaslokasastra (Taisho 1573)
  • *Isvarakartrtvanirakrtih (A refutation of God/Isvara)


Statue of N?g?rjuna in Tibetan monastery near Kullu, India

From studying his writings, it is clear that N?g?rjuna was conversant with many of the ?r?vaka philosophies and with the Mah?y?na tradition. However, determining N?g?rjuna's affiliation with a specific nik?ya is difficult, considering much of this material has been lost. If the most commonly accepted attribution of texts (that of Christian Lindtner) holds, then he was clearly a M?hay?nist, but his philosophy holds assiduously to the ?r?vaka Tripi?aka, and while he does make explicit references to Mah?y?na texts, he is always careful to stay within the parameters set out by the ?r?vaka canon.

N?g?rjuna may have arrived at his positions from a desire to achieve a consistent exegesis of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the ?gamas. In the eyes of N?g?rjuna, the Buddha was not merely a forerunner, but the very founder of the Madhyamaka system.[26] David Kalupahana sees N?g?rjuna as a successor to Moggaliputta-Tissa in being a champion of the middle-way and a reviver of the original philosophical ideals of the Buddha.[27]

N?g?rjuna assumes a knowledge of the definitions of the sixteen categories as given in the Nyaya Sutras, the chief text of the Hindu Nyaya school, and wrote a treatise on the pramanas where he reduced the syllogism of five members into one of three. In the Vigrahavyavartani Karika, N?g?rjuna criticises the Nyaya theory of pramanas (means of knowledge) [28]

N?g?rjuna was fully acquainted with the classical Hindu philosophies of Samkhya and even the Vaiseshika.[29]

Because of the high degree of similarity between N?g?rjuna's philosophy and Pyrrhonism, particularly the surviving works of Sextus Empiricus,[30]Thomas McEvilley suspects that N?g?rjuna was influenced by Greek Pyrrhonists texts imported into India.[31] But according to others, Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360-c. 270 BCE), usually credited with founding this school of sceptical philosophy, was himself influenced by Indian philosophy, when he travelled to India with Alexander the Great's army and studied with the gymnosophists. According to Christopher I. Beckwith, Pyrrho's teachings are based on Buddhism, because adiaphora, astathm?ta and anepikrita in the Aristocles Passage resemble the Buddhist three marks of existence.[32] According to him, the key innovative tenets of Pyrrho's scepticism were only found in Indian philosophy at the time and not in Greece.[33]


N?g?rjuna's major thematic focus is the concept of nyat? (translated into English as "emptiness") which brings together other key Buddhist doctrines, particularly an?tman "not-self" and prat?tyasamutp?da "dependent origination", to refute the metaphysics of some of his contemporaries. For N?g?rjuna, as for the Buddha in the early texts, it is not merely sentient beings that are "selfless" or non-substantial; all phenomena (dhammas) are without any svabh?va, literally "own-being", "self-nature", or "inherent existence" and thus without any underlying essence. They are empty of being independently existent; thus the heterodox theories of svabh?va circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of the doctrines of early Buddhism. This is so because all things arise always dependently: not by their own power, but by depending on conditions leading to their coming into existence, as opposed to being.

N?g?rjuna means by real any entity which has a nature of its own (svabh?va), which is not produced by causes (akrtaka), which is not dependent on anything else (paratra nirapeksha).[34]

Chapter 24 verse 14 of the M?lamadhyamakak?rik? provides one of N?g?rjuna's most famous quotations on emptiness and co-arising:[35]

sarva? ca yujyate tasya nyat? yasya yujyate
sarva? na yujyate tasya nya? yasya na yujyate

All is possible when emptiness is possible.
Nothing is possible when emptiness is impossible.

As part of his analysis of the emptiness of phenomena in the M?lamadhyamakak?rik?, N?g?rjuna critiques svabh?va in several different concepts. He discusses the problems of positing any sort of inherent essence to causation, movement, change and personal identity. N?g?rjuna makes use of the Indian logical tool of the tetralemma to attack any essentialist conceptions. N?g?rjuna's logical analysis is based on four basic propositions:

All things (dharma) exist: affirmation of being, negation of non-being
All things (dharma) do not exist: affirmation of non-being, negation of being
All things (dharma) both exist and do not exist: both affirmation and negation
All things (dharma) neither exist nor do not exist: neither affirmation nor negation [36]

To say that all things are 'empty' is to deny any kind of ontological foundation; therefore N?g?rjuna's view is often seen as a kind of ontological anti-foundationalism[37] or a metaphysical anti-realism.[38]

Understanding the nature of the emptiness of phenomena is simply a means to an end, which is nirvana. Thus N?g?rjuna's philosophical project is ultimately a soteriological one meant to correct our everyday cognitive processes which mistakenly posits svabh?va on the flow of experience.

