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The sodium-hydrogen antiporter or sodium-proton exchanger (Na+/H+ exchanger) is a membrane protein that transports Na+ into the cell, and H+ out of the cell (antiport).
They are found in the membranes of many cells, and especially in those of the nephron of the kidney, specifically in the intercalary cells of the collecting duct and in the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. The membrane pump is primarily responsible for maintaining homeostasis of pH and sodium. Defects in Na+/H+ antiporters may result in heart or kidney failure.Angiotensin II upregulates this antiporter in the proximal convoluted tubule in order to promote Na+ reabsorption and H+ secretion.
In dopamine receptor signalling, the widely expressed Na+/H+ exchanger NHE-1 is activated downstream of the D2, D3, and D4 receptors.
^Padan E, Landau M (2016). "Chapter 12: Sodium-Proton (Na+/H+) Antiporters:Properties and Roles in Health and Disease". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RK (eds.). The Alkali Metal Ions: Their Role in Life. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 16. Springer. pp. 391-458. doi:10.1007/978-4-319-21756-7_12. ISBN978-3-319-21755-0.
^Yun CH, Tse CM, Nath SK, Levine SA, Brant SR, Donowitz M (July 1995). "Mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger gene family: structure and function studies". The American Journal of Physiology. 269 (1 Pt 1): G1-11. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.1995.269.1.G1. PMID7631785.
^Neve KA, Kozlowski MR, Rosser MP (December 1992). "Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation of Na+/H+ exchange assessed by quantification of extracellular acidification". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (36): 25748-53. PMID1361188.
^Cox BA, Rosser MP, Kozlowski MR, Duwe KM, Neve RL, Neve KA (September 1995). "Regulation and functional characterization of a rat recombinant dopamine D3 receptor". Synapse. 21 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1002/syn.890210102. PMID8525456.