Some scholars such as Fyodor Shcherbatskoy and T.R.V. Murti held that N?g?rjuna was the inventor of the Shunyata doctrine; however, more recent work by scholars such as Choong Mun-keat, Yin Shun and Dhammajothi Thero has argued that N?g?rjuna was not an innovator by putting forth this theory,[39][40][41] but that, in the words of Shi Huifeng, "the connection between emptiness and dependent origination is not an innovation or creation of N?g?rjuna".[42]

Two truths

N?g?rjuna was also instrumental in the development of the two truths doctrine, which claims that there are two levels of truth in Buddhist teaching, the ultimate truth (param?rtha satya) and the conventional or superficial truth (sa?v?tisatya). The ultimate truth to N?g?rjuna is the truth that everything is empty of essence,[43] this includes emptiness itself ('the emptiness of emptiness'). While some (Murti, 1955) have interpreted this by positing N?g?rjuna as a neo-Kantian and thus making ultimate truth a metaphysical noumenon or an "ineffable ultimate that transcends the capacities of discursive reason",[44] others such as Mark Siderits and Jay L. Garfield have argued that N?g?rjuna's view is that "the ultimate truth is that there is no ultimate truth" (Siderits) and that N?g?rjuna is a "semantic anti-dualist" who posits that there are only conventional truths.[44] Hence according to Garfield:

Suppose that we take a conventional entity, such as a table. We analyze it to demonstrate its emptiness, finding that there is no table apart from its parts [...]. So we conclude that it is empty. But now let us analyze that emptiness [...]. What do we find? Nothing at all but the table's lack of inherent existence. [...]. To see the table as empty [...] is to see the table as conventional, as dependent.[45]

In articulating this notion in the M?lamadhyamakak?rik?, N?g?rjuna drew on an early source in the Kacc?nagotta Sutta,[46] which distinguishes definitive meaning (n?t?rtha) from interpretable meaning (ney?rtha):

By and large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by a polarity, that of existence and non-existence. But when one reads the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, "non-existence" with reference to the world does not occur to one. When one reads the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, "existence" with reference to the world does not occur to one.

By and large, Kaccayana, this world is in bondage to attachments, clingings (sustenances), and biases. But one such as this does not get involved with or cling to these attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions; nor is he resolved on "my self". He has no uncertainty or doubt that just stress, when arising, is arising; stress, when passing away, is passing away. In this, his knowledge is independent of others. It's to this extent, Kaccayana, that there is right view.

"Everything exists": That is one extreme. "Everything doesn't exist": That is a second extreme. Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma via the middle...[47]

The version linked to is the one found in the nikayas, and is slightly different from the one found in the Samyuktagama. Both contain the concept of teaching via the middle between the extremes of existence and non-existence.[48][49] Nagarjuna does not make reference to "everything" when he quotes the agamic text in his M?lamadhyamakak?rik?.[50]


Jay L. Garfield describes that N?g?rjuna approached causality from the four noble truths and dependent origination. N?g?rjuna distinguished two dependent origination views in a causal process, that which causes effects and that which causes conditions. This is predicated in the two truth doctrine, as conventional truth and ultimate truth held together, in which both are empty in existence. The distinction between effects and conditions is controversial. In N?g?rjuna's approach, cause means an event or state that has power to bring an effect. Conditions, refer to proliferating causes that bring a further event, state or process; without a metaphysical commitment to an occult connection between explaining and explanans. He argues nonexistent causes and various existing conditions. The argument draws from unreal causal power. Things conventional exist and are ultimately nonexistent to rest in the middle way in both causal existence and nonexistence as casual emptiness within the M?lamadhyamakak?rik? doctrine. Although seeming strange to Westerners, this is seen as an attack on a reified view of causality.[51]


N?g?rjuna also taught the idea of relativity; in the Ratn?val?, he gives the example that shortness exists only in relation to the idea of length. The determination of a thing or object is only possible in relation to other things or objects, especially by way of contrast. He held that the relationship between the ideas of "short" and "long" is not due to intrinsic nature (svabh?va). This idea is also found in the Pali Nik?yas and Chinese ?gamas, in which the idea of relativity is expressed similarly: "That which is the element of light ... is seen to exist on account of [in relation to] darkness; that which is the element of good is seen to exist on account of bad; that which is the element of space is seen to exist on account of form."[52]


Nagarjuna stated that action itself was the fundamental aspect of the universe. To him, human beings were not creatures with the ability to act. Rather, action itself manifested as human beings and as the entire universe.[53]


N?g?rjuna is often depicted in composite form comprising human and n?ga characteristics. Often the n?ga-aspect forms a canopy crowning and shielding his human head. The notion of the n?ga is found throughout Indian religious culture, and typically signifies an intelligent serpent or dragon, who is responsible for the rains, lakes and other bodies of water. In Buddhism, it is a synonym for a realised arhat, or wise person in general.[54]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Kalupahana, David. A History of Buddhist Philosophy. 1992. p. 160
  2. ^ a b Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Hsing Yun, Xingyun, Tom Manzo, Shujan Cheng Infinite Compassion, Endless Wisdom: The Practice of the Bodhisattva Path Buddha's Light Publishing Hacienda Heights California
  4. ^ Rongxi, Li; Dalia, Albert A. (2002). The Lives of Great Monks and Nuns, Berkeley CA: Numata Center for Translation and Research, pp. 21-30
  5. ^ Buddhist Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh By Omacanda H?, p. 97
  6. ^ "Notes on the Nagarjunikonda Inscriptions", Dutt, Nalinaksha. The Indian Historical Quarterly 7:3 1931.09 pp. 633-53 "..Tibetan tradition which says that N?g?rjuna was born of a brahmin family of Vidarbha."
  7. ^ Geri Hockfield Malandra, Unfolding A Mandala: The Buddhist Cave Temples at Ellora, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 17
  8. ^ Sh?hei Ichimura, Buddhist Critical Spirituality: Prajñ? and nyat?, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (2001), p. 67
  9. ^ Bkra-?is-rnam-rgyal (Dwags-po Pa?-chen), Takpo Tashi Namgyal, Mahamudra: The Quintessence of Mind and Meditation, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (1993), p. 443
  10. ^ a b Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From kyamuni to Early Mah?y?na. 2007. p. 242
  11. ^ K. Krishna Murthy (1977). N?g?rjunako: A Cultural Study. Concept Publishing Company. p. 1. OCLC 4541213.
  12. ^ See SN 12.15 Kaccayanagotta Sutta: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) Archived 29 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Kalupahana 1994, p. 161.
  14. ^ a b Kalupahana 1992, p. 120.
  15. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 8.
  16. ^ Lindtner, C. (1982). Nagarjuniana: studies in the writings and philosophy of N?g?rjuna, Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag, p. 11
  17. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 9.
  18. ^ Fernando Tola & Carmen Dragonetti, Nagarjuna's Catustava, Journal of Indian Philosophy 13 (1):1-54 (1985)
  19. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 24.
  20. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 29.
  21. ^ TRV Murti, Central philosophy of Buddhism, pp. 89-91
  22. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 27.
  23. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 28.
  24. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 32.
  25. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, pp. 28-46.
  26. ^ Christian Lindtner, Master of Wisdom. Dharma Publishing 1997, p. 324.
  27. ^ David Kalupahana, Mulamadhyamakakarika of N?g?rjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Motilal Banarsidass, 2005, pp. 2, 5.
  28. ^ S.Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy Volume 1, p. 644
  29. ^ TRV Murti, The central philosophy of Buddhism, p. 92
  30. ^ Adrian Kuzminski, Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism 2008
  31. ^ Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought 2002 pp 499-505
  32. ^ Beckwith 2015, p. 28.
  33. ^ Beckwith 2015, p. 221.
  34. ^ S.Radhakrishnan, Indian philosophy Volume 1, p. 607
  35. ^ Siderits, Mark; Katsura, Shoryu (2013). Nagarjuna's Middle Way: Mulamadhyamakakarika (Classics of Indian Buddhism). Wisdom Publications. pp. 175-76. ISBN 978-1-61429-050-6.
  36. ^ Dumoulin, Heinrich (1998) Zen Buddhism: a history, India and China, Macmillan Publishing, 43
  37. ^ Westerhoff, Jan. Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction.
  38. ^ Siderits, Mark. Nagarjuna as anti-realist, Journal of Indian Philosophy December 1988, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 311-325.
  39. ^ Yìn Shùn, An Investigation into Emptiness (K?ng zh? Tànjìu ?) (1985)
  40. ^ Choong, The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism (1999)
  41. ^ Medawachchiye Dhammajothi Thero, The Concept of Emptiness in Pali Literature
  42. ^ Shi huifeng: "Dependent Origination = Emptiness"--N?g?rjuna's Innovation?
  43. ^ Garfield, Jay. Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-cultural Interpretation, pp. 91.
  44. ^ a b Siderits, Mark, On the Soteriological Significance of Emptiness, Contemporary Buddhism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2003.
  45. ^ Garfield, J. L. (2002). Empty words, pp. 38-39
  46. ^ Kalupahana, David J. (1986). N?g?rjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. State University of New York Press.
  47. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997). SN 12.15 Kaccayanagotta Sutta: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View)
  48. ^ A.K. Warder, A Course in Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1998, pp. 55-56
  49. ^ For the full text of both versions with analysis see pp. 192-95 of Choong Mun-keat, The Fundamental Teachings of Early Buddhism: A comparative study basted on the Sutranga portion of the Pali Samyutta-Nikaya and the Chinese Samyuktagama; Harrassowitz Verlag, Weisbaden, 2000.
  50. ^ David Kalupahana, Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. SUNY Press, 1986, p. 232.
  51. ^ Garfield, Jay L (April 1994). "Dependent Arising and the Emptiness of Emptiness: Why Did N?g?rjuna Start with Causation?". Philosophy East and West. 44 (2): 219-50. doi:10.2307/1399593. JSTOR 1399593.
  52. ^ David Kalupahana, Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. The University Press of Hawaii, 1975, pp. 96-97. In the Nikayas the quote is found at SN 2.150.
  53. ^ Warner, Brad (31 August 2010). Sex, Sin, and Zen: Buddhist Exploration of Sex from Celibacy to Polyamory and Everything in Between. New World Library. ISBN 978-1-57731-910-8.
  54. ^ Berger, Douglas. "Nagarjuna (c. 150--c. 250)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2017.


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